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Bruce V. Crandall Company 

No. 305 Dearborn Street 


Editor Associate Editor Manager 

Index to Volume XXVI. 

January to December, 1902 

Index to Volume XXVI.— 1902 

Issue. Pages. 

January 1 to 36 

February 37 to 72 

March 73 to 108 

April 109 to 144 

Issue. Pages. 

May 145 to 184 

June 185 to 228 

July 229 to 288 

August 289 to 320 

Issue. Pages. 

September 321 to 352 

October 353 to 400 

November 401 to 440 

December 441 to 476 

Illustrated Articles Indicated by Asterisk 

*Acme Automatic Nut Tapping and Bolt Threading Ma- 
chine 201 

Air Brake and the Headlight 115 

•Air Brake Instruction Car— N. Y. C. & H. R. R. R 327 

Air Brake, Maintenance of 116 

*Air Brake Testing Department of the Armour Car Lines. .443 

*Air Brake Yard Testing Apparatus 356 

*Air Compressor— Electrically" Operated 208 

*Air Motor Auxiliary for Inaccessible Work 404 

•Air Press for Driving Box Brasses— I. C R- R 326 

*Alloys, A Review on. By Gustav Thurman 156 

American Locomotives in Bavaria I 6 

American Railroad Man in Japan 421 

*Arbor Press, New Yankee 460 

•Armstrong Clamp Lathe Dog 96 

*Auxiliary Coupling 20S 

•Axles, Standard Specifications for Locomotive Driving 

and Truck, M. M. Assn 81 

•Beck Tool Holder 408 

•Blacksmith Shop, Some New Appliances in, C, R. L & 

P. Ry. "j! 

•Bracing Boilers and Bracing Blunders, by W. H. Graves. . 75 

Brake Shoe Tests, Locomotive. By W. H. Stocks 77 

Burning Coke on the B. & M 295 

*Bushing of Air Brake Valves, Tool for Dressing 445 

•Canadian Railway Club 197 

•Car, Air Brake Instruction— N. Y. C. & H. R. R. R 327 

•Car, Alton Grill Room Chair 414 

Car Borer. No. 6 New Four Spindle 460 

*Cars, Box and Stock, for A., T. & S. F. Ry U? 

*Cars, Box, 36 ft., 60,000 lb. Capacity, D., L. & W. Ry 42 

•Car, Burlington Cafe Parlor > 406 

*Car, Burlington Route Test 147 

•Car Caswell Level Floor Dump 121 

•Cars, Coal, C, H. & D. Ry 205 

*Car Construction, New Method of Steel 301 

*Car, Cupola Observation, C P. Ry 333 

•Car, Design of Convertible 372 

•Car, Dining, C, B. & Q. Ry 360 

•Car, 80,000 lb. Capacity Box, N. & W. Ry 164 

•Car, Evolution of the Lehigh Valley Coal 298 

Car Foremen's Association, Scope of 450 

•Cars, Forty-Ton Box, C, B. & Q. Ry 8 

Car Inspectors, Examination of 92 

Car Inspectors, Code of Rules for Examination of 280 

•Car, Method of Dumping Side Dump Ballast 452 

•Car Mover, The R. A 50 

•Car, Overland Limited of C. & N. W 161 

•Car, Observation Motor, C. P. Ry 303 

Cars, Outside Dimensions of Box 283 

•Cars, Parlor, G. T. Ry 10 

•Car, Private, for Prince Henry 88 

•Car Roof, The Excelsior 119 

•Cars, Sleeping, M., St. P. & S. Ste. M. Ry 355 

•Car, Stock, 36 ft., 60,000 lb. Capacity, I. C. R. R 86 

•Car, Tank with Steel Underf rame 294 

•Center Bearing Axle 15 

•Cinder Pit Conveyor, Grand Trunk Railway 47 

•Clark's Perfect Land Dryer 48 

Cleaning Air Brakes, Standard Method 278 

Coal, Efficiency of Bituminous. By Harlan F. German.... 84 
Coupler Defects, A Diagnosis of M. C. B., Based on Re- 
sults Obtained in Service 194 

•Coupling, The Auxiliary 208 

Crane, Transfer, B. & M. R. Ry '. 455 

•Double Cylinder "Lightning Floorer" 165 

•Draft Attachment, A New 202 

Draft Gear 281 

♦Drill Grinder, The New Yankee 266 

*Electric Driving for Shops 285 

♦Electroplating Plant for Car Shops 299 

♦Fan, A Pneumatic 16 

•First Railway Train 446 

♦Flat Spots in Driving Wheel Tires 6 

*Flue Cutter, A New 115 

*Flue Sheet, Counter Bored 205 

*Fuel Economizer and Smoke Consumer 329 

*Golden State Limited, C, R. I. & P. Ry 451 

*Grand Trunk Railway, London Car Works Literary Asso- 
ciation 291 

♦Headlight, Edwards Electric, C, M. & St. P 90 

Hick's Locomotive and Car Works 410 

Houston Shops of the T. & N. 0. Ry 160 

interlocking Brake Shoe 423 

Interstate Commerce Commission Report 152 

Interstate Commerce Commission, Fifteenth Annual Report. 49 

* Jack, Telescoping Air 453 

* Japanese Railroad, A Strange. By Willard C. Tyler 82 

* Joiner, New Planer, Matcher and 17 

♦Journal Box, Sharp's Dust-Proof 368 

*Large Car Sill and Timber Dresser 304 

*Lens, Mirror Searchlight 373 

*Link Grinding Machine, I. C. R. R 334 

♦Locomotive Atlantic Passenger, for Vandalia Line 447 

*Locomotive Ash Pan, The Player 301 

♦Locomotive Axles, Center Bearings 15 

*Locomotive Axles, Standard Specifications for Driving 

and Truck, M. M. Assn 81 

Locomotives in Bavaria, American 16 

*Locomotive Bearings, Center of Axle 15 

*Locomotive, Chautauqua Type, Central Railway of New 

Jersey 39 

♦Locomotive, Chautauqua Type, B., R. & P. Ry 3 

*Locomotive, Consolidation Freight, N. Y. C & St. L. Ry. .255 
*Locomotive, Compound Consolidation, W. & L. E. Ry....200 
*Locomotive, Compound Switching, N. Y., N. H. & H. Ry..405 
*Locomotive, Four-Cylinder Compound, C., M. & St. P. Ry. . 13 

Locomotive Engine Running, Successful 92 

♦Locomotive Exhaust Regulator 369 

*Locomotives for the Mexican Southern 259 

*Locomotive Front Ends, Self-Cleaning 457 

♦Locomotive Fuel. Oil 415 

Locomotive Headlight 118 

♦Locomotive, Passenger. Atlantic Type, C. & O. Ry 358 

♦Locomotive, Passenger, C. & O. Ry 296 

♦Locomotive. Passenger, C. R. R. of N. J 257 

♦Locomotive, Passenger, for Mexican National Ry 331 

*Locomotives, Passenger, for the I. C. R. R 112 

*Locomotive, Passenger, M. P. Ry 293 

*Locomotive, Passenger, 6 Coupled, C. & O. Ry 358 

*Locomotive, Passenger, St. L. & S. F 261 

♦Locomotive Reducing Valve, The Mason 262 

♦Locomotive, Tandem Compound, C. G. W. Ry ' 162 

♦Locomotive, Tandem Compound Consolidation, Erie Ry. .323 

Machinery Hall, St. Louis Exposition 165 

♦Master Car Builders' Association, Convention Echoes. .. .231 
Master Car Builders' Association, 36th Annual Convention. 247 

♦Master Mechanics' Association, Convention Echoes 231 

Master Steam Boiler Makers' Association 413 

♦Matcher and Joiner, New Planer 17 

Maximum Trains 189 

♦Mechanical Stokers for Locomotives 205 

♦Metal Sawing Machine, Q. & C 374 

♦Morrison Automatic Safety Valve 89 

Mr. Tyler in Japan 421 

♦National Railway Master Blacksmiths' Association 335 

♦National Safety Car Door Fastener 422 

♦Oil as Locomotive Fuel 415 

♦Pacific Coast Railway Club 450 

Pipe Covering Tests, Manhattan Railway Power House. ... 11 

♦Piston Travel Recorder for Air Brake Cylinders 361 

♦Planer and Matcher, New Heavy 52 

♦Planer Jack, The Armstrong ■ 124 

♦Planer, Matcher and Joiner, New 17 

♦Pneumatic Fan, A 16 

♦Portable Pressure Accumulator 460 

♦Portable Wood Boring Machine Frame 329 

♦Pressure Accumulator, Portable 460 

♦Printing on Tracing Cloth 163 

Prussian Commission on American Railroads 203 

♦Radial Drill, A New 51 

Railroading in Mexico 123 

♦Railway Club, Canadian 197 

♦Railway Club, Pacific Coast 450 

♦Railway Club, St. Louis 406 

Railway Master Mechanics' Association, 36th Annual Con- 
vention ■ 247 

Railway Organizations. The Value of 187 

Relative Cost of Running Trains of Slow and Fast Speed. .284 
♦Reports Presented Before the Thirty-sixth Annual Con- 
vention of the M. M. & M. C. B 278 

♦Rhodes' Sensitive Drill Press 264 

♦Roundhouse, Bloom Island, Wisconsin Central Ry., Min- 
neapolis 44 

♦St. Louis Railway Club 406 

St. Louis Railway Club, Fall Meeting 361 

♦Saw Bench, Oliver 375 

Scope of Car Foremen's Association 450 

♦Self-Cleaning Locomotive Front Ends 457 

♦Shops, B. & O. Ry. at Keyser, W. Va 411 

♦Shop, N. Y. C & H. R. R., West Albany Erecting 403 

♦Shops of the New York Central, Oak Grove 190 

♦Shops, Oregon Short Line 197 

Shops of the T. & N. O. Ry., Houston 160 

Side Bearings and Center Plates 280 

♦Side Dump Ballast Car, Method of Operating 452 

♦Soper, Death of Colonel 17 

Spark Arresting 407 

Springs and Spring Making 419 

Standard Steel Car Company 155 

Staybolt Improvements. By W. H. Graves ill 

♦Telescoping Air Jack 453 

♦Test Car, Burlington Route 147 

Tests, Steam Pipe Covering H 

Timber Preservation 409 

♦Tire Wear as Affected by Brake Shoes 79 

♦Tire Wear, Instrument for Graphically Recording 80 

♦Tool for Dressing Cylinder Bushings of Air Brake Valves. 445 

♦Tools for Planing Driving Boxes 421 

Tools for Railroad Work, The Value of Up-to-Date. By 

M. K. Barnum 113 

Ton-Mile Statistics 285 

Train Lighting, Novel Device 456 

Trains, Maximum 189 

♦Transfer Crane, B. & M. R. Ry 455 

♦Transfer Table, A Two-Story 263 

♦Transportation Building of St. Louis Exposition 370 

Traveling Engineers' Association, Tenth Annual Conven- 
tion 363 

Traveling Engineers' Association. Subjects for 1903 Con- 
vention 456 

Trans-Siberian Railway, Notes for Travelers 330 

♦Tatlow Turntable .Atachment 339 

♦Valve, Wilson High Pressure 120 

♦Van Duzen Locomotive and Railroad Fire Pump 48 

Yard Testing Plants 295 


January, 1902. 


Established 1878. 




Office of Publication, Room 610 The Boylstor. Bldg., 269 

Dearborn Street. 

A Monthly Railway Journal. 

Devo'ed to the interests of railway motive power, car equip- 
ment, shops, machinery and supplies. 

Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are 

Subscription price $1.00 a year, to foreign countries $1.50, 
free of postage. Single copies 10 cents. Advertising rates 
givd. on application to the office, by mail or in person. Ad- 
dress the Railway Master Mechanic, Room 610 The Boylston 
Bldg., No. 269 Dearborn Street, Chicago. 


No. 1. 

THE conventions are to be held again this year at 
Saratoga, an arrangement that seems to suit nearly 
everyone. The ever increasing attendance demands 
ample accommodations, which certainly may be secured 
at Saratoga. The Master Car Builders came first com- 
mencing Wednesday, June 18, 1902, and the following 
Monday, June. 23, the Master Mechanics' Association 

IN these days of large capacity cars, the steel car of 
course receives most of the attention, and its good 
points and bad are discussed pro and con. Some roads use 
them and some do not. The question of the life of a steel 
car in ordinary service depends of course very largely 
upon the proper and thorough protection of the steel at 
every point from rust. The maintaining of steel cars from 
the paint shop standpoint is therefore an all important 
question and the article which appears in this issue will 
doubtless be read with interest by every one in the roll- 
ing stock department. 

•» ♦ » 

THE 33-ifi. 60,000 capacity cast iron car wheel of 
today is a product of evolution representing on one 
hand, the efforts of the manufacturers to make a satis- 
factory wheel at as low a cost as possible, and on the 
other hand, the efforts of the railroad companies to get 
as good a wheel as possible at as low a price as possible. 
The results, from an engineering standpoint are quite 
satisfactory, the wheels generally fulfilling the guaranty 
if fairly treated. The design of this wheel was such that 
by the addition of 50 pounds of metal judiciously dis- 
tributed the wheel was made safe for use under cars of 
80,000 pounds capacity and has given very good service 
under such equipment. With the advent of the 100,000 
pound capacity car it was naturally assumed that by ad- 
ding a few pounds more of metal and using perhaps a 

slightly different mixture it would be possible to produce 
an efficient wheel for such cars. It would appear, how- 
ever, that if this is the case the wheelmakers have not 
all solved the problem, as reports indicate many more 
failures than were expected. This situation is viewed 
somewhat differently by the wheelmakers, some claim- 
ing that no change is necessary except in the design of 
the wheel, while others say that other conditions must 
also be considered. It is probably safe to say that a good 
wheel for 100,000 capacity- cars can be made of cast iron, 
though it may be that its cost will be so great that it will 
not be an economical wheel as compared with a steel or 
steel-tired wheel. This view is apparently held by two 
or more concerns that are planning extensive shops and 
expensive machinery for the manufacture of solid steel 
wheels for cars of high capacity. 


THE importance of system in all things is being 
more and more emphasized in the business world 
of to-day and we note with pleasure that in at least a part 
of the college world the same thing is true. We refer 
especially to a recent address by Mr. Wade Hibbard, 
principal of Sibley College of Mechanical Engineering, 
in which especial stress was laid on the advantages of 
systematic reading of the current engineering literature. 
Mr. Hibbard's argument for the individual card index 
and its application to engineering, though made before 
the students of his college, is of interest to all technical 
men. The address may now be obtained in printed form 
by applying to Mr. Hibbard at Ithaca, N. Y. 


SIMPLICITY in design prevails in all departments 
of railway rolling stock to a much greater degree 
than was the case some years ago. Ornamental work 
on passenger coaches, and especially on the Pullmans, 
mark them as cars constructed some time ago. This 
matter is interestingly discussed in our paint department 
in this month's issue in an article on "Old-Time Engine 
Painting," and with the article is given an illustration 
of the elaborate scroll work used on locomotives in 1878. 
The economy of the plainness and simplicity of design 
would certainly appeal to the modern railway official 
when he notes the difference between a cost of $72.20 for 
the old-style work and a matter of $20.00 expended in 
the method of todav. 

+— -» 

IT is not necessary to go far at this time of the year 
to find railway shops that are very poorly lighted 
and in which the men grope around for an hour or two 
each morning and evening, perhaps with the help of a 
•smoky torch, doing as best they may the work that can 
be done under such conditions. They are unable to do a 
fair day's work, a fact fully realized by the foremen and 
probably by the higher officials also. Improvements, 
however, come slowly and the trouble generally lies with 
the local officials who fail to present their cases with good 
and sufficient reasons for the expenditures asked. Rail- 
way earnings are generally good and money quite plen- 
tiful, so it should onlv be necessarv to show that the 


January, 1902. 

investment proposed will pay dividends in order to se- 2,000,000 cars now in existence will command immediate 

cure it. It is generally possible to do something even in attention. The fact that on large systems the cost of freight 

such shops as will not bear the expense of installing car repairs represents an expenditure of $100,00 per 

electric light or gas. The liberal use of water in cleaning month, chiefly for draft gear renewals, and further, the fact 

windows and whitewash on walls and ceiling has trans- that this expense shows an increase of about 24 per cent as 

formed more than one shop. One frequently sees large we are reliably informed, compared with a year ago, 

cupboards or racks in shops which not only interfere with makes the subject of paramount interest. Not only does 

the lighting, but the circulation also, thus making it dim- the item of increased repairs impose a serious burden, 

cult to heat the shop satisfactorily in winter, and to keep but the loss of equipment account of those held in bad 

it comfortably cool in summer. 


THE lack of rain during the fall and summer has 
caused the railroads of the West a great deal of 
trouble in the past few months, as the ordinary sources 
of supply have failed in 
many cases and made it nec- 
essary to haul Water where it 
has never been done before. 
It has also led to the use of 
water that would not ordi- 
narily be considered for boil- 
er feeding purposes so that 
in some localities leaky flues 
are tolerated as a necessary 
and unavoidable evil. Con- 
ditions in certain parts of the 
East seem to have been just 
as bad. The rivers in the 
Pittsburg district have until 
recently been so low that the 
acids and other impurities 
from factories and the drain- 
age of cities have made the 
water absolutely unfit for 
use. The damage done to lo- 
comotives resulting from 
bad water is said to have 
been largely responsible for 
the recent congestion of 
freight in and about Pitts- 
burg. The conditions have 
recently improved in this re- 
spect, as the recent floods 
have thoroughly flushed the 
rivers and furnished an un- 
limited though somewhat 
muddy supply of water. 

Mr. E. T. Jeffery. 


Mr. Jeffery entered railway service in October, 1856, be- 
ginning at the very bottom of the ladder, and has reached 
the top as president of one of the leading western roads. 
It is with some feeling of pride that the Railway Master 
Mechanic publishes Mr. Jeffery's photograph, as he is one 
of the few railroad presidents who has risen through the 
mechanical department. 

THE question of improvements in draft gear, at all 
times a very important consideration in the main- 
tenance of equipment, has never attracted nor received 
so much attention as at present. The tests about to be 
conducted by the committee of the M. C. B. Association 
will doubtless be productive of great results in deter- 
mining the efficiency of the devices now offered, but as 
they will apply more especially to new construction, the 

order, causes a reduction in the earning capacity difficult 
to estimate, to say nothing of the additional charge for 
shifting cars for repairs. We therefore think our readers 
will profit by a careful perusal of the report of the Chi- 
cago Car Foremen's Association on the "Condition of 

Draft Rigging and Sug- 
gestions for Improvements 
in Same," which appears 
on pages 33 to 36 of this 
issue. The subject is too 
large to allow us to dwell on 
its various phases at this 
time, but it must strongly 
appeal to everyone that any 
undue strengthening of the 
draw gear will simply result 
in transmitting the buffing 
and pulling strains to other 
and doubtless more vital 
and expensive parts, if the 
present mode of handling 
cars is not corrected. Doubt- 
less the introduction of heav- 
ier locomotives in road and 
yard service has helped to 
produce the increase in draft 
rigging failures, but they be- 
come of less importance 
when pondering over the 
treatment cars now receive 
from train and yard men. 
To improve the draft rig- 
ging only will serve to di- 
vert the responsibility to 
another direction which may 
prove more expensive, and 
we predict that unless oper- 
ating officials insist on active 
co-operation from the men handling the cars the 
results' wished for will not be attained. There is 
not the shadow of a doubt that since the intro- 
duction of the M. C. B. coupler, cars are handled 
without due regard to their safety. Anyone who has 
watched the crews at work must realize that with the 
disappearance of the last vestige of their personal lia- 
biliy, men have grown careless. We also emphasize the 
fact that the "stitch in time which saves the other nine" 

January, T902. 



must be more promptly and regularly applied if cars are 
to be maintained in efficient condition at a reasonable 

•» ♦ » 

UNDER date of November 6, 1901, Consul-General 
Robert P. Skinner writes as follows regarding the 
American locomotive in France : A great deal of interest 
has been manifested in this portion of France in the ex- 
periments of the Paris, Lyons, and Mediterranean Rail- 
way Company— the most important railway corporation 
in this country — in importing a number of American 
locomotives. The first delivery was made in this city 
in March, since which time the locomotives have^been 
in process of erection in the company's shops at Aries. 
I have been informed by one of the officers of the com- 
pany that after these machines had been erected, the con- 
trolling forces of the roadmaster's department objected 
to their use, because of the fact that the weight was un- 
evenly over the various sets of wheels. It was thereupon 
concluded to make such changes in the mechanism as 
would evenly distribute the weight to the satisfaction 
of the roadmasters. This has now been done, and the 
machines are in partial commission. While they are 

thus, indeed, American locomotives, it does not appear 
that they are absolutely of the type commonly manufac- 
tured in the United States. My informant tells me that 
in preliminary runs, these locomotives maintained a speed 
of 71.45 miles per hour. A local newspaper of to-day 
supplies these additional details: Yesterday morning 
for the first time the rapid express No. 7 was conveyed 
from Avignon to Marseilles by one of the new American 
locomotives erected at Aries. This machine, No. 2999, 
was attached to a train of four large cars of the first 
class, weighing 34 tons, and two baggage cars, the total 
weight being 181 tons. The mining engineers charged 
with the control of this matter have been making re- 
cently, in connection with other principal agents of the 
company, numerous experiments with these machines be- 
tween Miramas and Aries. The rates of speed attained 
have exceeded at certain moments 77.67 and 80.77 miles 
per hour upon this portion of the track, which, by reason 
of the favorable condition, lends itself better than any 
other to these interesting and important experiments, the 
results of which, from the point of view of regularity of 
speed and general stability of these new engines, have 
been most satisfactory. 

Chautauqua Type Passenger Locomotive. — Buffalo, Rochester 

& Pittsburg Railway. 

HE Brooks Works of the American Locomo- 
! j tive Company recently built for the Buffalo, 
Rochester & Pittsburg Ry. two Chautauqua 
type passenger engines, the principal details 
of which are quite clearly covered by the en 
gravings and description published herewith. 
In appearance these engines are particularly 
neat and well proportioned and thus are char- 
acteristic of the builders. As in most engines 
recently turned out by the Brooks works, cast steel is 
freely used, thus lightening many parts that would not 
otherwise stand a material reduction and so allowing 
additional weight in the boiler. The arrangement of 
driving springs is quite unusual, the forward springs 
being underhung and the rear springs over the frame. 
It works out well, however, as this location of the front 
driving spring gives plenty of room for the valve rods 
and driver brake cylinders while the overhead position 
of the rear springs makes possible a simpler connection 
with the trailing equalizer than would otherwise be prac- 
ticable. The cross sectional views show a cross equalizer 
hung to the back end of the rear spring with the trail- 
ing equalizer hangers set 7^ inches from the center of 
the frame. The trailing truck is of the Player radial 
type as shown in our issue of last May. 

The center of the piston valve, being some distance 
above the center of the cylinder and but little outside the 
frame, a rocker is used consisting of two upwardly ex- 
tending arms, one inside the frame and connected with 

an extension rod attached at the other end to the link 
block, the other outside the frame and in line with the 
center of the valve to which it is connected by a short 
jointed stem. 

Among the interesting features of the boiler is the 
cast steel mud ring which, although no lighter than the 

Brooks Locomotive, B. R. & P. Ry. 

usual wrought iron construction, is of a form which is 
impracticable except in a casting. The flanges provide 
for the attachment of the ash-pan skirting at front and 


January, 1902. 

January, 1902. 


sides and for the connection of boiler to frame at the 
rear of the firebox. 

Below are given a number of the detail dimensions and 
other information regarding- the engine : 

Gauge 4 ft. 8^2 ins. 

Kind of fuel to be used Bituminous 

Weight on leading wheels 40,000 lbs. 

Weight of driving wheels 99,000 lbs. 

Weight of trailing wheels 34,000 lbs. 

Weight, total 173,000 lbs. 

Weight, tender loaded 120,000 lbs. 


Wheel base, total of engine 29 ft. 2 ins. 

Wheel base, driving , . .8 ft. o in. 

Wheel base, total engine and tender 54 ft. 7 ins. 

Length over all engine 39 ft. 6 ins. 

Length over all, total engine and tender 63 ft. o in. 

Height center of boiler above rail 9 ft. 7^ ins. 

Height of stack above rail 14 ft. 11 ins. 

Heating surface, firebox 202.3 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, tubes 2,805.6 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, total 3,007.9 sq. ft. 

Grate area 54-43 sq. ft. 


Wheels, leading, dia 33^ his. 

Wheels, driving, dia 72 ins. 

Wheels, trailing, dia 51 ins. 

Material of wheel centers All cast steel 

Journal leading axles 5^2x12 ins. 

Journal leading axles, wheel fit 5^2 ins. 

Journal driving axles 9^x12 ins. 

Journal driving axles, wheel fit gfy his. 

Journal trailing axles 8x14 ins. 

Journal trailing axles, wheel fit 7% ins. 


Cylinder, dia 20% ins. 

Cylinder, stroke 26 ins. 

Piston rod, dia ^H ms - 

Main rod length center to center 139 ins. 

Steam ports, length 25^ ins. 

Steam ports, width 1% ins. 

Exhaust ports, least area 68 sq. ft. 

Bridge, width 3 ins. 


Valves, kind of Improved piston 

A^alves, greatest travel 5^ ins. 

Valves, steam lap (inside) 1% ins. 

Valves, exhaust clearance (outside) o in. 

Lead in full gear 3-32 in. 

Lead, constant or variable Variable 


Boiler, type of Straight top 

Boiler, working pressure ; 220 lbs. 

Boiler, material in barrel Steel 

Boiler, thickness of material in shell Y\, 9-16, Yz in. 

Boiler, thickness in tube sheet ^4 in. 

Boiler, dia. of barrel front 70^ ins. 

Boiler, dia. of barrel at throat 71^ ins. 


January, 1902. 

Chautauqua Type Locomotive,, B. R. & P. Ry. 

Seams, kind of horizontal Sextuple 

Seams, kind of circumferential Triple 

Crown sheet stayed with Radial stays 

Dome, dia. inside 30 ins. 


Firebox, type Wide 

Firebox, length 108 ins. 

Firebox, width 74 ins. 

Firebox, depth front •' • • 74 ins. 

Firebox, depth back 764 ins. 

Firebox, material Steel 

Firebox, thickness of sheets 

. . . .Crown y% in., tube Y in., side Y in., back Y in. 

Firebox, brick arch . On water tubes 

Firebox, mud ring with 

3Y in. back, 3^ in. sides, 4 in. front 

Firebox, water space at top 

7 in. back, 6 in. sides, 4 in. front 

Grates, kind of Rocking 

Tubes, No. of : .336 

Tubes, material Charcoal iron 

Tubes, outside 2 ins. 

Tubes, thickness 12 B. W. G. 

Tubes, length over tube sheets 16 ft. % in. 


Smokebox, dia. outside > 73 ins. 

Smokebox, length from tube sheet 65 ins. 


Exhaust nozzle, single or double Single 

Exhaust nozzle, variable or permanent Permanent 

Exhaust nozzle, dia sH ms -> 5 5 _I 6 ins., $ l / 2 ins. 

Exhaust nozzle, distance of tip below center of 

boiler 6 ins. 

Netting, wire 'or plate Netting 

Netting, size of mesh or perforations 

2 l Ax2 1 A No. 12 wire 

Tank, type Gravity slide 

Tank, capacity for water 6,000 gals. 

Tank, capacity for coal . 10 tons 

Tank, material Steel 

Tank, thickness of sheets % in. 

Type of underframe Steel channel 

Type of trucks B. W. all metal trucks 

Type of springs Triple elliptic 

Dia. of wheels 33^ ins. 

Dia. and length of journals 5x9 ins. 

Distance between centers of journals 5 ft. 5 ins. 

Dia. of wheel fit on axle 6}i ins. 

Dia. of center of axle 5^ ins. 

Length of tender over bumper beams 21 ft. 9 ins. 

Length of tank inside . 20 ft. 

Width of tank inside 9 ft. 10 ins. 

Height of tank not including collar 5 ft. Y in. 

Type of draw gear B. W. twin spring 

Among the special equipment used on these engines 
are American driver brakes, Westinghouse brakes for 
tender and train service, Michigan lubricators, Kunkle 
safety valves, Hancock composite injectors, Consolidated 
steam heat fixtures, French springs, United States pis- 
ton rod packing and Brooks valve stem packing. 

■ »-*-» 

Flat Spots that Develop in Driving Wheel Tires. 

To the Editor of the Railway Master Mechanic: 

Among the mechanical men of the railways of the 
country in the past decade there has probably been no one 
subject so often and so thoroughly discussed, nor one 
regarding which so many theories have been advanced 
and so little learned of the true cause, as that of flat 
spots developing on driving wheel tires, and I know of 
nothing in the motive power department of our railways 
Stack, straight or taper Taper at the present time that is demanding more earnest re- 
Stack, least diameter taper 15 

Stack, greatest dia. taper 16% 

Stack, height above smoke box 27 


Type 8-wheel steel frame 


search for a remedy. For several years the master 
mechanics have taken this matter up at their conventions 
and discussed it over and over again. With the prac- 
tical side, the traveling engineers have done likewise. 

and the mechanical 

engineers have 


it their share 

January, I902. 


of thought and attention for years. Some of our pro- 
gressive superintendents of motive power, aided by the 
railway companies, have designed and built testing plants, 
whereby locomotives may be mounted on friction rollers 
and put through tests as accurate as service tests on the 
road, and in some respects more so. One of our leading 
technical universities has an ideal plant of this kind 
and has made several tests to find out the cause of this 
very serious defect, and yet with all that has been said 
and done the locomotives on our railways to-day continue 
to pound along in the same old way with flat spots in 
their tires. Locomotive engineers and firemen riding 
from three to four thousand miles a month on these 
deformities realize probably more forcibly than others 
interested, by reason of their sore sides and lame backs, 
the need of a remedy. Supintendents of motive power 
realize it by having to take engines into shops every six 
or eight months to turn from one hundred to three hun- 
dred pounds of good steel from tread of tire in order 
to remove these flat spots, when otherwise engines could 


the speed of trains there, and at present the trouble is 
universal and chronic. Some claim it is due to too 
much lap and too little load given to valve, and still 
others claim it is caused by too much counterbalance, 
and so on. There have been experiments made time and 
time again in these directions (setting valves blind or 
giving them more lead, giving valves inside clearance, 
etc.) with no perceptible difference as to flat spots. Now 
allow me to "ask the question, "If these were the causes 
why did not the flat spots develop thirty years ago?" 
Now, I claim it is speed and counterbalance combined 
that is the cause of all this trouble, and to substantiate 
my claims I will refer you again to past history. Twenty- 
five years ago the speed of freight trains was from 
twelve to twenty miles an hour; of passenger trains 
from twenty to thirty; and just as soon as the railways 
commenced to increase the speed of their trains these 
flat spots commenced to develop on the same engines 
that were pulling the trains before, and the greater the 
speed the quicker the flat spots would develop, every- 

have been kept in service six or eight months longer. 
They also realize the damage done to other parts of the 
machinery by pounding along at a speed of thirty to sixty 
miles per hour. The permanent way officials realize the 
damage these engines do to rails, bridges, etc., and the 
general managers realize the excessive expense of renew- 
als of machinery, bridges, rails and so on. 

Everyone interested has been grasping for a remedy 
like a drowning man at a straw, but as yet they have 
all gone under, so to speak, at least I have heard of no 
remedy so far. In my mind there has been many men 
who have advanced theories that partly cover the ground, 
but not wholly. I have never said anything on the sub- 
ject before, but at the same time have my theory for 
a number of years as to the cause of this defect. 

Now with your kind permission I will switch you 
all onto the same track as myself, and by running a 
block apart we will avoid collisions and arrive at the 
terminal safely. 

We will commence and review the history of driving 
wheel tires for twenty-five years past. At the beginning 
of this period such things as flat spots in driving wheel 
tires were unknown, I believe. About twenty years ago 
there were occasional reports from roads in the east of 
locomotives getting flat tires, and you will note they 
commenced to increase the speed of trains down there 
about that time. About fifteen years ago this disease 
struck the roads in the middle west, and you will also 
note that is about the time they commenced to increase 

thing else being equal ; and I will ask again if this is not 
proof enough that speed is an important factor in the 
cause ? 

A master mechanic or mechanical engineer can design 
an engine having the counterweight in driving wheels 
equal to the reciprocating parts, and practically it will 
be all right standing still or revolving at ten or fifteen 
miles per hour, but it is an altogether different proposi- 
tion when the speed is increased to sixty or seventy 
miles an hour. No up-to-date mechanical engineer 
would think of designing a high speed stationary en- 
gine with a counterweight opposite crank shaft and ex- 
pect a smooth running engine. He would simply put on 
a fly wheel ; and the heavier the rim the smoother -the 
engine will run. This same principle applies to loco- 
motive practice of to-day. In "figure No. 1, you will 
please note a modern driving wheel with pin on lower 
quarter and center of counterbalance on top quarter. 
Now, imagine this is the right main wheel on a loco- 
motive going at the rate of sixty miles per hour, the 
weight and angularity of the main rod on the downward 
thrust, the steam exerting its greatest power on the 
piston, and the counterbalance coming over at the same 
time. What is the result? A hammer blow and slip 
to be sure. As I look at it, it cannot be otherwise. At 
such a high rate of speed the centrifugal force of the 
wheels throws the engine out of balance by having coun- 
terbalance in wheel opposite pin. These flat spots develop 
on right wheel just ahead of the pin or near the eighth. 
On the left side the pin would be nearly on the quarter, 



January, 1902. 

and that pin would be following the flat spot in left 
wheel, which would occur on quarter back of pin. At 
this point on right side is where most power is developed, 
and left being on center, the conditions are vice versa. 
Generally there is more or less lost motion between driv- 
ing boxes and wedges, also rod connections, on left side, 
owing to the fact that engineers are not in a position to 
discover the conditions on left side without more trouble. 
The thrust of the rod downward, and counterbalance 
coming over at same time, with steam exerting its power 
on the piston, produces a hammer blow and slip on right 
side, but more of a slip than hammer blow on left side, 
owing to the loose condition of boxes, etc., which I have 
mentioned. These conditions may be reversed, but with 
a right hand lead engine it is generally the way explained. 
I believe my theory is also proven by the fact that the 
more wheels coupled and the smaller the wheels the 
quicker these flat spots develop, speed and other condi- 

tions being equal : also all main tires, whether on eight, 
ten or twelve wheelers, develop flat spots first and the 
largest ones, and it is on these wheels of course the most 
weight and counterweight is of reciprocating parts. 
Now, my idea of a remedy is explained in Fig. No. 2. 
Take out counterbalance, or, if you please, place it in 
outside rim of wheel, center all that is possible, the more 
the better. Just follow out stationary practice as far 
as possible, and I believe it will save thousands of dol- 
lars to railways annually. Now, if any supintendent 
of motive power believes my ideas are correct and fits 
up an engine conforming to them, all I ask for the in- 
formation is a pass and a permit to ride on the engine 
until I get tired of it, for I do long to ride on a smooth 
running engine before I die. 

I. F. Wallace, 
Locomotive Engineer, C, St. P., M. & O. Ry. 
Minneapolis, Minn., Oct. 31, 1901. 

■» » » 

Forty-Ton Box Cars C, B. & Q. Railway 

HE Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railway 
Co. recently placed an order with the Pull- 
man Co. for 800 40-foot box cars of 40 tons 
capacity, the principal details of which are 
covered by the illustrations shown herewith. 
None of the cars have as yet been turned out 
with the exception of the sample car built 
by the railway company, a photograph of 
which we reproduce. The inside dimensions 
of the car conform to the dimensions recommended by 

the American Railway Association as to height and width 
inside, the width being 8 feet 6}i inches and the clear 
height 8 feet. The details of these cars conform in most 
respects to the usual construction of the road, modified as 
required to meet the dimensions desired. The longitu- 
dinal sills, side plates, purlins, ridge pole, flooring and 
lining will be of Norway or long leaf virgin yellow pine 
and the other principal parts of the framing of white oak. 
The longitudinal sills are 5 inches by 9 inches in section 
and six in number. The end sills are 7 inches by 10^4 

Forty-ton Box Car, C, B. & Q. Ry. 

January, 1902. 


' 9 



January, 1902. 

inches in section, with the long dimension laid longi- 
tudinally and the outside and intermediate sills are con- 
nected with the end sills by means of malleable iron sill 
pockets. The connections between the center and end 
sills are affected by the use of a special form of the Miner 
draft attachments which are provided with extensions 


projecting underneath the end sills and are bolted se- 
curely to end and longitudinal sills. The special feature 
of this attachment aside from the two spring idea, is the 

reduction gained in height as compared with the use of 
draft timbers. It will be observed that the center line of 
draft is on a level with the lower edge of the longitudinal 
sill and that the position of the end sill makes it unneces- 
sary to cut into it to provide clearance for the coupler 
shank. The position of the end sill also enables it to 
resist very effectively the shocks and strains of 

All posts and braces are provided with malleable iron 
pockets at top and bottom. The ordinary wooden cross 
ties or male beams are dispensed with and steel cross ties 
used which are made of 8-inch deck beams fitted with 
malleable iron truss rod posts. The details of this con- 
struction are shown by our illustrations. The trucks are 
of the common arch bar type with channel spring planks. 
Among the special equipment used are the Miner tan- 
dem spring draft attachments, the Prairie door hoop, 
the Chicago roof, Westinghouse air brakes, Tower coup- 
lers, McCord journal boxes and Prince's mineral paint. 
The truck and body bolsters are one-half Bettendorf and 
one-half Simplex. 


New Passenger Equipment Grand Trunk Railway 

^lOME new equipment has been recently added to 
vj what is known as trains Nos. 3 and 4 on the 
Grand Trunk Railway System. These trains run be- 
tween New York and Chicago and Chicago and Mon- 
treal. The first-class coaches that are part of these solid 
trains are complete in every detail as regards artistic 
taste, appointments and finish. They are 68 feet long, 

tremely handsome, set off as they are by trimmings of 
bronze design. The dining cars are in accord with the 
rest of the equipment of which these trains are com- 
posed. The dining rooms are large, being 31 feet 8 
inches long, seating thirty persons comfortably. The 
oak. Between Toronto and Montreal the cafe-parlor 

with wide vestibule, steel platform and an adjustable car is run on train No. 4. They are 61 feet 10 inches 

cover over the steps. The vestibules are also lighted long, have steel platforms, with wide vestibules, and are 

with a powerful light. Each of these coaches has a seat- mounted on six-wheeled trucks. At one end of the car 

ing capacity for seventy-two passengers. The interior general style of the interiors is colonial, in quartered 

of these cars are finished in quartered oak and are ex- is placed the ladies' toilet, combining closet and wash- 

January, 1902. 



room, the latter being roomy and containing a settee at 
one end, and the whole being beautifully fitted up. In 
the adjoining compartment is the parlor. A door sep- 
arates the parlor from the dining room, a comfortable 
salon, with a seating capacity for twelve persons. This 
room is also handsomely carpeted and furnished with 
leather-covered movable chairs. Adjoining the dining 
room is the kitchen, wine-locker and buffet, arranged 

in a most compact way with a view to quick service and 
saving of space. At the farther end of the car is the 
smoking room and gentlemen's lavatory. The smoking 
room is supplied with five comfortable arm chairs and 
a large sofa. The woodwork of the parlor is of finished 
mahogany, and the dining and smoking rooms of quar- 
tered oak. The ceilings are of wood, tinted green, and 
are ornamented in artistic combinations of gold. 

Pipe Covering Tests, Manhattan Railway Power House 

MR. GEORGE H. BARRUS, consulting steam 
engineer, recently conducted some steam pipe 
covering tests at the Manhattan Railway power house, 
New York City, the results of which were brought out 
in a paper read by him to mechanical engineers, archi- 
tects and others, on Nov. 12, as follows: 

The tests were planned with the object of ascertaining 
the efficiency, both comparatively and absolutely, of some 
of the leading coverings as ordinarily manufactured, sold, 
and applied. By the term "efficiency" is meant simply 
that efficiency which measures the degree to which the 
covering serves to prevent radiation of heat from the 
outside of the pipe, or what is the same thing, the de- 
gree to which the covering prevents the condensation of 
steam in the interior of the pipe. 

The plant was divided into two sections, one for cov- 
erings designed to stand the highest pressures which are 
now regularly carried by the modern power plants, say 
150 lbs. per square inch; and the other for lower pres- 
sures such as have been in vogue for many years past, 
say 80 lbs. per square inch. 

It was sought to install a testing plant for the purpose 
in view that should be on a sufficiently large scale to ap- 
proximate to practical conditions of service, and that the 
work might also be carried out on a commercial scale it 
was sought to make and continue the tests a sufficient 
number of hours continuously in a day and a sufficient 
number of days in succession that no question could be 
raised as to the reliability of the data from too short 
duration, or from want of continuous repetition. Many 
of the coverings were therefore tested day after day for 
a period of a month, and every one subjected to at least 
three days run from 8 to 9 hours continuous test each 

The size of pipe selected for the leading tests was the 
ordinary standard two-inch steam pipe; and the length 
selected, 100 feet for each pipe. That the effect of size 
of pipe on the results might be studied and exhibited, and 

at the same time the work brought into line with the 
practice of high pressure power plants, especially as re- 
gards much of the engine and boiler room piping, two 
1 o-inch pipes each 35 feet in length formed a part of the 
150-pound section of the apparatus. 

The main object so far as the getting of the principal 
data is concerned was to properly secure and measure 
the water formed by condensation of the steam in the 
pipes. Precautions were taken first to insure a supply 
of steam to the pipes free from water at the start ; in 
other words, dry steam ; second, suitable inclination or 
pitch of the pipes to insure the drainage of all the water 
formed by condensation to the drip-ends or the points 
where it was discharged into the collecting casks ; third, 
the thorough venting of the drip-ends of the pipes to 
prevent the collection of air in the interior, and fourth, 
the proper collection and measurement of all the water 
discharged. To secure dry steam at the start, the steam 
from the boiler first entered a central separator, which 
was merely a vertical 6-inch pipe, drained at the bottom 
by a steam trap, the steam entering through a 2-inch 
pipe at the top which descends inside about 18 inches; 
the steam, freed of its water, passing off at the two side 
branches which are each of the 2-inch size. Before en- 
tering either header the steam passed through another 
separator, which was likewise a 6-inch vertical pipe, 
drained at the bottom by a ^4-inch valve, the entering 
steam descending through a 2-inch pipe a distance of 
about 18 inches, and the dried steam passing off at the 
side into the end of a 6-inch header. As a further pre- 
caution the outer or dead end of either header was drained 
by a ^4-inch pipe, connecting into the main drain pipe 
above the valve, and attached to the vertical portion of 
this pipe was a glass guage to reveal to the eye any col- 
lection of water inside. Beyond all this, a steam calori- 
meter was attached to the side of either header, the samp- 
ling pipe of which drew from the center of the interior 
space. Starting with dry steam in the headers which 


were protected by hair felt and canvas, a supply of dry to fall, and just before the pressure reached zero the 
steam to the pipes was secured by connecting to the top j^-inch drips were blown out and the water remaining 
of the header and taking the steam in each case through in the pipes drained into pails through the i^-inch 
a 2-inch angle valve. The proper drainage of the water valves ; the pails being subsequently emptied into the 
formed by condensation in the test pipes was secured by casks. All the water resulting from the preliminary heat- 
pitching them from the inlet end to the discharge end. ing of the pipes and coverings and the draining of the 
The 2-inch pipes have a total drop from one end to the apparatus at the end, was collected and weighed in the 
other of 16 inches. The 10-inch pipes have a total drop casks, in addition to that condensed during the period 
of 6 inches. of normal conditions. Half-hourly observations were 

The venting of air was secured by the attachment of made of the weight on each scale, so that the condensa- 

a 54 -inch air pipe to each drip end, at a point about half tion due to the preliminary heating could be separately 

inch above the line of the bottom of the pipe inside. determined, and the record of the test ascertained for 

The drip end of each test-pipe was provided with a any smaller period desired than the whole day's run. 
vertical drain pipe of the ^2 -inch size, provided at the The temperature of the air surrounding the pipes was 

bottom with a ^2 -inch globe valve. Attached to the pipe shown by thermometers suspended 24 inches below the 

above this valve was a glass water guage. By means of coverings, and distributed in various parts of the room ; 

this glass guage, an all-important appendage to each and the condition of the air as regards humidity was 

pipe, a knowledge was had of the exact state of the water shown by wet and dry bulb thermometers, 
condensed in the pipe, and by suitable regulation of the The pressure in each of the two sections of the ap- 

discharge valve the water could be kept drawn down paratus was shown by the guages attached near each 

continuously to the desired mark, and all the water dis- header, and the temperature of the steam by two ther- 

charged to the weighing cask as fast as it collected, mometers placed in wells which were sunk within. The 

To facilitate the easy regulation of the discharge water, temperature of the water discharged from the pipes and 

a second discharge pipe of the ^-inch size was attached the temperature of the outside of the coverings were 

to the drip end of the lower guage fitting and this was taken, and all the various observations made during the 

provided with a ^-inch globe valve. The main depend- test were at uniform time intervals, so as to obtain aver- 

ence for the discharge of water into the casks was placed age records of the attending conditions. The use of a 

upon this pipe, and its outlet descended to within 6 inches delicate anemometer failed to show an air current about 

of the bottom. That all the water discharged under the the pipes at any time sufficient to move the fan in the 

pressure to which it was subjected in the test-pipe might least. 

be recovered without loss of evaporation when the pres- The tests above described were made with pipe having 

sure was relieved, the cask was partly filled with cold dead ends and with no circulation of steam through the 

water at the beginning of a test, and the highly heated pipe except that required to supply the loss by condensa- 

water quickly cooled. Each cask rested on an indepen- tion, and the small amount escaping at the air-vent — in 

dent platform scale which read to *4 pounds and the rate no case being in excess one-half of one horse power of 

of condensation in the pipe for any interval of time, steam for any one of either the 2-inch or of the 10-inch 

such as a half hour, or an hour, was the increase of pipes. To determine whether this method of test is ap- 

weight shown on the scales for that period of time. plicable to the ordinary conditions of service where steam 

In planning the tests of the 80-pound section of cover- is moving through the pipe at a far greater velocity, two 

ings two methods were pursued. Four pipes were tested pipes were fitted at their drip ends with steam discharge 

with four different coverings, each of which was in use pipes arranged so as to obtain any desired current 

without removal during the entire time of the tests, through the pipe without carrying away with the steam 

which commenced Sept. 27th. With the exception of one discharged any of the water condensed. The amount 

week, these coverings were under test 8 to 9 hours per discharged was determined by passing the steam through 

day, each day of the week throughout. Another pipe a horizontal orifice y?. inch in diameter, and maintaining 

was used to test the four different classes, substituting above it a pressure of about 15 pounds by the guage. 

each week, thereby applying one by one the various cov- This made a current through the pipes having a velocity 

erings to the same pipe, and so far as attainable subject- of about 18 feet per second. It was found as a result 

ing it to the same surrounding conditions. To a limited of tests made first with no current and then with the 

extent the same system was followed on the 150-pound steam moving at the velocity mentioned, that the rate 

section of 2-inch pipes ; the endeavor being to obtain of condensation was unaffected, being the same with 

sufficient data to enable a reliable conclusion to be drawn moving- steam as it was with comparatively dead steam, 

regarding the effect of all differences of condition. and this was true whether the pipes were covered or 

The tests started each morning with pipes empty and bare, 
pipes and coverings cold. A period of iy 2 hours usually The lowest rate of condensation obtained on any of 

sufficed to thoroughly heat the coverings, and after that "the 2-inch coverings of the 80-pound section was a total 

time for 7 to j r / 2 hours uniform conditions as to rate of for the entire pipe of 13.46 pounds per hour, and the 

. condensation prevailed. At the end of a day's run, the highest, 15.14 pounds. The lowest on any of the 2-inch 

steam was shut off from the headers, the pressure allowed coverings of the 150-pound section was 10.47 pounds 

January, 1902. 



per hour, and the highest, 14 pounds per hour. The 
lowest on any of the 10-inch coverings was 10.67 pounds 
per hour total for the entire pipe and the highest 15.93 
pounds. All these figures apply to the average rate for 
a period of 7 or 73^ hours continuous run. 

The following results of the tests show the order of 
efficiency of the different coverings : 


1. Johns' Asbestocel. 

2. New York Air Cell. 

3. Carey's Moulded. 

5. Gast's Ambler Air Cell. 


i. Johns' Asbesto-Sponge Hair Felt — 3 ply. 

2. Johns' Asbesto-Sponge Hair Felt — 2 ply. 

3. Asbesto-Sponge Felted (Sectional). 

4. K. & M. Magnesia (85 per cent Carb. of Mag- 

5. Asbestos Fire Felt (Navy Brand). 


i. Johns' Asbesto-Sponge Felted. 

2. K. & M. Magnesia (85 per cent Carb. of Mag- 

3. Asbestos Fire Felt (Navy Brand). 

4. Watson's Imperial. 

Minimum and Maximum Rates of Condensation per 

Hour for Each of the Coverings Tested. 
2-in. coverings, 80 lbs. pressure. 

Length of test pipes 100 feet. 


Johns' Moulded . 13.46 

New York Air Cell 13.88 

Carey's Moulded 14.18 

Johns' Moulded 14-15 

Gast's Ambler Air Cell 14.60 

2-in. coverings, 150 lbs. pressure. 
Length of Test Pipes 100 feet. 

Johns' Asbesto-Sponge Hair Felt, 3 ply. 10.47 

Johns' Asbesto-Sponge Hair Felt, 2 ply. . 11. 21 

Asbesto-Sponge Felted (Sectional) 11.20 

K. & M. Magnesia (85 per cent Carb. of 

Magnesia) 11.64 

Asbestos Fire Felt (Navy Brand) i3-i8 

10-in. coverings, 150 lbs. pressure. 

Length of Test Pipes 35 feet. 

Johns' Asbesto-Sponge Felted 10.67 

K. & M. Magnesia (85 per cent Carb. of 

Magnesia) 13.00 

Asbestos Fire Felt (Navy Brand) 14.00 

Watson's Imperial 15.79 

Bare Pipes. 

2-in., 80 lbs. pressure 55-75 

2-in., 150 lbs. pressure 7 x -78 

10-in., 150 lbs. pressure io 5-9 

Temperature air of room (approx.) . . . . 50. 










«» » » 

New Locomotives for the C, M. & St P. Railway 

THROUGH the courtesy of Mr. A. E. Manchester, photographs taken of the wide firebox Atlantic type 
superintendent of motive power, we are enabled to passenger and 10-wheel freight locomotives recently de- 
present the accompanying half tone illustrations from livered to the C, M. & St. P. Ry. by the Baldwin Loco- 

Baldwin Locomotive, C., M. & St. P. Ry. 



January, 1902 

Baldwin Locomotives, C, M. & St. P. Ry. 

motive Works. These engines, although but recently received some years ago. The change was made neces- 

placed in service, have met with very general favor, and sary by reason of the heavier trains and faster schedules 

surpass expectations in steaming qualities. now run on these divisions. It is a little early to speak 

The passenger engines are used on the main lines be- of results, but some fine records have been made as to 

tween Chicago and LaCrosse, and Chicago and Savanna, speed, and we will doubtless be enabled later on to af- 

hauling the Pioneer Limited, the Omaha Express and ford our readers more information about their per- 

fast mail trains, replacing the Atlantic type locomotives formance. 

January, 1902. 


A Center Bearing Axle. 

lOME of the modern heavy locomotives are 
giving considerable trouble and causing 
delays to fast freight trains on account of the 
excessive weight on the driving boxes, 
which, as is well known, are restricted to 
limited dimensions both in diameter and in 
length. The heating of the driving boxes 
and axles (presumably on account of exces- 
sive pressure per square inch) necessitated 
something to remedy the matter, and the device shown 
in accompanying drawings was applied to several loco- 

motives by Mr. George W. West, superintendent of 
motive power of the New York, Ontario & Western 
Railway, and since learning the efficiency of same has 
been patented by him. 

applied to the main axle of a locomotive, the former fig- 
ure being a cross section of locomotive frames and 
Figure 2 a longitudinal section through the center of 
axle. The center driving box is here shown as being 
equipped with bronze bearing and cellar underneath 
the axle, packed with lubricant same as the ordinary 
driving boxes. 

The weight of locomotive is distributed to this center 
bearing through a spring (and saddle resting upon 
top of driving box), the ends of which are connected to 

The application of the intermediate or center bearing 
on driving axles is shown in Figures 1 and 2 as being 

a yoke shown in Figures 1 and 2, and the yoke it at- 
tached to frame by the bolts, the pedestal brace being 
gained out for the foot of yoke to pass through. The 
spring has been adjusted to carry about 10,000 pounds, 
relieving the ordinary springs of this amount, but is 
readily increased or diminished by lengthening or short- 
ening the spring hangers. 

To hold the center driving box from revolving with 
the axle the jays are provided and can be connected to 
cross frame braces or one end attached to firebox. In 
case of the rear axle (which usually passes underneath 
the ash pan) this device has been applied, as shown in 
Figures 3 and 4, which do not require further explana- 
tion. The ends of driving box cellar on this axle should 
be well covered with an end cap to protect same from 



January, 1902. 

ashes and dust. The length of the center bearing on 
the rear axle can usually be 10 inches or longer, but on 
the main axle this journal is limited to the distance be- 
tween eccentrics. 

The efficiency of this device has been proven by its 
application to several 70-ton mogul locomotives which 
give a great deal of trouble, seldom giving over 30 
days' continuous service, but have now been run con- 
tinuously for 15 or 18 months, every day in the week, 
making from 130 to 250 miles daily without heating or 
giving any trouble whatever from hot driving boxes, 
hauling heavy passenger and fast freight trains. This 
same device has been applied with excellent results to 
the rear axle of passenger engines with 4 drivers, for the 
purpose of making easier riding for the enginemen. 

♦ » » 

A Pneumatic Fan 

THE illustration shown herewith is of a small air- 
driven fan which is being used in the shop of a 
southern railroad. As will be noted by looking at the 
drawing, the fan is of the rotary type and runs at any 
pressure obtainable. The consumption of air is small, 

lowing: The Berlin Neuste Nachrichten, of October 29, 
contains a telegram from Munich concerning the results 
of the experience of the Royal Railway Administration 
with American locomotives, of which the folowing is 
a translation : The general administration of the Bavarian 
State railways ordered and received from the Baldwin 
Locomotive Works, in Philadelphia, two express passen- 
ger locomotives, which have been in use nearly ^ of 
a year. The difference between these locomotives — 
which are easily recognized by their unearthly whistle — 
and the German engines consists principally in the fact 
that they have on each side three cylinders, placed ver- 
tically one above the other, and cast in one piece with 
the valve chests and saddle. In other respects, the Ameri- 
can machines are characterized throughout by the great- 
est simplicity in all parts, and their management differs 
very slightly from that of any other locomotive. Since 
they were placed in service, the methods in which the 
steam power acts and the general efficiency of the loco- 
motive have been very carefully observed. The result 
of all these tests and observations has been entirely satis- 
factory. The general direction has now, as is announced 

Pneumatic Fan 

the air compressor at the shop, when the fan is in use, 
easily keeping up the pressure against four of them in 
constant use in the shop. At a pressure of eighty pounds 
it easily makes 3,000 revolutions and throw a current of 
air 25 feet. Such a fan is of course very desirable in 
warm weather. 

♦ * » 

American Locomotive in Bavaria 

Mr. Frank H. Mason, Consul-General at Berlin, writes 
regarding the American locomotive in Bavaria the fol- 

by the Munich Allgemeine Zeitung, secured the patent 
of the American Vauclain, and authorized the construe 
tion of a locomotive according to this system, with cer- 
tain modifications, by each of the two firms Krauss & 
Co., of Munich, and J. A. Maffei, of Hirschau. These 
machines are now in process of construction, and it will 
depend upon their efficiency and durability whether the 
•system shall be further utilized. The cost of the Ba- 
varian locomotives will be about 20,000 marks ($5,760) 
greater than that of the American. 

January, 1902. 



Death of Colonel Soper. 

Safety Car Heating and Lighting Company and 
the Pintsch Compressing Company died after a month's 
illness at his residence in New York City, on Sunday 
December 1. Colonel Soper has been prominently identi- 
fied for many years with railroad interests throughout 
the country. He was born at Rome, N. Y., on July 16, 
1838. At the age of twenty he entered railway service' 
as a clerk in the freight office of the Rome, Watertown 
and Ogdensburg Railroad. At the end of three years 
he was appointed superintendent's clerk. This position 
he held two years, when he was made a passenger conduc- 
tor, and the following year appointed assistant superin- 
tendent of the Rome, Watertown and Ogdensburg Rail- 
way, under Addison Day. Some four years later Mr. 

Col. A. W. Soper. 

Day was called to St. Louis as superintendent of the 
St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern Railway, and 
soon after his arrival offered Mr. Soper the office of 
assistant superintendent, which he accepted, leaving 
Rome in February, 1871. At the end of a year Mr. Day 
resigned because of ill health, and Mr. Soper was made 
general superintendent, and afterwards for several years, 
general manager. 

As president of the Pintsch Compressing Company 
Colonel Soper achieved his greatest success. He went 
to New York City in 1889, and with George M. Pull- 
man, Sidney Dillon and others organized the Pintsch 
Compressing Company and the Safety Car Heating and 
Lighting Company. At that time the so-called "Pintsch" 
lights were used by only two railroads in the United 
States, but before his death Colonel Soper was to see 
it adopted by fully one-half of the roads in the country. 

Colonel Soper's successful career as a railroad man 
covers a period of forty-three ears. He began at the 
foot of the ladder, as a train conductor, and, by dint 
of application and seemingly inexhaustible energy, before 
many years had passed had won the confidence and 
esteem of such men as the late Jay Gould, Collis P. Hunt- 
ington, Thomas Scott, the president of the Pennsylvania, 
and S. W. Fordyce, of the St. Louis and St. Paul. Syd- 
ney Dillon, Sir W. C. Van Horn and the late Garrett 
A. Hobart, and former President Harrison, were also 
among the men with whom he was associated, both in 
a business way and personally. 

Just above the desk in Colonel Soper's office is a 
framed engraving, presented to him by some of his more 
intimate associates. This shows a strong, sharp, well- 
shaped pick, and under it is the legend: "If there's a 
way, I'll find it ; if there is none, I'll make one." This 
is in epitome the secret of Colonel Soper's success, the 
axiom which made possible his phenomenal rise to in- 
fluence and wealth. But coupled with this determina- 
tion was a broad sympathy, a whole-heartedness, which 
enabled him not only to understand the characteristics of 
the manv men with whom he came in contact, but to 
gain and secure their lasting respect and friendship. 

♦ • » 

A New Catalogue. 

The catalogue just issued by the J. A. Fay & Egan 
Co. of 145-166 West Front street, Cincinnati, Ohio, has 
just reached our office. Heretofore the catalogues of 
J. A. Fay and Company and the Egan Company have 
been issued separately but to facilitate matters and en- 
able buyers to gain an adequate idea of the many diver- 
sified lines of machines that are now being turned out by 
these companies it was decided to combine the two into 
a large and complete book. This catalogue, known as 
series "L," is now completed and ready for distribution 
among those interested. The Fay and Egan companies 
are large manufacturers of wood working machinery 
especially adapted for railway and car shops. They have 
received medals and awards from all of the principal ex- 
positions because of the character of the goods manufac- 
tured by them. At Paris in 1900 they were awarded for 
the third time the "Grand Prix" and the declaration of 
the "Legion of Honor" was conferred upon Colonel 
Egan by the French government. 

■♦ » » 

New Planer, Matcher and Joiner. 

WE illustrate a new machine just brought out and 
placed on the market by J. A. Fay & Egan Co., of 
145 to 166 West Front St., Cincinnati, O., and patented 
January 9th and March 20th, 1900. It .is their No. 26 
heavy six-roll double-cylinder planing, matching and 
jointing machine. This is the largest and heaviest com- 
bined planer and matcher they make, and is especially 
recommended for railroad car and repair shops, and 
large planing mills. It will plane 30 inches wide and 14 
inches thick, and will work simultaneously three sides 
of two pieces of material of uneven thickness up to 12 
in. wide and 14 in. thick. The frame is massive, per- 



January, 1902. 

fectly pointed, and bolted to insure rigidity. The cylin- 
ders are made from solid-forged steel, and are slotted on 
all their faces. The matching works are very substantial, 
and are fitted with a patent matcher-clip for working 
cross-grained and knotty lumber, producing rapid and 
accurate work. The feed works are very powerful, con- 
sisting of six rolls eight inches in diameter, connected by 

a train of heavy expansion gearing, with double links, 
and are heavily weighted. In fact, this machine will 
be found to have embodied in its construction numerous 
devices and conveniences for facilitating the work, and 
doing it in the most accurate and rapid manner. If our 
readers are interested and will write them, the manu- 
facturers will furnish them with prices and full particu- 
lars, and also their large new illustrated poster, showing 
this and other ear repair and pattern shop machines. 

♦ » » 

AWes of the Month 

Mr. J. S. Thompson, recently connected with the me- 
chanical department of the Vandalia line and for several 
years connected with the mechanical department of the 
Ann Arbor railroad and Steamship lines, has been ap- 
pointed mechanical engineer for the Locomotive Appli- 
ance Company, whose general offices are at No. 1504 
Fisher Building, Chicago, 111. For the present Mr. 
Thompson will make his headquarters at Indianapolis, 
corner of 21st St. and Northwestern Ave. 

Miss Helen Gould has given another $1,000 to the new 
railroad Y. M. C. A. building at Coffeeville, Kan., mak- 
ing a total of $3,000 she has donated. The building is 
two stories high, built of brick, is adjacent to the Missouri 
-Pacific depot and cost $13,500. In addition to sleeping 
rooms, it contains a lecture room, library, reading room, 
reception hall, game rooms, bath and bowling alley. The 
membership fee is $5 per year and the cost of sleeping 
rooms to members is but 10 cents per night, including 
bath. A membership of 500 is expected, and is not to be 
confined to railroad men. F. L. Greer is secretary of the 

The Galena and the Signal Oil companies send out the 
following announcement under the date of January 1, 
1902. "The Galena Oil Company and the Signal Oil 
Company have been consolidated into the Galena-Signal 
Oil Company, which new company will carry out all the 
contracts, perform all the duties and continue the business 
of each of the old companies. We solicit for the new 
company a continuance of your patronage and friendship 
which we have enjoyed in the past." 

-A letter to the Homestead Valve Manufacturing Co., 

of Pittsburg, speaks well for the valves manufactured by 
them, we quote from it as follows : "You have splendid 
valves and I would like to introduce them in this section 
at my own expense, that is I would' call on the manufac- 
turers and pay the labor of putting them on trial out of 
my own pocket, if you would give me protection* and 
make it an object for me. All your valve wants here, is 
some one to push it. I have given your valves a fair trial, 
having put those on you sent me a year ago last April. 
They are just as good to-day as the day I put them on, 
and I have put on everything that has been made 
for boiler blow-off for the past 26 years." A full de- 
scription of the Homestead valve here referred to will 
be found in the February, 1901, issue of the Railway 
Master Mechanic. 

W. E. Miller, formerly president, and L. B. Thorn- 
burgh, formerly assistant general sales agent of the 
Shelby Steel Tube Company, have opened a business as 
metal brokers, under the title of the Miller & Thorn- 
burgh Company, with offices at 135 Broadway, New 
York. The firm will handle tubing, sheet steel, standard 
pipe, etc. 

Thomas M. McGill & Company have opened an office 
at 805 Tacoma Building, Chicago, for the handling of 
railway supplies. Mr. McGill is well known among 
railway and railway supply men, having been connected 
with both the Railway and Engineering Review and 
the Railway Age. For a number of years he has been 
identified with the lumber business in Chicago. 

The Three Rivers Railway Supply Company of Three 
Rivers, Mich., have sold their title and interests in rail- 
way crossing alarms to the Railroad Supply Company, 
Bedford Building, Chicago, and will discontinue the 
manufacture and selling of the highway alarms. The 
Ross & Holden crossing alarms in the future will be 
manufactured by the Railroad Supply Company. 

The largest increase in the business of the Handy 
Car Equipment Company has made it necessary for them 
to remove their office from 1525 Old Colony Building, 
to more extensive quarters in suite 890 of the same 
building. This company sells the Handy Box Car, and 
the Snow Car and Locomotive replacers. 

The American Trade Index, a descriptive and classified 
membership directory of the National Association of 
Manufacturers of the United States is a most convenient- 
ly arranged book of reference for foreign buyers. The 
purpose of the "Index" is to furnish to merchants who 
are interested in American goods a comprehensive hand- 
book of the leading manufacturers of the United States. 

The Walworth Mfg. Co. have secured from the Na- 
tional Tube Co. the rights on the "Mack Locomotive 
Injector." They are preparing a reduced price list of 
parts, and will shortly be in a position to put the in- 
jector on the market at a reduced price. They have also 
issued a new desk calendar for 1902, which they will 
be glad to furnish to friends. 

The N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R. have closed a contract 
for a 5,000 H. P. electric plant to be installed at their new 


shops at Reaclville, Mass. The shops are expected to be power." Read these two essays on Roosevelt and Piatt, 

ready for occupancy next summer. and you will learn why people all over the country are 

The St. Louis Railway Club gave their annual Christ- looking more and more to William Allen White to teach 

mas smoker on Friday, the 13th of the month, and in them the common-sense truth about the public men of our 

spite of the proverbially unlucky day of the month and own day that we want to learn the truth about, 
week everything passed off most pleasantly and with The Northern Engineering Works of Detroit, Mich., 

honor to our friend Johann who had the entertainment in have recently installed an electric traveling crane in the 

charge. plant of the Lunkenheimer Company of Cincinnati, O. 

Secretary Taylor has sent out the following announce- The crane will take the place of a hand power crane and 

ment regarding the conventions for this year : The will be used for floor work. 

Thirty-sixth Annual Convention of the Master Car Work has been started on the new cylinder shop 100 

Builders' Association will be held at Saratoga, N. Y., by 300 feet to be built at the Brooks Works of the Ameri- 

commencing Wednesday, June 18, 1902. The The can Locomotive Company at Dunkirk, N. Y. The com- 

Thirty-fifth Annual Convention of the American Rail- pan y have also secured additional land in the vicinity 

way Master Mechanics' Association will be held at Sara- f the shops, where it is said a new machine shop and 

toga, N. Y., commencing Monday, June 23, 1902. Head- foundry will shortly be erected. 

quarters will be at Grand Union Hotel, which has made AmQng ^ many monthly periodical publications of 

the following terms for members and their friends: Ms country> most of which are devoted to articles of a 

Per day. literary character, it is interesting to note one that is 

Single room, without bath, one person. : $3.00 primarily devoted to the dissemination of public informa- 

Double room, without bath, one person 4.00 ti on. We refer to "The Official Guide of the Railway 

Ordinary double room, with bath, one person 5.00 and Steam Navigation Lines of the United States, Can- 
Extra large double room, with bath, one person. . . 6.00 ada> Mexico, Cuba and Porto Rico," so large a portion 

Double room, without bath, two persons, each 3.00 of the con tents of which consists of information as to the 

Ordinary double room, with bath, two persons, each 4.00 most recent ra ii way and steamboat schedules, which em- 
Extra large double room, with bath, two persons, braces the latest news as to all changes in such schedules. 
eacn 5-°° The importance of having this information embody the 

For special accommodations that may be required, curre nt news on the subject cannot fail to be realized by 
such as apartments of three or four rooms, or large every traveler who purposes to take passage on a train 
drawing-rooms, special rates "will be made on applica- or steamboat. Those of us who have suffered the in- 
tion. Members of the association will have preference convenience of missing a train for the want of this latest 
of rooms until March 15, 1902. Applications for rooms information (and who has not done so at some time?) 
should be made to Woolley & Gerrans, Saratoga Springs, w jh not nee d to have its importance impressed upon us. 
N. Y., and the committee of arrangements requests that j t j s an exceedingly disagreeable situation to realize on 
the members should apply at once for rooms. The joint arriving at a station that the time of the train which we 
committee of arrangements consists of Messrs. G. W. propose to take has been changed, that it has already de- 
West, F. W. Brazier and F. A. Casey. parted and that one has been left because of the failure 

Abundant harvests and great activity in all branches to receive news of the change. In fact, many serious 
of trade have caused demands to be made upon railroads consequences may arise from such a situation. The latest 
that were impossible to foresee, and congestion is the information as to such changes appear in each monthly 
rule at all leading exchange points, especially in the west issue of "The Official Guide," and the extent to which 
and southwest. The railroads are also suffering from this important news affects people generally may be real- 
shortage in freight equipment which, however, can hardly ized from the following extract from the leading editorial 
be charged to laxity on the part of railroads in looking in its December issue: "We publish in our December 
after their rolling stock as more new cars and engines issue not merely the current figures for all railway lines, 
have been ordered the last year than ever before. but also information conveyed to us by mail and telegraph 

W. D. Sargent, president of the American Brake Shoe respecting changes on 619 time-tables, affecting not less 

Company, Chicago, was elected president of the National than 15,846 trains and giving the latest current news as 

Founders' Association at its annual convention recently to the time of the arrival and departure of trains at not 

held in New York. less than 28,000 stations. The number of people who are 

Here is a striking example of the way McClure's affected by these changes may be counted by millions. 
Magazine keeps up to the times. When Roosevelt was While the extent of this news printed in the December 
governor of New York he was a thorn in Tom Piatt's 'Guide' is greater than usual, nevertheless the smallest 
side. As Mr. White puts it, "Piatt's machine has one number of new time-tables respecting which current in- 
immovable check— an honest executive." So Piatt con- formation was published in 'The Guide' for any month in 
trived to be rid of him by making him vice-president. I 9° I was 226." 

Now Roosevelt is president, and Piatt, to quote Mr. S. E. Moore, the well known accountant, for many 

White again, "is passing from his kingdom and his years auditor of Carnegie Steel Company, has been ap- 



January, 1902. 

pointed auditor of the Pressed Steel Car Company. 

The H. W. Johns Mfg. Co., of New York, and the 
Manville Covering Co., of Milwaukee, each company 
having been closely identified as handling the goods 
manufactured by the other, have consolidated their in- 
terests. This consolidation takes effect January 1st. 
The new company, whose capital stock will be $3,000,000, 
will be known as the H. W. Johns-Manville Co. The 
officers of the new company will be : Mr. T. F. Man- 
ville, president; Mr. C. B. Manville, vice-president; Mr. 
George W. Gladwin, vice-president ; Mr. F. R. Boocock, 
treasurer, and Mr. fH. E. Manville, secretary. Mr. 
James G. Cannon will be chairman of the board of di- 
rectors. Mr. C. R. Manville will be manager of the 
western department, and he, with Mr. C. B. Manville 
will remain in Milwaukee. Mr. T. F. Manville and 
Mr. H. E. Manville will remove to New York. The 
new company is rapidly completing a plant at Milwaukee 
for the manufacture of carbonate of magnesia and min- 
eral wool. When this plant is completed, the company 
will be prepared to furnish a most complete line of all 
grades of steam pipe and boiler coverings and asbestos 
goods of all descriptions. 

Cornelius Vanderbilt gave a stereopticon lecture on 
"The Development of Locomotive Boilers," before the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Society of Arts 
at Boston, Mass., Dec. 13. The development of the fire- 
box, together with a careful explanation of his own in- 
vention, the Vanderbilt boiler, formed the prominent 
feature of the discourse. 

From the office of the secretary under date of De- 
cember 2, 1901, we have received the following in re- 
gard to the outside dimensions of box cars, which has 
been sent to all the members of the Master Car Build- 
ers' Association : 

At a meeting of the American Railway Association, 
held in St. Louis, Mo., Wednesday, October 23, 1901, 
the following resolutions were adopted : 

"Resolved, That the dimensions of the standard box car be 36 
feet in length, 8 feet 6 inches in width and 8 feet in height, all 
inside dimensions. Cross section 68 square feet, capacity 2,448 
cubic feet. The side door opening to be 6 feet in width." 

"Resolved, That the Master Car Builders' Association be re- 
quested to consider and adopt the required external dimensions 
of the standard box car based upon the interior dimensions, as 
prescribed by the American Railway Association." 

Immediately upon receipt of notice of the action of 

the American Railway Association, the president of the 

Master Car Builders' Association named the undersigned 

as a committee to consider the subject. The committee 

held a meeting in Chicago on November 30, and after 

a careful consideration of the limiting dimensions of the 

important railroad clearances, the present established 

height of loading platforms, the various methods of car 

body construction and such other matters as seemed to 

have a bearing on the subject, it proposes the following 

dimensions for this class of cars : 

For a box car set on the trucks used as standard, where the 
height from top of rail to top of floor is 4 feet : 

Height, top of rail to upper edge of eaves 12 ft. 6^4 ins. 

The following details were used to determine the above ele- 
vation : 

Top of rail to upper face of floor 4 ft. in. 

Upper face of floor to under edge of carline 8 o 

Width of carline at end where secured to plate. . 3 13/16 " 
Thickness of rafter to which metallic roof is 

applied \Y% 

Thickness of purlin to which roof boards are 

secured \Yi 

Thickness of roof boards 13/16" 

12 ft. T% in. 

Less pitch of roof from inside edge of plate to 
outside edge of eaves 

V& in. 

12 ft. 6?4 in. 

Width, at eaves, at above height, maximum 9 ft. 7^ in. 

The following details were used to determine the above di- 
mension : 

Width between lining 8 ft. 6 in. 

Thickness of lining 1^ 

Thickness of siding 1^ 

Thickness of posts and braces 6 

Air space between fascia boards 1 

Thickness of fascia boards i5/£ 

Projection on each side for roof Y\ inch i 1 /* 

9 ft. 7V& in. 

The committee believes that with the above allowances 
no difficulty whatever will be encountered in framing a 
car with a metallic roof as is ordinarily applied. Where 
a double roof is applied with the ordinary construction, 
this width can be reduced from }i inch to ^4 i ncn D Y 
using the usual i^-inch rabbeted fascia board, allowing 
the roof to project from }i inch to 1 inch over the fascia 

The committee recommends as a minimum distance 
from top of rail to bottom edge of outside sill not less 
than 1 foot 6 inches. This limit of dimension is recom- 
mended for the reason that on many roads there are 
girder bridges and viaducts which necessitate a limit 
at this point. 

For a box car set on low trucks where the height from top of 
rail to top of floor is 3 feet 6 inches, 

Height, top of rail to upper edge of eaves 12 feet Y\ inch 

Width at eaves, at above height, maximum 9 feet 10 inches 

In determining the above elevation, the same details 
were used as in the case of the car on trucks used as 
standard, except in the dimension given for height from 
top of rail to upper face of floor. The committee has not 
made any recommendations as to longitudinal dimensions, 
but it is of the opinion that the strongest end possible 
should be used in the construction of the car, regardless 
of the exterior longitudinal dimensions. It, however, 
recommends the dimensions for cross section and eleva- 
tin of the eaves submitted above for your consideration, 
and has given sizes for the different parts used, believing 
• that they are ample for the framing of a car to meet the 
inside dimensions adopted by the American Railway 
Association. The above dimensions are submitted to 
the members at this time as the recommendation of your 

January, 1902. 



committee, and it asks that you address a letter to the 
secretary of the association before January 1, 1902, stat- 
ing whether or not they meet with your approval ; and if 
not, wherein they should be modified to meet the con- 
ditions existing on your road. 

(Signed) C. A. Schroyer, chairman; G. W. Rhodes, 
W. P. Appleyard, J. N. Barr, Joseph Buker, committee. 


Mr. S. L. Farmer, foreman of freight repairs at the 
Delaware shops of the Big Four, has retired. 

Mr. W. C. Walsh has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Southern Indiana, vice Mr. E. S. Walker, re- 

Mr. R. P. C. Sanderson has been appointed superin- 
tendent of motive power, of the Seaboard Air Line, vice 
Mr. F. H. McGee. 

Mr. E. M. Roberts has been appointed superintendent 
of motive power and equipment of the Detroit & South- 
ern, vice Mr. T. M. Downing, resigned. 

The office of Mr. A. W. Quackenbush, master me- 
chanic of the Omaha, Kanshas City & Eastern, has been 
removed from Stanberry to Milan, Mo. 

Mr. Lewis Archer has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Wrightsville & Tennille, with headquarters at 
Tennille, Ga., vice Mr. R .A. Moore, resigned. 

Mr. William Cross, formerly mechanical superintendent 
of the Western division of the Canadian Pacific, has been 
appointed chief engineer of tests at Montreal, Que. 

Mr. Charles Greenough, master mechanic of the Brad- 
ford Bordell & Kinzua, has been appointed superinten- 
dent of motive power, with headquarters at Foxburg, Pa. 

Mr. George J. Hatz, master mechanic of the Illinois 
Central at East St. Louis, will succeed Mr. F. E. Place 
as general foreman of the locomotive works at Burnside. 

Mr. J. E. Bowden has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Baltimore & Ohio shops at Grafton, W. Va., suc- 
ceeding Mr. James Pendergast, transferred to Pittsburg. 

. Mr. William N. McMunn, mechanical engineer of the 
Chicago Union Transfer Railway, has resigned to take 
charge of the mechanical department of Fitz, Hugh & 
Co., Chicago. 

Mr. O. E. Raidy is acting as road foreman of engines 
of the Peoria division of the Vandalia, his authority as 
trainmaster of the Vandalia having been extended over 
the Peoria division. 

Mr. B. C. Gerner has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Intercolonial Railway, with office at Stellarton, 
N. S., and Mr. W. C. Hunter has been appointed air 
brake inspector, with office at Moncton, N. B. 

Mr. T. H. Symington, who was until recently superin- 
tendent of motive power of the Atlantic Coast Line and 
later president of the T. H. Symington & Co., of Balti- 

more, has accepted a position as representative of the 
Gold Car Heating Co., of New York and Chicago. 

Mr. F. H. McGee, superintendent of motive power -if 
the Seaboard Air Line, has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the same road at Americus, Ga., vice Mr. D. J. 
Justice, transferred with the title of general foreman to 
Savannah, Ga. 

Mr. H. Swoyer, master mechanic of the Atlantic Coast 
Line at Florence, S. C, has been appointed general 
master mechanic of the Louisville & Nashville, with 
headquarters at Louisville, Ky., to succeed Mr. Mord 
RobertSj resigned. 

Mr. John A. Greenhoe, formerly master car builder 
and master car painter of the Arkansas Midland, has 
been appointed master mechanic of the Gulf & Chicago, 
with headquarters at Ripley, Miss., in place of Mr. T. 
M. Cox, resigned. 

Mr. John Player, superintendent of machinery of the 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, has resigned on account 
of ill health, and Mr. G. R. Henderson has been ap- 
pointed in his place. Mr. Player will hereafter be con- 
sulting superintendent of machinery. 

Mr. George S. McKee has resigned as division master 
mechanic of the Wabash at Fort Wayne, Ind., to accept 
the position of superintendent of motive power and car 
equipment of the Mobile & Ohio, with headquarters at 
Mobile, O., vice Mr. M. T. Carson, resigned. 

Mr. D. Van Alstine, heretofore master mechanic ol 
the Chicago Great Western, has had his title changed to 
that of superintendent of motive power. The headquar- 
ters of Mr. F. N. Risteen, who has been appointed as- 
sistant superintendent of motive power, are to be at Oel- 
wein, la. 

Mr. S. S. Swift, assistant foreman of the Kansas City 
car shops of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, has been 
promoted to the position of foreman of the car shops 
at La Junta. Mr. Swift succeeds Mr. C. C. Crewson, 
who has accepted a position with the St. Louis & San 

Mr. W. J. Richardson has been appointed assistant to 
the superintendent of machinery and rolling stock of the 
Intercolonial Railway, with headquarters at Moncton, N. 
B. Up to this time Mr. Richardson has held the fol- 
Wabash Railway, at St. Thomas, Ont. ; September 1899 
to October 1900, clerk, Chicago & Grand Trunk Rail- 
way, at Port Huron, Mich. ; October 1900 to November 
1 901, timekeeper, Fort Gratiot (locomotive) shops, Chi- 
cago & Grand Trunk Railway. 

Mr. W. O. Thompson, formerly traveling engineer of 
the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, at Elkhart, Ind., 
later train dispatcher at the same point, who has been 
with the railway department of the International Cor- 
respondence School for the past nine months, has been 
appointed general inspector for the locomotive depart- 
ment of the New York Central, with headquarters at 
West Albany, N. Y. 



January, 1 902. 

^ Railroad Paint Shop >? 

A Department Devoted to the Interest of master Car and Locomotive Painters 
Edited by CHAS. E. COPP, General Foreman Painter, Car Department, Boston & Maine Railroad, Lawrence, Mass. 

Official Org'an of tRe Master Car and Locomotive Painters Association 


M. C. & L. P. A. Portrait Gallery. is needed to shield them from the devouring tooth of 

R. CHRISTOPHER CLARK, familiarly known the weather, or other elements; and, judging by observa- 

among our "boys" as "Chris," was born at Bir- 
mingham, England, in 1859, and attended now "King 
Edward's" school in that city and was later apprenticed 
in a small town where the muller and slab were still in 
use to learn the painter's trade. 

tion and past experience, this will be a considerable item 
for some time to come. It is a fact that iron and steel 
unprotected with paint, will decay very rapidly, prob- 
ably faster than wood. In the old colonial and revolu- 
tionary days paint was considered a luxury, or a crude 

Like his ancient namesake, Christopher Columbus, he and unknown quantity in New England and houses then 
felt an itching for a new world, so he set sail in 1881 built were left unpainted. How well they stood the 
and arrived in Chicago in the spring of that year and at tooth of time many can attest who remember them, and 

once went to work at Pull- 
man for the late Mr. Ralph 
Brown. When piece work 
was instituted there in 1884 
he was given a contract for 
the graining and remained 
until 1889, when he went to 
work for the New York, 
Chicago & St. Louis R. R., 
popularly known as the 
"Nickel Plate" line, which 
company he still serves, hav- 
ing been appointed foreman 
painter in April, 1896. 

Mr. Clark became a mem- 
ber of the Master Car and 
Locomotive Painter's Asso- 
ciation at the Old Point 
Comfort convention in 1897, 
and has attended each con- 
vention since, and hopes to 
meet us at Boston in 1902. 

We may add that the name 
of Clark ought to be well 
known in his community, if 
not already, (and possibly 
there will be more foreman 
painters by that name in the 

near future, if there are boys), as he has a wife and eight 
children. Mr. Clark is well known as an Episcopalian in' 
his vicinity. 

: — ♦ * » 

Maintaining Steel Cars from the Paint-Shop 

BARRING accidents that mix and twist things up, 
though well constructed and of the best materials, 
it would seem by the large orders of steel cars lately 
made by the big roads that the time is fast approaching 

Mr. Christopher Clark. 

some can even be seen to- 
day still standing unpainted. 
Would a house covered out- 
side with pressed steel or 
sheet iron have stood such a 
test with anything like com- 
parative results? We "trow 
not." There would likely be 
only a red mound of earth or 
rust to mark the spot. Car 
builders and others interest- 
ed must take these things to 
heart if they have not already 
done so. It is easy enough, 
with suitable facilities, to 
make a thing ; it may become 
a task to preserve it after it 
is made. With a road equip- 
ped with steel cars it will be 
more than ever a question of 
paint to maintain them. The 
"boxer" laundryman says, 
"No checkee, no shirtee." It 
will be as pertinent to the 
railroad — no paint, no cars, 
in a short time. 

Now the exposed parts 
that are seen may pass ordi- 

nary observation without alarm, but behind and under- 
neath are other attachments of the same material in un- 
observed places and rust may be getting in its work faster 
than you think until when shopping occurs and begin- 
ning to investigate for repairs you find nothing left to 

It is evident that in the hurry and bustle to make those 
cars fast enough to meet the requirements of the times, 
not" to mention fads and fancies, that care must be taken 
not to slight or neglect the work, as is too often, if not 
when freight car repairs will be confined chiefly to paint- always, the case with the painting where cars of all sorts 
ing them from time to time, when a protective coating are made, and where nothing is cared for except that 

January, 1902. 



they present an acceptable and marketable appearance, 
like a plow or hay tedder in an agricultural warehouse. 
The very best materials adapted to and selected for the 
purpose after painstaking study and effort and experi- 
ence should only be used for this important work; and 
then how they are used is still another matter that should 
be insisted on. Slip-shod, careless, slovenly work will 
prove detrimental to the use of even the best materials. 
A good organization for turning out work according to 
specified rules should be made and its constant practice 
insisted upon, so that the steel goes from the mill to the 
car without the chance for the old man "Rust" to register 
himself and get ensconsed in his new quarters to "board" 
on the thing made and live there and eat his daily food, 
until he eats himself out of house and home, and you out 
of your rolling stock or bridges. He is a hungry chap 
with a good set of teeth and a strong, capacious stomach 
and a never-dying nature, so long as there is any iron 
and steel to live on. He must be grinning and chuckling 
to himself these days thinking what is fast coming for 
him to eat and how good the "board" is going to be at 
his well-spread table. 

Well, we must spoil his fond anticipations and* defeat 
him in his evil and selfish purposes by coating over his 
food with a coating that will make him leave it in dis- 
gust and go elsewhere. This is largely "up to us" as 
master painters, and to our association in particular, to 
which it has been before referred. Let us not dodge the 
responsibility thus placed but manfully take hold of the 
task anew, if we have temporarily laid it aside, and de- 
vise the best means and methods for this ever-increasing 
and important work that is in battle array before us. We 
need a sort of foot-ball organization to "tackle" it — their 
zeal and push anyway. 

road came along and looked at it and said to the engineer, 
"You have a handsome engine there." We think this 
was about the last one to be decorated, as orders soon 
came to do them plain, in which we gladly acquiesced 
if we were not actually instrumental in bringing it about. 
We had become somewhat tired of it, having the orna- 
mental work to do ourselves largely, as we had no one 
who could successfully do this kind of work. 

On this engine tank this scroll was put on at each end 

Old-Time Engine Painting. 

OJR readers have occasionally had the pleasure of 
seeing an old-time scroll in these columns from 
the pencil of that master scroll painter, Warner Bailey. 
We give a pen sketch of one of our own in this issue 
for the benefit of the "young 'uns," so that they can 
see what they have escaped from in locomotive painting, 
if for nothing more. This is the way we used to do it, 
"boys," years ago. That is, this is one pattern among 
the many; we never did two alike. 

We put this scroll on an engine tank (in gold leaf, 
shaded, and with colors), that went out of shop Jan. 16, 
1878; and, if our memory serves us, it cost over $70 to 
paint the tank alone. Yes, we have the record, $72.20. 
And it was not an exceptional case, except that it was 
a passenger engine ; we made those a little more elabor- 
ate than the freighters, which latter cost about a third 
less to paint. The officers did not find fault with it either. 
(It costs about $20 to paint a tank now.) We remember 
when the proud engineer (who by the way, is still run- 
ning on the road), backed this engine on to his train the 
first time after it was painted, that the president of the 

Locomotive Tank Scroll. 

of the lettering, on each side of the tank, of course, mak- 
ing four times in all, with another pattern on the back 
end around the number. Our readers may, therefore, 
judge something of the elaborateness of the job. And 
still we used to scroll off one of these tanks in three or 
four days, putting in all the lights and shades, and look 
after all our other work. 

Well, this style may all come back again as have the 
styles of our grandma's bonnets and granddaddies' 
hats, overcoats, etc. We may never see it, but our chil- 
dren's children may. The roads do not pay any better 
now than they did then. What they have saved on this 
they fool away some other way. That all expenditures 
on railway rolling stock are wisely made even today most 
any one of experience and observation with half an eye 
knows better. But upon the whole much progress has 
been made and there is still room for improvement. 



January, 1902. 

Painting Locomotive Tanks. 

The following from the veteran locomotive painter of 
the Canadian Pacific at Montreal will be read with inter- 
est by those at least who are accustomed to see his face 
at our annual gatherings. It is too late to make the 
correction he asks in the bound volume of our proceed- 
ings at our late convention at Buffalo, for it is already 
mailed to members ; but we gladly give him space here 
for correction, which is the only thing that can now be 
done. Sorrv he has been sick and trust that he will show 
up as usual in September at our Boston convention. — 

Montreal, Dec. 14th, 1901. 
My Dear Mr. Copp : 

I am just recovering from a severe attack of pneumonia 
which laid me up for seven weeks ; I am very thankful to 
be able to say that I pulled through, but it was a very 
close call. I have been down to the shop for the last 
week, although I am not able to do much but put in an 
appearance, still being very weak in the legs. I was 
much surprised and sorry to hear of our old friend, Mr. 
R. McKeon, resigning his position on account of failing 
eyesight. I trust it will not be anything serious and that 
he will be all right in a short time and be with us as 
usual for years to come. I think this prayer will be of- 
fered by every member of our association. His photo- 
graph in the "Railway Master Mechanic" is very good. 

After getting back to the shop, I read the report of our 
convention in the Railroad Digest, and on page 396 I 
find that the stenographer or the printer have mixed 
things up pretty badly in what little I said on priming 
and painting tanks; any locomotive painter reading that 
report would say "that fellow has been out to see a 
man" ; it reads silly enough to pardon the thought. If it 
is not too late, will you kindly have it corrected before 
it is printed in book form ? What I did say was as fol- 
lows : 

President Bruning: How long do you let that coat dry? 

Mr. Jones : I let it stand a day, then give two coats of knif- 
ing filler, rub down, and, as a rule, I give only one coat of black 
finish, then number, and one coat of varnish. Another formula 
that I use, when I can get the time to employ it is to give a 
coat of boiled oil, with one third varnish in it, the rust of 
course being well cleaned off; I then put steam into the tank, 
and get it as hot as possible, and while in that state, apply the 
coat of oil. I let it stand at least three days, longer if possible, 
and then give one coat of lead color made from half oil and 
half turps, knife it in with knifing filler, rub it down and give 
one coat of black finish, and number and varnish it. In my 
experience I have found the best results from this method, in 
painting steel tanks; but, as Mr. Gohen said awhile ago if the 
steel plates could be coated, after being passed through the rolls 
in the mill, it would be still better, for as some gentlemen have 
already said, that when you burn off an old tank, you will 
find the marks on the plates that were put on in the mill, with 
not a sign of rust under them, which is a fact. 

Trusting you will give this matter your early attention 
and wishing you a Happy Christmas and a prosperous 
New Year, I remain, 

Yours very sincerely, 

Thos. Jones. 

Shellac Substitutes. 

T is very doubtful at the present time if there is an 
all-round substitute for shellac as a surfacer over 
a paste filler, or other uses for which that useful article 
is required in the passenger equipment shop. Various 
subterfuges are on the market and many experiments 
have been resorted to in order to displace shellac solely 
on the question of expense, which the use of this old 
stand-by involves. The attack has been made on all 
sides. First, other solvents for the gum than the pure 
grain alcohol have been tried, chief among which is 
wood alcohol in its various forms and under the many 
aliases which it has masqueraded; but this feature has 
been a failure on account of its odor partly, but prin- 
cipally because of its rapid evaporation when the shellac 
is being applied, rendering the operation on large and 
intricate surfaces difficult and unsatisfactory. And, 
when dry, its surfacing qualities with sandpaper are not 
what they ought to be. In fact, it has to be run so thin 
in order for the operator to get over large panels that 
the surfacing power of the gum is thus diminished to 
a great extent, rendering more coats necessary to ar- 
rive a*t anything like the same result obtained in the 
use of the pure article. 

Then, again, other gums are introduced to try to dis- 
place gum shellac ; and resin, which the fiddler uses on 
his bow, comes in for its share of recognition here. But 
for good work this is a failure on account of its brittle, 
powdery nature under sandpaper and its perishability 

Still later, we have now substitutes for shellac with 
no claim for alcohol of any sort in their nature, com- 
posed of a benzine or turpentine mixture of resin, etc., 
to be applied over a paste filler to hold up varnish, 
which may be all well enough for a house painter's 
shellac, to be used on cheap house finish, or on cheap 
furniture or agricultural implements and the like. But 
it is unfit for a surfacer on the interior woodwork of 
first-class passenger coaches as constructed today. One 
of these, lately tried below the windows of a car on new 
finish, resulted, when water ran under the window and 
down over it, in washing the outside of the car, in a 
white streak wherever the water went, which also 
showed when again done over with the material, as 
though the water washed out a part of the material, or 
so powdered it that, when rubbed with the brush or 
sandpaper, it came out, leaving a perceptible depression 
or channel, indicating that resin had much to do with 
its composition, which cannot stand water, no matter 
how dry it may be before water touches it. And it was 
dry in this instance. 

Some of these articles, as we say, may do as an un- 
dercoat on some kinds of cheap work, but as as all- 
round article to take the place of shellac in the car shop 
they are "not in it" as yet. And as long as we must 
have the shellac, there are always enough bits of refuse 
shellac left on various jobs to work into all the places 
where a cheap article as a substitute could alone be 

January, 1902. 



used, which renders the carrying in stock of such an 
article unnecessary and bothersome, with no practical 
saving in the end. 

Pure orange shellac has an important use with us in 
the restoration of such perished and scarred places on 
a coach interior, that is not to be varnished after clean- 
ing, as the window sills, wooden seat-arms, water closet 
seats, etc., as well as occasionally the bottom of blinds 
that get scarred in handling by the rubbing together of 
the lifts when the carpenter takes up an armful of them 
to put them into a car. Now we have found shellac very 
useful for this, as it dries at once so that the car goes 
right on the road and it has proven durable withal, 
Nothing that we have ever tried would answer so well 
for this purpose. 

This system is in every way superior to the old way 
of putting on the oil by hand, with a piece of waste or a 
sponge tied on a stick, for, as you will readily see, there 
are so many corners which the sponge cannot reach, but 
which are oiled with the atomizer as easily as a smooth 
surface. Two good men can accomplish as much work 
in this line by using the machine as four or five men can 
in the old way, and do a very much better job. 

The oil used is as follows: 

2 parts coal oil and 3 parts Coalinga oil and crude oil. 

■♦ — - » 

■* » » 

Terminal Cleaning 

WE notice in a recent issue of the Railway and En- 
gineering Review the following by C. C. Borton, 
general foreman car department Southern Pacific Ry., 
West Oakland, Cal., which we republish in these col- 
umns as being of interest to our readers : 

Since the question of terminal cleaning has been 
brought up and discussed so exhaustively, we have been 
wrestling with some of the difficulties so commonly men- 
tioned, and, in addition to this, we were confronted with 
the very serious problem as to the cheapest and best 

means of keeping the trucks on passenger equipment, not 
only clean, but looking bright and attractive, leaving our 

The accompanying snap shot is an illustration of the 
very ingenious scheme originated by Mr. F. L. Burt, 
foreman of the passenger yard of this company, of using 
a paint atomizer for this purpose of putting oil on the 
trucks, and, which you will very readily see, is a quick 
and easy manner of applying the oil, and also is the best 
possible means of getting the oil distributed over the 
entire face of the truck. 

After the oil has been applied we have a man follow 
up with waste and wipe the trucks, which leaves them 
looking almost as good as when newly painted and, so 
far, we can see no danger to paint or varnish. 

Convention of the Sherwin-Williams Company 

THE 2 1st Annual Convention of the Sherwin-Wil- 
liams Co., the great paint manufacturers of North 
America, was held at Cleveland, November 4th to 9th. 
It was in many ways the most successful meeting the 
company has ever held. The Sherwin-Williams Co. has 
just rounded out the largest year in their history — the 
largest in total business and also in the percentage of 
gains in all deparments. They are looking ahead with 
the greatest confidence to the new year just starting, 
and expect still larger gains all along the line. Fifteen 
new salesmen have been added to the traveling force of 
the company, and many new buildings and much new 
equipment added to the maufacturing facilities. In ad- 
dition to the entirely new plant at Newark, N. J., the 
company has doubled the size of its Chicago factory, 
added a new building to the Montreal plant, and erected 
three large buildings at the Cleveland plant. 

The campaign that begun when the 21st Annual Con- 
vention adjourned will be the most aggressive and the 
most progressive that the Sherwin-Williams Co. has 
ever conducted. "Co-operation" was the key-note of the 
meetings. It was meant to convey the strong "working 
together" that exists between the company and its em- 
ployees, and the company and its customers. Everv rep- 
resentative went from the convention imbued with trie 
idea that 

"You pull and I pull 

And all pull together, 

Keeps the pace and wins the race, 

In spite of wind and weather." 

The customers of the S.-W. Co. may expect more help 
and better service than ever before. There were in at- 
tendance at this year's convention 125 men, consisting 
of the traveling representatives and managers and offi- 
cials of the company. The traveling force numbers at 
present 100. The daily sessions were devoted solely to 
business. The work of the past year was carefully re- 
viewed. The new line of goods and new advertising 
were explained and discussed. All plans and methods 
for the new year were thoroughly handled. Everything 
was done that could better prepare the representatives 
for more effective work and give the management a 
broader view of trade conditions and a closer grasp of 
the paint and varnish situation. 

Three evenings out of the week were devoted to pleas- 
ure ; a smoker in the company's club room on Tuesday 



January, 1902. 

evening, a theater party on Wednesday evening, and a 
banquet on Thursday evening. The banquet was held in 
the auditorium of the Cleveland Chamber of Commerce, 
and was given for the visiting representatives and man- 
agers and the employes of the Cleveland plant. Five 
hundred covers were laid, and the evening proved the 
most enjoyable of the week. — Exchange. 

A Fire Proof Paint 

Special attention is called to the advertisement of the 
National Fire-Proof Paint Co. in a recent issue. If 
this is a true presentment of the case, and we have no 
reason to doubt it, it speaks what volumes could not do, 
without those illustrations, in favor of their product as a 
resister of the devouring tongue of fire, which is "a good 
servant but a hard master." As these cuts are repro- 
duced photos it is evident that they speak the truth, for 
the "kodak" has no reputation as a liar. Therefore, those 
in want of a fire-proof paint for any purpose should 
consult this concern before going farther ; and there 
ought to be a large field of usefulness for it in train 
sheds and all buildings into which engines are required 
to enter, not to mention buildings and bridges in general 
that are susceptible to fire from sparks. Of course 
weather exposure and the consequent durability of such 
an article for the last-mentioned use must be taken into 
account, as well as its fire-proofing qualities. How well 
this requirement is met they are doubtless prepared to 
state from experience, which if one doubts he can try it 
for himself. 

■» « » 


HARMONY is that pleasant adjustment of sights 
and sounds that we delight to see and hear. It is 
Nature's law. She blends all her colors, lights and shades 
into a harmonious whole : and happy is he who can most 
resemble her in his efforts to put her upon canvas. 

The cultured eye of the architect and the trained ear 
of the musician are quick to detect jargon. It is dis- 
tressing to them. Certain rules, when observed, produce 
harmony in design as well as in music. 

Parliamentary rules, when duly regarded, produce 
harmony in deliberative bodies. Man alone, of all the 
universe, seems to have a proneness to be "out of or- 

Harmony in railway shops, as well as in all other 
spheres, is a great desideratum. The best results are ob- 
tained in that way. To arrive at this desirable end there 
must be one well-trained, responsible head, to make rules 
and enforce them, to whom and to which all others must 
yield loyal obedience. 

The relations of the paint-shop to the office and to all 
other departments is no mysterious enigma when viewed 
ir. this light. Every organ of the human body has its in- 
dividuality and must perform its part in obedience to the 
head and in harmony with all other parts of the body. 
So the various forces of the shop must in like manner 
perform theirs. 

But do not attempt to make a tool of your foreman 

painter, or you may make such a handle of him that 
somebody else may get hold of him and turn him to their 
use, and against you. Do not foolr~yourself by expecting 
him to say that white is black and black is white. If 
he has become a nonentity by having the life crushed out 
of him, give him a decent burial or a glorious resurrec- 
tion to a new life, and expect him to maintain his own 
identity and individuality thereafter, and say his soul 
is his own. Be honest and generous with him, and he will 
pay you back in the same coin, full weight and measure. 
He must have some ambition or he is a poor stick. If 
he has too much, keep a string on him, and his balloon 
will soon come down after the inflation is expended, with- 
out puncturing it with a shot; then gently tell him he 
would better not spend his time firing up again. Insist 
on his saying to your face or on a report to you — same 
thing — what is right and what is wrong without fear or 
favor, or he will have the most flagrant piece of good- 
for-nothingness that can well be considered. What do 
you have a watch for except to tell the exact time? Do 
you want to keep guessing ? If you know the time better 
yourself without it, then get rid of the watch. 

The painter is sometimes out of harmony because he 
;s put out by someone who ought to know better ; and 
sometimes he is out by getting up on too high a key 
himself. Judge for yourself through uncolored glasses, 
and away from the bedlam of noises. 

<* » » 

Manufacture of Wood Alcohol 

THE manufacture of wood alcohol is getting to be a 
great industry in this country. More than 16,000 
acres of woodland is annually cleared for the purpose of 
making wood alcohol. The wood is put into an iron 
retort and subjected to heat until nearly 65 per cent of the 
wood is converted into gases and smoke, which is con- 
densed into pyrolignius acid from which acetate of lime, 
wood tar and alcohol are obtained. The acid from one 
cord of wood makes about nine gallons of crude alcohol 
about 195 pounds of acetate of lime, 36 bushels of char- 
coal, and 30 gallons of tar. The acid is neutralized with 
lime, and the alcohol is taken off by distillation, the lime 
holding acetic acid in solution. Wood alcohol may be 
used as a substitute for grain alcohol for all the work of 
the painter where alcohol is indicated. 

■♦ * » 

Painting Galvanized Iron 

To the Editor of the Railway Master Mechanic: 

I notice in your November issue some discussion on 
painting galvanized iron in which it is shown that lin- 
seed oil and all other paints will not retain their place 
on it. This is true because the gum of linseed oil, which 
holds the paint to a surface, is easily affected by weak 
acids or alkalis — in fact, vinegar or brown soap will 
destroy it. Galvanized iron in process of manufacture 
uses acid to clean the iron, and enough of this acid crys- 
tallizes on the surface so that, when wet with paint, it is 
dissolved, eating away the "clinch" of the linseed paint. 
Some years since, having large galvanized iron sur- 
faces to paint, I was advised to use lucol oil in place of 

lamiarv, 1902. 



linseed, and it was shown that the gum of lucol was ab- 
solutely unaffected by any acid or alkali, and thus would 
not be affected by the acid on galvanized iron. A trial 
proved this to be true. In New York City many of the 
dock buildings are sheeted with galvanized iron and lucol 
oil paint is on all of them and has been for years. 

T. C. Smith. 

■» —- » 

Evolution of the Freight Car Painter. 

The Forth Bridge, in Scotland, is constantly being 
repainted. So vast is the structure that it takes 50 tons 
of paint to give it one coat, and the area dealt with is 
something like 120 acres. It continuously engages a staff 
of 50 painters, who by their united labors manage to 
complete its new coating in seven years — in time to begin 

♦ » » r- 

Crimsonbeak — Did you see Dauber's painting of the 

Yeast — Yes. 

Crimsonbeak — What did you think of it? 

Yeast — O, I thought the water looked too calm. 

Crimsonbeak — Well, you know, it's the oil on it that 
does that. — Yonkers Statesman. 

•» » » 

Umg-ah-bah-ger-r-r — uh !" remarked the brakeman on 
the train going through Maine, as he poked his head 
into the car. 

An old lady beckoned him to her and softly inquired : 

"Young man, why do you not pronounce the names of 
the towns so that the passengers may understand them?" 

"Madam," courteously responded the brakeman, "if I 
could say those names proper I'd be gettin' a thousand a 
week in grand opery." — Baltimore American. 

■♦ • » 

Notes and Comments 

A Happy New Year to all our readers, both new and old. 
Hope to see you all in Boston in September. 

"The other day the western railroads announced that they 
would turn the frozen face toward would-be deadheads after 
Jan. 1, and now Chile has called out 30,000 men to guard the 
passes." The above from the Boston Globe, Dec. 18, is a pretty 
good pun, but it will be no joke if our boys have to pay their 
fare to the Boston convention next September. Already we 
have received letters on the subject, one for publication, from 
prominent members of our association, but we are holding the 
matter in abeyance until our next, when we hope to give 

definite information by getting an interpretation of this new 
order of things. Our own opinion is that it relates to ex- 
change annuals only and not to trip passes, of which latter 
we have reason to believe there will be no curtailment. 

Joseph Pomeroy, of Pomeroy & Fischer, New York City, has 
been ill for a long time, but making a strong fight for life. 
Those who have the good fortune to know this genial gentle- 
man, will remember him as a man of sturdy frame. Since his 
illness, he has lost nearly forty pounds. He was unable to make 
his usual fall trip, and his many friends and patrons will do 
much toward hastening his recovery by sending their orders 
direct to the house, 30 Frankfort street, New York. They will 
receive the same careful attention as heretofore. We clip the 
above from the November issue of "Varnish," an excellent car- 
riage monthly published at Philadelphia, Pa. Mr. Pomeroy has 
our sympathy in his severe affliction and our hope for his speedy 
recovery. He is a fine type of an English gentleman and always 
a welcome caller at our office, full of information from his ex- 
tensive travels in this and other countries in the interest of 
Nobles & Hoares' English varnishes and ever ready to impart 
that information. 

Even the famous Dooley is a believer in piece-work. In one 
of his articles in a recent Boston Sunday Globe on "The Law's 
Delays, or Trial by Supreme Coort," his celebrated friend "Hin- 
nessey" suggested a remedy. "I have a better way than that," 
said Mr. Dooley. "Ye see they're wurrkin on time now. I 
wonder if they wudden't shtep livelier if they were paid be th' 

We used to be told a hunter's yarn to the effect that a flock 
of pigeons were neatly trapped in this way : A long pole was 
laid in two crotched sticks and grain strewed along underenath 
on the ground for bait. Pretty soon down came the flock and 
ate the grain and incidentally flew up and alighted on the pole 
to oil their feathers. Now Mr. Hunter draws his rifle and, by 
a well-directed aim, hits the end of the pole with the bullet and 
cracks it its entire length, which crack closes by reaction and 
catches by the toes the entire flock ! Be this as it may, we do 
not vouch for it, but a big flock of railroad pigeons were re- 
cently pinched and caught by the closing up of a certain get- 
rich-quick brokerage concern in New York City in about as ex- 
peditious a fashion as this, which concern was represented by a 
well-known former Master Car Painter. Alas ! how many of 
the writer's acquaintances took the bait (but not he) and lin- 
gered too long ! Moral : Do not linger after you have success- 
fully taken the bait, but fly to other fruitful fields. 

"Charlie" Mason, Foreman Painter, Loco. Dept, Altoona ma- 
chine shop, P. R. R., was obliged to again leave for Denver, 
Colo., Nov. 12, with Mrs. Mason, who is again in a serious 
condition, and, under the advice of her physician, was compelled 
to get away from this climate. We have since learned that she 
is very ill in Denver by a letter dated Altoona, Nov. 22. The 
sympathies of our entire association, of which he is an honored 
member, will go out to Charlie and his estimable wife in this 

Mr. H. M. Butts writes, Nov. 28, that he had just returned 
from a trip to Buffalo and says : "I thought of you and the rest 
of the 'boys' as I passed the Columbia Hotel last night. The 
place is closed up and looks lonesome and deserted." As we 
understand it, the above hotel was made for the Pan-American 
business out of other property, the office being once a bank. 

Mr. Franklin Murphy, head of the well-known concern, the 
Murphy Varnish Company, of Newark, has been elected Gover- 
nor of New Jersey. We never had the honor of his acquaint- 
ance, though we are well acquainted with his excellent products 
and his numerous traveling representatives. We hope and trust 
he will shine in office as does his varnish on the cars and car- 
riages. Pretty good this for a varnish maker. Will he appoint 
a varnish user on his staff? 



January, 1902. 

2f/?e Car Foremen's Association 

A Department Devoted 

to the 

Interests of the Car Department 

of Chicago 

J& & J& £? <£? £? 

Official Organ 
of the Association 

December Meeting 

HE regular meeting of the car Foremen's Associa- 
tion of Chicago was held in Room 209 _ Masonie 
Temple, Wednesday evening, Dec. 11th, 1901. 
Meeting called to order at 8:00 p. m., by Presi- 
dent Grieb. Among those present were the fol- 

Bates, Geo. M. 
Bauen, A. C. 
Bodler, O. W. 
Bossert, Chas. 

Kroff, F. C. 

Krump, M. 

Kuhlman, H. V. 

Lamb, B. J. 

La Rue, H. 

Lau, W. C. 

Longfelow, F. 

Lutz, Jos. 

Buker, J. 

Cardwell, J. R. 

Cather, C. C. 

Chambers, Frank. 

Cook, W. C. 

Downing, I. S. 

Earle, Ralph. 

Evans, W. H. 

Farrington, Edw. C.Manchester, A. E. 

Gilbert, Adam. 
Grieb, J. C. 
Guthenberg, B. 
Harvey, H. H. 
Hedrick, Elas. 
Hoff, J. R. 
Johannes, A. 
Julian, J. B. 
Keeler, B. A. 
Kline, Aaron. 

Mattes, J. 
Marsh, Hugh. 
Mercatoris, M. 
Morris, T. R. 
Mullen, J. 
Miller, J. C. 
Murphy, W. T. 
Nelson, Fred. 
Northam, F. R. 
Olsen, L. 

Parish, Le G. 
Parke, P. 
Phelps, Geo. T. 
Powell, C. R. 
Rieckhoff, C. 
Saum, G. N. 
Schultz, F. C. 
Scott, J. B. ■ 
Shearman, C. S. 
Skilling, J. K. 
Smith, R. D. 
Stevens, C. J. 
Stewart, H. A. 
Stewart, Harry. 
Stimson, O. M. 
Sepke, H. 
Sullivan, J. E. 
Terry, O. N. 
Thomson, Geo. 
Trudeau, E. J. 
Wessell, W. W. 
Widner, J. E. 
Wensley, W. H. 

Pres. Grieb: I assume that you have all read the proceed- 
ings of the last meeting, printed in the Railway Master Me- 
chanic. If there are no objections offered we will consider 
them accepted as printed. In the matter of reports of officers, 
I believe there is due this association a report from its Treas- 
urer. The board of directors held a meeting this afternoon 
and a report was presented to them, but I think the associa- 
tion at large should be duly informed as to our financial con- 
dition, and I would be glad to hear again from Mr. Parish. 

Mr. Parish (Treas.): We have deposited with the Illinois 
Trust and Savings Bank, $207.85. The former treasurer has 
turned over to me the balance on hand at the end of the year 
just closed. 

Sec. Kline: The following have made application for mem- 

R. H. Alexander, General Foreman, 111. Car & Equipment 
Co., Chicago; R. H. Aishton, Gen. Supt, C. & N. W. Ry., Chi- 
cago; A. R. Ayers, Special Apprentice, L. S. & M. S., Elkhart, 
Ind.; A. F. Bedard, Chief Template Maker, 111. C. & E. Co., 
Chicago; Jos. Benzinger, Foreman, C. M. & St. P. Ry„ West 
Milwaukee, Wis.; F. W. Bay, Foreman, L. S. & M. S. Ry. Air 
Line Jet., O.; Julis Breetzke, Air Brake Helper, L. S. & M. S. 
Ry., Chicago; John Briden, Asst. Foreman, Burton S. C. Co., 
Chicago; W. H. Boss, Gen. Manager, Burton S. C. Co.,Chicago; 
A. W. Beckwith, Instructor, Int. Correspondence School, Chi- 
cago; H. E. Best, Foreman, C. N. Y. & B. Ref. Co., Elsldon, 
111.; W. H. Bradley, International Correspondence School, Chi- 
cago; W. G. Boulton, Agent, Union Tank Line Co., Chicago; 

C. F. Carroll, Supt. Steam Fitters, C. M. & St. P. Ry.„ W. 
Milwaukee, Wis.; Bruce V. Crandall, Publisher, Railway Mast- 
er Mechanic, Chicago; D. F. Crawford, Supt. Motive Power, 
Penna Co., Ft. Wayne, Ind.; J. J. Conolly, Supt. Motive Power, 

D. S. S. & A. Ry., Marquette, Mich.; James Cranton, Foreman. 

Standard Oil Co., Grand Crossing, 111.; Geo. M. Carpenter, 
International Correspondence School, Chicago; C. B. Conger, 
International Correspondence School, Chicago; Wm. Dietz, 
Car Inspector, Armour Car Lines, Cincinnati, O.; A. M. Doo- 
little, Supt., Armour Car Lines, E. St. Louis, 111.; T. H. Der- 
rick, Foreman C. N. Y. & B. Ref. Co., Elsdon, 111.; R. B. F'ildes, 
Foreman, L. S. & M. S. Ry., Chicago; J. W. Flaws, Foreman, 
Brittain Prov. Co., Marshalltown, la.; O. A. Goodnow, Gen, 
Supt., C. M. & St. P. Ry., Chicago; Theron Higby, Gen. Store- 
keeper, C. M. & St. P. Ry., W. Milwaukee, Wis.; G. R. Hender- 
son, Supt. Machinery, A., T. & S. F. Ry., Topeka, Kans.; Wm. 
Hoisterman, Inspector, L. S. & M. S. Ry., Chicago; F. H. Han- 
son, Night Foreman, L. S. & M. S. Ry., Chicago; Gilbert Johns, 
Clerk, L. S. & M. S. Ry., Chicago; O. Larson, Car Inspector, L. 
S. & M. S. Ry., Porter, Ind.; W. E. Moeller, Asst. M. 
E., 111. Car & Equip. Co., Hegewisch, 111.; A. E. Mitchell, Asst. 
Supt. Motive Power, C, M. & St. P. Ry., W. Milw.; FV, L. 
Macfarlane, Asst. Gen. Foreman, L. S. & M. S. Ry., Air Line 
Jet., O.; W. T. Murphy, Foreman, Arms Palace Horse Car Co., 
Chicago; W. N. Mitchell, International Correspondence School, 
Chicago; Frank McManamy, International Correspondence 
School, Chicago; G. W. Manning, Clerk, C, N. Y. & B. Ref. 
Co., Chicago; P. H. McGraw, Road Foreman of Engines, Pen- 
na Co., Chicago; John S. Naery, Gen. Foreman, C. I. & L. Ry., 
Lafayette, Ind.; John Nelson, Inspector, L. S. & M. S. Ry., 
Chicago; Chas. Nord, Repairer, L. S. & M. S. Ry., Chicago; 
Fred Nelson, Foreman, C. B. & Q. R. R., Chicago; L. Oberauer, 
Supt, 111. Car & Equip. Co., Hegewisch, 111.; F. Olsen, Car 
Inspector, L. S. & M. S. Ry., Whiting, Ind.; G. Frank Price, 
M. E., 111. Car & Equip. Co., Hegewisch, 111.; W. M. Poole, 
Foreman, L. S. & M. S. Ry., Chicago; H. T. Pottinger, Interna- 
tion Corespondence School, Chicago; O. J. Ronge, Foreman, 
C, M. & St. P. Ry., W. Milwaukee, Wis.; John Robinson, Air 
Brake Man, L. S. & M. S. Ry., Chicago; W. H. V. Rosing, 
Asst. Supt. Machinery, I. C. R. R., Chicago; John W. Reade, In- 
ternational Correspondence School, Chicago; Fred Spohnholtz, 
Air Brake Man, C., M. & St. P. Ry., Chicago; Geo. A. Sander- 
son, Vice Pres. & Gen. Manager, P. D. D. Chicago; Gus. Ste- 
phens, Clerk, L. S. & M. S. Ry., Chicago; Harry Stewart, 
Gen. Foreman, Burton S. C. Co., Chicago; E. M. Sawyer, In- 
ternational Correspondence School, Chicago; Thos. J. 
Stocks, International Correspondence School, Chicago; Samuel 
S. Small, International Correspondence School; John B. Scott, 
Clerk, Cont. Fruit Express, Chicago; H. Sepke, Foreman, 
Laurel Hill Car & Coal Co., Chicago; John Thiele, Car In- 
spector, L. S. & M. S. Ry., Chicago; M. H. Tabler, Foreman, 
L. S. & M. S. Ry., Adrian, Mich.; M. B. Vansickle, Gang Fore- 
man, Penna. Co., Chicago; E. H. Wirtschoreck, Bill Clerk, I. 
C. R. R., Chicago; L, L. Yates, Foreman, Armour Car Lines, 
Los Angeles, Cal. 

Pres. Grieb: It is very pleasant indeed to note such an 
active interest and so much of a diversity in the directions 
from which the new members are being taken. With the new 
members added tonight it brings our membership up close to 
GOO. It is also a pleasure to note the personnel of the members 
now being received— general superintendents, superintendent 
motive powers, etc., showing that the good work which the 
asociation is doing is being appreciated. The enrollment of 
executive officers, affords us a very suitable prestige. We 
but need to continue this for a few months more and we will 
have accomplished what we have started out to do,— putting 
the association on a self-sustaining basis. In the line of com- 
munications, I will ask the secretary to read a letter received 
from Mr. G. B. Bobbins, general manager of the Armour Car 

January, 1902. 



Lines, which is in reply to a personal letter which the secre- 
tary is sending out requesting the officials of railways and 
private lines, to take out applications for membership in our 
Sec. Kline: The letter reads as follows: 

Chicago, Nov. 25th, 1901. 

J. C. Grieb, Esq., 

President, Car Foremen's Assn. 

Dear Sir: 

Yours of the 22nd received. I regret that the nature of my 
duties will not permit me to attend the meetings of your as- 
sociation and I presume that my joining, you would be bene- 
fited only to the extent of the dues. We want to encourage 
the work of the association and if agreeable to you will con- 
tribute $25 to this purpose. 
Please advise if this is satisfactory. 

Yours truly, 

G. B. Robbins, 
General Manager. 

Pres. Grieb: It is hardly necessary to say that a voluntary 
subscription of this kind and for such a nice amount is indeed 
very acceptable to the association, and Mr. Robbins will be 
promptly advised that we accept his very kind offer. 

Under the head of new business I beg to state that we have 
had some interviews and correspondence with the Interna- 
tional Correspondence School, particularly with Mr. Conger, 
superintendent of the various instruction cars sent out which 
deal with the air brakes. We have completed arrangements 
for a lecture to be given by Mr. Conger at our meeting in 
January, in the lecture room of the International Correspon- 
dence School, 7th floor of the Manhattan Building, 315 Dear- 
born St. The subject of Mr. Conger's lecture will be the. 
Maintenance of the Air Brake illustrated by stereopticon views 
and exemplified by the various apparatus with which the 
school is equipped, which as many of you know from experi- 
ence, is complete, I dare say the most complete extant, so 
I look forward with a great deal of expectation for a very 
instructive and entertaining meeting in January. The corre- 
spondence schools have a nice lecture room with a seating 
capacity of double of this roon^&ppropriately arranged for 
such purposes as we need, andl^Rr manager Mr. Mitchell 
has made the association a very flattering offer for the use 
of that room if we so select. We will go there in a body next 
meeting and view it. If it is to our liking we have carte 
blanche to continue our meetings there. In addition to the 
lecture room they have a very fine suite of club rooms and 
committee rooms, all of which are very generously placed at 
our disposal by Mr. Mitchell. I would also announce as the 
probable subject of our February meeting a report by a com- 
mittee appointed, to consider Repair Track Facilities and Ap- 
pliances. The committee will be composed of W. H. Evans, 
of the B. & O., Chairman; B. A. Keller, of the L. S. & M. S.; 
F. C. Kroff, of the Penna Co.; P. Parke, of the Swift Ref. 
Trans. Co., and M. Parkinson, of the C., M. & St. P. Ry. This 
will give the committee about two months to work on the 
subject and present their report. I presume the time allotted 
is ample and we may confidently expect an interesting re- 
port. For the benefit of the committee I will state we leave 
the manner of treating the subject in their hands to handle 
as they see fit, but I would suggest, in view of the diversity 
of work and requirements of the various repair tracks that 
the subject might advantageously be considered possibly in 
three divisions, first a repair track for large terminals where 
from 75 to 125 or more cars are repaired daily; next for a 
repair track where they handle from 25 to 50 cars and lastly 
for minor points where they handle from 2 to 25 cars daily. 
The usual notice will be issued by the secretary at once, so 
they will have ample time for them. The first subject pre- 
sented for discussion tonight is the report of the committee ap- 
pointed to design a suitable card case for holding repair and 
defect cards. The secretary has brought with him the cases 
accompanying the report, which was presented at our last 

Mr. Morris (C. M. & St. P.): I can only emphasize one point 

and that is the necessity for having a case where the card 
can be removed for inspection by one hand. I notice that 
some of the cases have a spring attached, which holds the 
card in position. In order to extricate the card from such 
a case it would be necessary for an inspector to use both 
hands— one hand to release the tension of the spring and tne 
other to remove the card. When doing this I believe that he 
puts himself in a position where there is great danger of in- 
jury in case the car should start up by another one striking 
it and moving the car, even if he was only leaning against the 
car slightly, it is liable to overbalance him and injury re- 
sult. I think that a case should be so arranged that it would 
not be necessary to use both hands to remove the cards. 

Mr. Mercatoris (C. & E.): Regarding the card case, I think 
Mr. Morris has covered the point completely in respect to re- 
moving the card with one hand. I have looked at several 
of the cases and while there are some very good cases there 
are some that do not fill the requirements and there still can 
be some improvements made on the better ones. 

Mr. Stimson (S. R. L.)): I think it is in order for the 
gentleman to suggest the improvements that may be made. 

Mr. Mercatoris: The case attached to the board, (No.ll) I 
think comes the nearest to meeting the requirements, if some 
improvement was made in the spring. I also think that it is 
the most inexpensive. 

Mr. Stimson: The case referred to was designed by em- 
ployes of the car department of the C. ,B. & Q. Ry. It is 
estimated they can be made in quantities for 3 cents apiece. 

Pres. Grieb: Does anybody see any desirability in having 
a card case on a car to-day, and if we are in favor of card 
cases ought a car to have one or two? 

Mr. Morris: I believe that there have been objections to 
a card case of any description, but I believe it has been 
brought out as a point in favor of the card case, that if they 
are used, the cards can be written on one side only, which 
would obvite the great trouble that is experienced by reason 
of the writing becoming illegible. If the cards are written 
out on one side only and the blank side exposed, that would 
necessitate taking the card out to read it, but is no more 
work than has to be done now if the card is tacked on and 
remains there for some time, causing illegibility of the writ- 
ing, especially if written with indelible pencil. 

Mr. Cather (I. C): I think the use of a suitable card case 
would be beneficial, particularly one of such design as will 
permit of a ready insertion and removal of the card. I think 
the idea of obviating writing the card on both sides is a very 
good point. It lessens the labor of the ear man or clerk making 
out these cards, and a man can apply and remove a great many 
cards while filling in one side of some of them. I think he 
can remove a card from any of those cases while he can fill 
in a one side of the average repair card. I think myself, that 
the majority of the cases as submitted are of such nature as 
would make it difficult to remove the card. Some of them 
have an idea of preserving the card but it would take en- 
tirely too long a time in applying and removing the cards, es- 
pecially the repair cards. One of the cases I notice has a 
hinged cover. That is absurd in practice. It is nice enough, 
but I do not think it is practical, but that same case can be, 
in my opinion, made of such a design as will permit the 
ready application and removal of the card. There is also 
one hinged at the top that is a very good one to keep the card 
from becoming lost in ordinary service of the car and also 
affords sufficient protection to preserve the card. I think that 
the card ease idea is a good one and the expense of apply- 
ing them would be very small, considering the time of a man 
tacking on cards, the tacks themselves and the other expense 
incidental to it would offset the cost of application of the 

Pres. Grieb: I would like to hear from the car inspectors, 
present here this evening, as to whether the presence of repair 
and defect cards in a uniform location on all cars would be 
desirable from their point of view, and whether if we had 
them it would aid them in applying cards to all cars repaired. 
There must be a whole lot of cards lost from cars if every- 
body puts on a card when they make repairs. 



January, 1902. 

Mr. Longfellow (C, M. & St. P.): 1 am in favor of a case 
for a card for the reason that many of our cards are lost 
or torn off. They are many times torn off by boys or by the 
velocity of the wind when the car is in motion, but I am not 
in favor of any card case shown here tonight. I think the 
card should be inserted from the end and not from the top, 
i also think it should have some kind of a transparent face 
which would protect the card and at the same time it would 
be readable at all times. - Mica would very likely fill the bill 
but I presume it is a little expensive. I have one in my office 
that I made some years ago, and it will stand the weather 
all right as I have had it tacked up outside the building where 
it is exposed to the weather and it has stood the test all 
right, but as I said before, it is probably too expensive. In 
my opinion the card should be inserted from the end and be 
so that it could be easily removed. The car inspector in the 
wintertime is muffled up and has very heavy gloves on, but it 
should be something from which you can readily remove the 
card as there is no time given, or not enough to-day, to re- 
move the card and see what is on the other side. The in- 
spection must be done quickly. 

Mr. La Rue (C, R. I. & P.): It seems to me that a card is 
something that is hardly needed. In the first place I think it 
would be necessary to put one on each side of the car. That 
would make it rather expensive, and another thing, I do not 
think that the cards remain on the cars long enough in this 
time and age, except in a few cases, where the writing gets 
illegible so that you cannot read it, and I think car inspectors, 
if the card is tacked on there can run over the cards much 
quicker than to take the cards out of a case and read them 

Mr. Mercatoris: I would like to ask Mr. La Rue what he 
would do with a steel car that had no wood sills to tack the 
cards on? 

Mr. La Rue: I would say that that is lack of mismanage- 
ment on the part of the party building the car. I have writ- 
ten specifications for steel cars and have alway specified a 
board on the sills for tacking cards on. 

Mr. Downing (L. S. & M. S.): It is my opinion that, card 
cases would cause delay at interchange points. The printed 
forms show whether it is a repair of a defect card. If it is a 
repair card on a foreign car we do not need to read it and if 
it is an M. C. B. defect card we -can stop and take time to 
remove it, but if they are enclosed in a case we would have 
to take the repair cards out as well as the defect cards and 
I think it would cause delays. 

Mr. Kroff (P., P. W. & C): I am of about the same opinion 
that Mr. La Rue is, I think myself if you enclose the M. C. 
B. repair and defect cards in one case you will have to spend 
considerable time sorting them out and finding what the de- 
fect cards are. I would not approve of card cases on cars 
at all. We ought to tack them on the same as we have been 

Mr. Cardwell (A. C. G. O. Co.): I have noticed some recom- 
mendations for two card cases for each car. I cannot see that 
that is necessary- With the present method of tacking the 
cards on there is no particular side for defect or repair cards. 
They may be all on one side or all on the other and both 
sides of the car have to be examined. I would make the sug- 
gestion that we make two card cases, one for defect and one 
for repair cards, both to be applied on the same side of the 

Pres. Grieb: We must not lose sight of the fact that these 
things are going to cost money and while a single card case 
at 3 cents looks like a small amount, if we double that by 
having a case on each side, for an equipment of 40,000 cars, 
it would mean an expenditure of $2,400. Would anything 
that would have a tendency to insure the return of repair 
cards in all cases where repairs are made be any advantage? 

Mr. La Rue: I do not think it is feasible to have only one 
card case on a car. My experience at a division end was 
that the inspector that looked over the cars was not the per- 
son who made the repairs. A man came along and made the 

inspection and made cross with chalk where repairs were 
to be made. Now if we have a card case only on one side of 
the car possibly the first car the man who applies the repair 
cards comes to has the case on one side and the next car has 
the case on the other side and he would have to be dodging 
back and forth like a rabbit. 

Mr. Buker (C. C. C. Co.): I think you would need a basket 
to carry away the cards that are on some cars. Our cars go 
west and are gone for some time, and when they return they 
have 12 or 14 cards on. I do not think you can make a card 
case suitable for holding cards. I think many cards are lost 
by children and boys taking them off, and I think if they were 
in a case they would be more likely to take them out to see 
what was in there. 

Mr. Bates (C., B. & Q.): I think I wil have to agree with 
some of the gentlemen here that a card case is not necessary. 
I know that it would frequently be a hard job to get all the 
cards in a case of that kind, as I can recall instances where 
there have been 30 repair cards on one car, and a man would 
certainly have trouble in getting that many repair and defect 
cards in the case. The only provision that should be made is 
in the case of steel cars, and I think that they should be sup- 
plied with a board so the cards can be tacked on. 

Mr. Evans: I think while there is considerable excuse for a 
card case, I do not think it is casting any reflections on this 
committee that they have not exactly reached the point in 
designing a proper card case. I understand those card cases 
which we have here were really intended for car cards. But I 
really think there is some excuse for a card case, providing we 
should succeed in designing one that would meet the require- 
ments. I do not think there is a piece of paper that carries 
with it the responsibility of a defect card, that is cared for as 
carelessly as a defect card on a car. I think the card case 
would really take care of the cards in much better shape than 
by putting them on the sill with four tacks, particularly the 
lighter cards which some roads have come to use in place of 
the heavy one. 

Mr. Kroff: I do not think there are many M. C. B. defect 
cards- placed on cars now-a-days, and the inspection now-a- 
days is mostly made for safety; and the owner being respon- 
sible for a great many defects, I do not see why it would be 
necessary to want a card'cSse. There are very few defect 
cards on cars; at least, I do not find a great many, and if there 
are, the nature of defects are such that they require repairs 
and are immediately taken off. 

Mr. Stimson: The seeming lack of interest that has been 
displayed in this subject is indeed a surprise to me, and more 
especially am I surprised that the consensus of opinion seems 
to be that the card cases are not desirable. Your committee 
communicated (at the time they were compiling this report) 
with a very large number of railroad inspectors and other 
railroad employees, who were interested in protecting defect 
cards and repair cards. Without exception, the replies indi- 
cated that the card case, if one could be designed that would 
meet the conditions that would be required of it, was not only 
desirable, but in some cases a necessity. My position is such 
that I am not as well prepared to determine the necessity of 
the card case, as some other railroad employees, who have to 
do with the handling and examining of defect cards at inter- 
change points, but basing our report upon the information 
which we received in reply to our circulars, your committee 
reached the unanimous opinion that a card case was neces- 
sary, and I am personally still of the same opinion, notwith- 
standing the expressions to the contrary. Objection has been 
raised to the expense involved in equipping cars with the card 
cases, in reply to which I wish to say that it is doubtful if 
there is a line of cars on any railway company in the country 
that are earning more than 6 or 8 per cent upon the invest- 
ment. It has been estimated that it would cost approximately 
$2,500.00 to equip the cars of a large railroad company (30,000 
to 40,000) with card cases. If there is any saving whatever, 
it certainly would equal as high a rate of interest upon the 
investment necessary for the equipment as the initial cost of 
the car itself. I think I am voicing the sentiment of the asso- 

January, 1902. 



ciation, at least those who have to do with the cost of main- 
tenance, that the cost of these card cases is a mere bagatelle, 
and should not be considered, if it can be shown, that there is 
any advantage in having the card case applied. It has been 
stated that card cases would be objectionable because the 
cards would be taken out by mischievously inclined people, 
because they are so easy to get out, whereas they would not 
be removed by the same parties if they were tacked on the 
cars, because they are harder to get off. How these arguments 
can be reconciled with the statements of other members, that 
the card cases were objectionable because it was too hard to 
get the cards out, is more than I can understand. I do not be- 
lieve that any railroad man will seriously state that it is more 
difficult to remove and examine cards from a properly de- 
signed card case, than it is to tear off the card, examine and 
again replace it, as at present. The designs that have been 
submitted may not comply with all requirements, but the good 
points of one may be adapted to the other with satisfactory 
results; but it is believed, as stated in the committee's report, 
That the card case, which complies with the requirements, as 
were enumerated, will be satisfactory. I think this associa- 
tion should first determine whether or not a card case was 
required, and if neither of the samples that have been sub- 
mitted are satisfactory, others should be submitted. I dislike 
very much to have this association, the members of which are 
composed largely of the best talent in the country, to acknowl- 
edge that they are unable to design a satisfactory card case. 
If we were discussing axles, car roofs, draw gears or air 
brakes, no doubt it would be admitted that we were capable 
of designing either; why, then, should we admit that we were 
unable to design a card case? The committee would therefore 
request that the chair ask for a vote as to whether a card case 
is or is not necessary and desirable. If it is decided that it is 
necessary, we certainly can produce a suitable design; if it is 
decided to be unnecessary, the subject should be dropped.. 

President Grieb: Mr. Stimson vhas touched upon a good 
point in getting the opinion of this association on record. We 
have, unfortunately, very often in the past had some good 
papers presented to the association, discussed them leisurely, 
and then gently dismissed the subject from all consideration 
by taking no further action. There was nothing done to 
reward the committee for its labors on the subject matter. 
I think in future I will have to insist on obtaining a more 
decided expression of views entertained by the members 
present on the subject under consideration. We will not be 
satisfied to dismiss such matters without going definitely on 
record as to how the majority of this association feels. I will 
therefore ask some one to volunteer a motion either in favor 
or against the card case, whether it is desirable to have a card 
case or not. 

Mr. R. D. Smith (C, B. & Q.): I would like to offer a com- 
promise in this matter. I believe that there have been some 
points brought out in this discussion that perhaps were not 
considered by the members of the committee when they de- 
signed the card cases, and they, as well as the rest of us, have 
perhaps learned something from what we have heard here 
to-night. I would therefore like to see this committee con- 
tinued. I agree with the chairman of the committee; we can 
design something that will be suitable is decided that . 
something of that sort is needed, and with that in mind I 
would move that the committeee be continued, to report and 
show designs of improved card cases at the March meeting. 
Seconded. H 

President Grieb: That presupposes that the Car Foremen's 
Association is in favor of a card case— see some necessity for 
it. If there is anybody that is not in favor of the card case I 
think we had better have him on record before the motion 
is put. 

Mr. Morris: With a view of getting the sense of the meeting 
on this, I would make the motion that there is no necessity for 
a card case as a receptacle for defect or repair cards. Sec- 

Mr. Parish: I would like to hear from some af the car 
inspectors in regard to that. There seems to be a question as 

to whether or not it takes more time to take cards out of the 
case and return them than to read them when on the sills. 
That seems to be the question, and we are hardly able to settle 
that witbout getting an expression from the car inspector. 
He is the man that has to do it. 

Mr. Olsen (S. & S.): In my experience I have found that it is 
easier for the inspector to get the M. C. B. defect card tacked 
on the sill than it is for him to look through a lot of repair 
cards for one defect card, as that is the only card an inspector 
is looking for at receiving point. 

Mr. Nelson (C., B. & Q.): If we had two card cases, one on 
the inside of the intermediate sill for repair cards and one 
on the other side for defect cards, you would have to have the 
car inspectors spending more time finding the defect cards, 
because they would get in the wrong box. 

Mr. Schultz (C, B. & Q.): From a car inspector's point of 
view, you can read the card far easier on the sill than you can 
by being obliged to open the case and get the card out. You 
can see at a glance what the card covers. There are very few 
defect cards on cars to-day. They are issued only for missing 
material, and often you cannot get the card in time to apply 
to the car before it leaves. 

Mr. Guthenberg (C, M. & St. P.): I think the card case 
would be a very good thing, and I would be in favor of one 
card case on each side, for repair cards and defect cards both. 
I worked nights some years ago, and trying to copy the defect 
card I had to take it off the sill in order to see what was 
written on the other side, and it took some nights from two to 
three minutes to replace some cards again, and I think in that 
time I could look over a good many repair cards and defect 
cards and replace them in the case, while I was taking the 
defect card off the sill and replacing it. 

Mr. Bossert: In my experience I find there are very few 
M. C. B. defect cards on cars, and if I had to go and look in 
every card case on every car to see if there were any defect 
cards in there, it would take too much time. I do not believe 
I find more than two or three M. C. B. defect cards all day 
long, on an average. I do" not think it is necessary to have a 
card case of any kind. 

Mr. Saum (C. & E.) : In the first place, a card case should be 
so designed that you can remove the cards with one hand; 
that is, if you are going to have a card case at all, and that 
card case should be so that you would not have to open it to 
see if there was a card in there. It should be so a person 
could see inside. I think a great many of the gentlemen here 
are rather exaggerating the matter about so many cards. It 
is a rare case where 25 or 30 cards are found on a car. We do 
not find so many on our cars, but you take cars belonging to 
small corporations or individuals that have no home shop and ■ 
depend wholly on railroad companies to do their repairing. 
These are the cars we find carrying 25 or 30 cards, but we do 
not have very many of them. Now, of course I think a card 
case is all right providing we get the proper one. Unless we 
have it so we can see in, and at the same time remove the card 
with one hand and place it back with one hand, I think it 
would be a detriment to the inspector. If we can design that 
case I think it will be a help to us, otherwise I would rather 
not see one in use. 

Mr. Smith's motion to continue the committee was here put 
and carried. 

Mr. Stimson: I would like to make a motion now to get an 
expression of the members present as to whether a card case 
is or is not necessary. Seconded. A rising vote developed 
that a card case was not necessary. 

Mr- Smith: What I meant to get at, was that from some of 
the arguments that have been advanced and some of the 
points brought out, that possibly the committee could redesign 
a card case or make a report that one was not necessary. 

Mr. Phelps (C. & A.): I move you that the previous motion 
be reconsidered and the committee discharged. Carried. 

President Grieb: This brings us to subject No. 2 on our pro- 
gram,— Discussion of the code of rules governing the condition 
of, and repairs to passenger equipment cars in interchange, 
and before taking up this portion of the program I would like 



January, 1902. 

to say a few words concerning a matter which has come to my 
ears since my arrival in the city this evening, which is to the 
effect that the discussion of the freight car rules was too 
hurried; that we did not allow sufficient time to it. Several 
members have requested that the freight car rules be taken 
up, section by section, and made the subject of topical discus- 
sions at our future meetings. It is proposed that the com- 
mittee on subjects select from one to five sections of the M. C. 
B. rules at a time, and we will consider them when oppor- 
tunity offers each meeting night hereafter until we have gone 
over the entire book once more, going at it leisurely and thor- 
oughly. I would like to learn your pleasure as to the method 
of considering the passenger car rules. They are not very 
elaborate, and I think we can afford to read each section. 

(It is understood that the sections that did not elicit any 
remarks were understood and found to be satisfactory.) 

Section f. Rule 5. Flanges, rim, tread, plate or brackets 
either cracked, chipped or broken in any manner. 

Mr. La Rue: It seems to me that there is one word in there 
that is not right. It says "brackets." Of course in our freight 
car rules one bracket broken or cracked condemns the wheel, 
and I think it ought to do it in passenger service. I think it 
should read "one or more cracked brackets." 

Mr. Harvey (C, B. & Q.): The word "flanges" appears in 
the same section. Why should not that be in the singular as 

Mr. Evans: I think it is thoroughly understood that that 
refers to one cracked bracket. It simply refers to brackets in 
general in passenger service. I think it is generally under- 
stood that one cracked bracket condemns the wheel. 

Mr. Gather: I think Mr. Evans has covered the point. I 
think that it is an oA T ersight on the part of the framers of the 
rules in framing this section. 

Mr. La Rue: I will say that I have read the rules over sev- 
eral times, but it did not strike me as it did then. I would 
move you that it is our understanding that this section should 
read "one or more cracked brackets." Carried. 

"Wheels, Steel Tired. Section a. Loose, broken or cracked 
hubs, plates, bolts, retaining ring or tire. 

Mr. Phelps: We find the same objection in that. That is 
used all the way through, but I think it is generally under- 
stood that it is in the singular, too. 

Mr. Evans: Under that rule, how many bolts would you 
say should be broken before condemning the wheel? I think 
it is left to the judgment of the receiving inspector. I think 
the inspector would be justified in throwing a wheel out 
for one broken bolt. 

Mr. Mercatoris: I do not think any inspector is justified in 
knocking any wheel out for one broken bolt.providing he finds 
the rest of the bolts in their proper condition. I think it would 
be very poor judgment for an inspector if he throws a wheel 
out for one broken bolt. 

Mr. La Rue: I do not see how you can make a limit on that 
on account of the different makes and different constructions. 
As Mr. Evans says, I think it will have to be left to the judg- 
ment of the inspector and condition of the wheel. 

Mr. Cather: As I understand, it is not a matter of knocking 
the wheels out, but knocking the authority out for making a 
bill. If one bolt is broken, the owner of the car should 
authorize bill for the replacement of that bolt. If the receiv- 
ing road deems it necessary to change the wheels, the owners 
should furnish authority for bill. 

Rule 6. Brakes must be in perfect working order. Cylinders 
must have been cleaned and oiled within six months, , and the 
date of the last cleaning and oiling marked on brake cylinder 
and triple valve with white paint. 

Mr. Powell (I. C): "Valves and cylinders must be cleaner] 
and oiled within six months and date of cleaning marked on 
brake cylinder with white paint." It seems to me that the 
same rule ought to be applicable in passenger cars as in 
freight cars, yet it is a fact that cylinders will become dirty 
in passenger cars in less time than that, six months. I do not 
know any reason why the road making the repairs should be 
responsible. I believe that the owner should be responsible 
for the cylinder whenever it is dirty, irrespective of the time 

preceding -the last cleaning. I think the section should be 
amended so that when the cylinder is found dirty the road 
making the repairs can charge the owner. 

Mr. La Rue: I do not know how a person is going to tell 
whether the cylinder is dirty or not. The only way, it seems 
to me, to tell that would be under Section 1, and when the 
interchange is made to test the brakes, then if the brakes are 
inoperative make the repairs and charge under Section 4, 
"Receiving road is authorized to make such alterations and 
repairs as are necessary for the safe movement of cars over 
its line." I do not see where you can get authority for clean- 
ing the cylinder when it comes within that limit by saying 
that they are dirty. 

Mr. Powell: In explanation of my remarks, I would say that 
the railroad with which I am connected had a private car in 
which they claimed that the cylinders were "cleaned and oiled, 
but as I remember it was due to the cylinder not being cleaned 
and oiled that four pairs of wheels were slid under the car, 
and the result was that one road was responsible for the 
damage.which investigation shows was due to the fact that 
the triple was not cleaned, and this matter was taken up with 
the car owner and afterwards adjusted to the satisfaction of 
both parties. Another time a road objected to our making a 
charge for cleaning a cylinder and triple valve which had not 
been cleaned within six months of time on which our road 
did the work, claiming that the rules prescribe that they can 
only be cleaned every twelve months. If the cylinder and 
triple valve is cleaned more frequently than that, then the 
road making repairs is responsible. Now it is a small matter, 
of course, and the arguments did not go to any great extent. 
However, the question was raised then, and I believe, as 
Mr. La Rue says, the only way we can tell is by testing the 
triple valves; but even in doing that, if you find it has been 
cleaned in less time than one year, then is it right that the 
company making repairs is responsible for it? I believe not, 
and do not believe that the owner of the car should be re- 
sponsible for it. 

Mr. La Rue: I think that the interchange of passenger cars 
should be the same as the interchange of freight cars on that 
question, that after you receive a car the road handling the car 
is responsible. The rule very plainly says that the receiving 
road is authorized to make such alterations and repairs as are 
necessary for the safe movement of the car over its line. 
Noav I do not see how you are going to get around that in any 
other way than just as it is printed. 

Mr. Powell: I would like to ask Mr. La Rue why they put 
any limitations in the rules at all. Why do they say six 
months? Why not leave that out entirely? 

Mr. La Rue: It has been demonstrated by usage and experi- 
ence that the practice of oiling and cleaning as recommended 
by the Westinghouse Air Brake Company in ordinary usage, 
will keep the brakes in good condition. 

Mr. Cather: Supposing, Mr. La Rue, that you received an 
Illinois Central coach on the Rock Island, the cylinders having 
been cleaned and oiled two months before. Now, supposing 
that you test the car and find that the cylinder and triple do 
not work satisfactorily and they are dirty. Now, under the 
present rules you say the brakes are not operative; you clean 
the cylinder and bill the Illinois Central for the work. Now 
then, that raises the point, is it necessary for any six months' 
limitation at all? Why any limitation as far as passenger 
equipment is concerned? You test the car and find the cylin- 
der dirty, take it out and make repairs; no matter what sten- 
cilling is on the car, the car owner should authorize charge for 
cleaning and oiling of the cylinder and triple. 

Mr. La Rue: Then you do not comply with the requirements 
of Section 1: "Each railway company shall give to foreign 
cars, while on its line, the same care and attention that it 
gives its own cars." If the time limit comes within that time 
and the ear comes on your line, you are privileged to clean it. 

Mr. Powell: I would like to raise the point on that rule 
whether that means that you must make the repairs at the 
point of delivery. Suppose you receive a car and wear a brake 
shoe out at some point other than the point of delivery. They 
certainly have the i-ight to bill the owner, and it is not neces- 

January, 1902. 



sary to get authority from hirn. In regard to the brakes, I 

think we can bill without regard to the stencilling. If it 

becomes dirty and defective inside of six months we have the 

right to bill, and the owners are responsible. 
Mr. Phelps: I would like to hear a little more discussion on 

this. I would like to hear some one say whether it is right to 

bill for cleaning a cylinder and triple valve that has been 

cleaned within six months. 
Mr. Evans: I think that Mr. La Rue is the only gentleman 

that stated the case fully. I think Mr. Phelps should be satis- 
fled with that. If he receives a car from connecting line and 
finds the brakes are not working properly, he has the right to 
take it out and bill the owner. 

Mr. Parish: I do not think any road would object to paying 
a bill of that kind. I think we do the same thing on freight 
cars. If we find a car with defective triple we certainly clean 
it and will the owner of the car, whether the car is stencilled 
or not. 

Mr. Powell: That is just the reason this question was 
brought up. The Illinois Central billed another road under 
just such circumstances, for cleaning a triple valve which had 
been cleaned within the time limit, and the bill was objected 
to on the ground that the M. C. B. rules specify that the 
cylinder had been cleaned within twelve months. 

Mr. Stimson: I would like to ask Mr. Powell if his argu- 
ments have been relating entirely to freight cars or passenger 

Mr. Powell: The argument was primarily due to freight 
cars, but it was applicable also to passenger cars. 

Gas. If a car is transferred from the service of one railroad 
to that of another, the receiving road shall issue an M. C. B. 
defect card authorizing the delivering road to bill against it 
for the quantity of gas in the holders at the time car was 

Mr. La Rue: There is a question in there. It is all right, in 
my opinion, until you get to a large interchange point like 
Chicago. If we give a defect card for every car that is inter- 
changed at Chicago it will make a lot of correspondence; that 
is, if you question every defect card that is issued, which is 
generally the rule. Now it seems to me, in a point like 
Chicago, that the record of the gas held by the receiving road 
should be taken and the balance drawn out at the end of the 
month, and authority given for bill for the difference in 
amounts. It would make almost one man's work difference. 
Take our company, for instance, which goes to Pullman and 
takes a great many cars backward and forward from there. 
We have to take the record of the receiving road anyhow, 
whether a defect card is furnished or merely the record taken. 

Mr. Cather: The remarks Mr. La Rue makes are very good, 
and I think the question he brings up can very easily be 
adjusted where they have a large interchange at one point. 
If he finds that his company is interchanging a great many 
cars with any particular road, the idea of having a monthly 
balance can very well be brought up with that road and no 
doubt entered into by both companies satisfactorily, precisely 
as is. being done with all roads and the Pullman Company 
itself. We handle our business with the Pullman Company on 
the monthly basis, and the same thing can be done with any 
railroad where the interchange is large. Of course where only 
a few cars are interchanged a defect card given at the inter- 
change point is all that is necessary. 

Mr. Rieckhoff (C. M. & St. P.) : I would like to ask whether 
it is the policy or proper to take the atmospheres of gas when 
the car is delivered to connecting line, or when it comes in off 
the road and lays in the yard a few days and loses probably 
two atmospheres of gas while standing in the yard. 

Mr. Phelps: You can only charge the amount of gas you 
gave the receiving road. 

Mr. Evans: I would like to ask if roads objecKto giving 
defect cards for one-half atmosphere of gas, say in four 580 
holders. It is a small amount, but the money value is nearly 
as much as a brake shoe. Is it necessary that there be one 
atmosphere before asking card? 

Mr. La Rue: I think that the half atmospheres are counted 
when there are more than one atmosphere in the car— 4%, 5%. 

Mr. Phelps: I never bill for one-half atmosphere of gas. 
but if any railroad company sent me a bill for it I believe we 
would pay it. 

Mr. Smith: Before we pass the passenger car rules, I would 
like to call attention to one point which seems to have been 
omitted. The freight car rules provide a minimum of 31% 
inches and a maximum of 34% inches for the height of coup- 
lers, while the passenger car rules make no mention of this. 
I suppose they have considered that we will keep the passen- 
ger cars at the same height, but this we find difficult to do, 
especially when turning cars out of the shop. The way I have 
become interested in this is in trying to formulate a report 
about the acceptance of show cars, or cars in special service, 
and the question has come up as to the height the couplers 
should have if the cars are to be received. Shall we hold to 
"the limits of the freight car rules or shall we allow another 
inch or half an inch? I do not think that this is a matter to 
take up this evening, but I thought I would speak of it, as it 
may come up when we are discussing changes of the rules, 
and perhaps some of the other members may desire to con- 
sider it in the meantime. 

It being necessary for President Grieb to leave at this time, 
Vice-President Stimson was called to the chair. 

Vice-Pres. Stimson: We have now reached subject No. 3— 
Report of committee on condition of draft rigging in cars and 
suggestions for improvement of same, of which Mr. Morris is 



The subject given your committee to report upon 
covers possibly the most important question that the 
car department of the railway companies of the United 
States have to deal with at present. A statement that 
perhaps 75 per cent of the bad order cars in our yards to-day 
have defective draft rigging will not be considered an exag- 
geration. We are confronted by a condition which is really 
appalling, and it seems that only recently have the heads of 
the car departments awakened to a realization of the situation. 

For many years the changes in the general design in draft 
rigging were few. The number of failures was not abnor- 
mally large, at least not sufficient to justify investigation, due 
in a large measure to the use of the link and pin draw bar, 
which demanded greater care in coupling and switching the 
cars for the safety of the switchmen, thus prolonging the life 
of the draw gear in its original construction. The advent of 
the M. C. B. coupler, working automatically, has removed the 
element of danger in coupling and radically changed the condi- 
tions. No longer does the switchman go between the cars to 
make a coupling; he opens the knuckle and the cars are 
thrown together with such force as to insure coupling them, 
usually more force than is necessary. The results are readily 
seen and are attested by the alarming increase in the number 
of damaged cars found on our repair tracks, necessitating 
renewal and repairs to draft rigging, with a full complement 
of broken center sills, end sills, ends broken, and a bill for 
renairs which is startling. 

The hauling capacity of our locomotives has increased enor- 
mously, and the schedule time of our freight trains to-day will 
compare favorably with that of our passenger trains of a 
dozen years ago. This, in connection with the expeditious 
manner in which cars are handled in our terminals, makes it 
absolutely necessary that the draft gear should keep pace in 
efficiency with the increased demands made on it. Yard work 
is certainlv severe on those of our cars which have a weakness 
in the region of the draft ringing. Most of you probably have 
stood and watched the switchmen doins: their work. If the 
cars are moving and a signal is given to stop.they stand still: 
there is no gradual slacking up, but a sudden change and the 
moving car becomes motionless. When the signal is given to 
iro ahead or come back, the car is started with a jump, and 
instantly from a condition of absolute lack of motion it as- 
sumes a gait of from two to four miles an hour. 

Your committee has been asked to consider the situation and 
make report of its findings, but with only six weeks' time at 



January, 1902 

its disposal must respectfully state that we do uot regard it as 
sufficient to enable us to do justice to the subject. 

The force of the above will be manifest when we state that 
at the last M. C. B. Convention one of the members of its 
Committee on Draft Gear arose and said the committee should 
be allowed three years in which to make tests and report. 

The committee also desire to state that in making this report 
they have decided to consider only the defects, causes and 
remedies in connection with draft rigging on cars now in 
service; that new construction shall not enter into the question. 
The fact that the members of the M. C. B. Association repre- 
sent railways owning 1,511,000 cars seems to your committee 
to be of sufficient importance to warrant us in limiting our 
work in this way. 

It has been decided by your committee that for the purpose 
of discussion, the subject shall be considered under two sepa- 
rate heads, viz.: 

1. Defects and causes. 

2. Remedies. 

One of the most serious features under the present condition 
is the low capacity car with its small draft timber and weak 
attachments, wholly incapable of withstanding the service 
now imposed upon it. The continued use of these cars not only 
requires constant attention and work for our repair track, but 
is a menace to safety in being handled in trains with cars of 
greater capacity. In nearly all cases the single draw lug is 
used, which is bolted to the face of the draft timber with 
three bolts. The draft timbers in Ihe cars referred to are 
small in size, short in length, and usually fastened to center 
sills with three bolts through each timber; the follower plates 
are too small and with insufficient bearing surface on the draw 
lugs. It is almost impossible to obtain ordinary results with 
this design. The absence of tie rods or anchor straps, and 
with little or no shoulder at ends of draft timbers against 
deadwood or end sill, throws the entire strain on the three 
bolts which secure the draft timbers to the center sills. These 
bolts are usually % in. in diameter. The incessant strain 
loosens the bolts, causes the holes to become worn oblong, 
permitting the parts to work back and forth, thus breaking 
and splitting the draft timbers and center sills and in a great 
many cases resulting in the draft rigging pulling out entirely 
and causing further damage. 

The friction between the draft timber and the sill to whicli 
it is secured is a very considerable factor in keeping the draft 
timbers rigid, and if the nuts are not properly tightened up 
and the timber secured firmly against the draft sill, the 
strength is considerably reduced. The draft timbers should 
be bolted together, there being no more striking illustration of 
the old saying, "In union there is strength," than in the case 
of draft timbers. Too many of our old-style cars have draft 
timbers each one of which acts independently of the other. 
Draft timbers as a rule are made too light. When we con- 
sider the immense force and weight of heavy cars coming 
together, we should not fail to realize that it is folly to expect 
a timber 4x6 in. or 7 in. to withstand the shock successfully. It 
has been pretty well demonstrated that use of the draft pin 
in connection with the coupler is not a good practice; a pocket, 
of at least 4x1 in. iron should be used. The committee is 
unanimous in condemning the various kinds of continuous 
draft rigging. The weak points in this rigging are limited 
only by the number of parts that are supposed to do service; 
broken keys, rods, split and broken draft timbers, and broken 
coupler key slots are the result of using this device, and we 
do not hesitate to recommend that it be condemned on all cars. 

A number of cars are fitted with very small striking plates 
secured to the headbloek. It has been noted by some of the 
members of the committee that a great many cars equipped 
with 2 1 /£>x 1 /£ in. plates secured to headblocks by lag screws are 
in bad order within a few days after having come from the 


Your committee recommends that with a view of reducing 
the bad order cars, all those having short draft timber inse- 

curely fastened be not allowed in trains with heavy capacity 
cars. That it would be policy for railway companies owning 
such cars to destroy them or put them in such service that 
they would not be mixed up with heavy capacity cars. 

It is recommended that still stiffeners be used, extending 
from the ends of the draft timbers to the crossties and be- 
tween crossties so as to make a continuous subsill the full 
length of the car. Draft timbers should be gained to the 
depth of at least two inches to make a shoulder against the 
end sill. A number of strong tie rods securing the end sill 
to the framing of the car increases the compactness and 
strength of the ends and draft timbers. 

Nothing less than % in. bolts should be used in draft tim- 
bers, and the committee thinks that 1 in. bolts are preferable. 
Draft timbers themselves should be not less than 5x8 in., 
and they should be tied together with tie straps in front and 
rear (at pocket). Having condemned the old style single 
drawings, we unanimously recommend the use of continuous 
draw lugs or cheekcasting, with draft timbers properly gained 
out to receive them and properly bolted to the draft timbers. 
Follower plates should not be less than 1% in., and we rec- 
ommend that the construction of the car be so arranged that 
the draft sills be separated only as much as is absolutely 
necessary, a follower 8 in. being preferable to one 9% in. Fol- 
lower plates should have dowels to keep springs in the center 
of pocket. The draft rigging should be equipped with two 
springs, either tandem or twin, the former being preferable 
because of the previous statement, which is to the effect that 
draft sills should be as close together as practicable. An 
angle iron should be applied to the headblock in place of the 
small striking plate we have mentioned. 

The above are some of the recommendations that we would 
make, but regardless of the effectiveness originating from any 
style of draft rigging, it should be borne in mind that the best 
results can only be obtained by keeping it in good condition, 
by keeping the nuts screwed up tightly, renewing broken or 
defective bolts. The life of the best draft rigging ever con- 
structed will be of short duration if the bolts with which it 
is secured (if bolts be used) are not kept tightened up. Obvi- 
ously, if the parts are allowed to separate ever so slightly 
the efficiency is reduced. 

It is recommended that more attention be given to keeping 
the parts of draft rigging drawn tightly together. The com- 
mittee believes that the standing orders on all repair tracks 
are to "tighten up the bolts." It is also their belief that these 
orders are not always carried out as they should be. Rush of 
work, lack of help and other excuses are given for failing to 
do this necessary work, and it must be acknowledged that in 
many instances there is some justification so far as the fore- 
man is concerned. However, much better results could be 
obtained if greater efforts were made and not only cars on 
repair tracks, but those set in at freight-houses and team 
tracks to be loaded, should receive attention in the way of 
tightening up. A few nuts applied, a few broken bolts re- 
newed, and a few minutes' time expended on a car, at a cost 
of a sum represented by cents, will save dollars in money 
and days in time. 

T. R. Morris, chairman: H. H. Harvey, Hugh Marsh, Thos. 
B. Hunt, S. Shannon, C D. Pettis. 

Vice-President Stimson: You have heard the very admirable 
report of the committee appointed for the investigation of the 
draft rigging subject. It will be in order for some member 
to make a motion that the report be accepted, after which it 
will be placed before you for discussion. Motion made and 
carried that the report be accepted. 

Mr. Bates: I think it would be a good idea to lay that over 
until some future meeting, after it has been printed, and then 
placed on the program for discussion. 

Mr. Manchester (C, M. & St. P.): I hope that you will dis- 
cuss the question to-night, and if you do not get enough dis- 
cussion, take it up at some future meeting. 

Mr. Stimson: As the president has arranged an entertain- 
ment for the January meeting that will take the entire even- 

January, 1902. 



ing, and the chairman of the Committee on Subkjects has ar- 
ranged for the February and March programs, it would there- 
fore be necessary to lay this subject over until the April meet- 
ing, unless it were given preference. 

Mr. Smith: I have listened with a great deal of interest to 
the reading of the report and am particularly interested in it, 
as I believe there is no part of the car that gives us as much 
expense as the draft rigging, but at the same time I am free 
to confess that I cannot very well discuss the report as read. 
I would like to read the report over, and then perhaps I would 
have more to say about it. The M. C. B. Association now 
has a committee that is to make a report on this same subject, 
and from the circular sent out, if my memory serves me right, 
they are to have all of the devices, which are to be tested, 
ready by Feb. 1st. We will no doubt be able to learn some- 
thing from their test that will better enable us to discuss this 
paper, and personally I am not prepared to discuss the report 
at present. I must say that it strikes me as being a most 
excellent report, and I would like to hear it discussed, but not 
until some iater meeting. 

Mr. Stimson: Is it not a fact that we will not obtain any 
report from the Master Car Builders' committee until after 
the convention next year, unless it be a few that care to wit- 
ness the test? 

Mr. Smith: Perhaps that is true, but I think most of the 
technical journals will publish articles concerning the experi- 
ments and probably sketches of the devices used. In the 
report this committee makes some pretty strong recommenda- 
tions which seem to be in line with good work, and perhaps 
by comparing the two we will be able to better discuss the 
various recommendations. 

Mr. Evans: As. I listened to that report, it is not so much 
the trouble with new patent devices that the report is alluding 
to, but the old draft rigging in service on cars to-day which 
needs something to protect them from breaking down on the 
heavy cars. That being the case, the report of the M.C.B. Asso- 
ciation would not do any good. It is the old cars with % in. 
bolts in the draft timbers and side castings that they recom- 
mend be changed to % in. or 1 in. bolts. There are thousands 
of them in service and will be for some time to come. They 
recommend that we cut the draft timbers in 4 in. That can- 
not be done on some cars. The newer cars with patent devices 
stand pretty well. 

Mr. La Rue: In looking over the yards considerably I And 
that a good many new cars are being built with short draft 
timbers, some having as many as four sill keys and four % in. 
bolts through the draft sill and the draft timber, no other tie 
rod or anything to tie it fast to the transom. It does not seem 
to me that that is good construction. Our reads have sacri- 
ficed a good deal of the efficiency of the bolster in protecting 
the long draft timbers. I noticed a new car last Sunday morn- 
ing which had four bolts through the draft timbers and short 
draft timbers; one key, I think 6 in. long, and it was 6 in. 
from the end of the sill. That was the only thing there was 
to hold it. Now, it does not seem to me as if that was good 
construction. The key being so close to the end of the draft 
timber, it seems to me it will soon split off after the car gets 
a little older. I do not think the trouble is all going to be 
with the old cars; a good deal is going to be with new cars, 
and it is commencing already. 

Mr. Cardwell: I listened to that report with a great deaj of 
interest and heartily concur with the recommendations made, 
and in cars with short draft timbers where the bottom of the 
end sill is flush with the long sills it is necessary to use keys. 
If it is not we can cut the draft timber out 2 ins. to hold it up 
against the end sill as recommended. In regard to sill stiff- 
eners extending to the crossties and between the crossties so 
as to make a continuous sub-ill. is another valuable recom- 
mendation. Of course when the car gets between two heavier 
ones the transome sometimes give back and it loosens the 
bolts. One addition, however, I would make would be tie 
bolts or strap bolts in the back ends of the draft timbers se- 
curing them to the transoms. An angle iron on the deadwood 

is another good recommendation. Plates on the deadwoods 
get broken after a very little service and the draft timber ends 
split out where the coupler is allowed to strike, and I should 
add also, to that recommendation, some kind of a cap over 
the ends of the draft timbers to f urnish additional striking 
surface for the coupler, let the coupler have three points to 
strike when it is compressed against the deadwood, instead of 
one. That will prevent our couplers from breaking as well as 
from damaging deadwoods and draft timbers. I think that 
the report is very concise and complete and I heartily concur 
with all the recommendations made. 

Mr. Parish: I would like to have a little more time to go 
into this. There are, however, one or two items that I would 
like to call attention to. The committee recommends nothing 
less than 1x4 in. pockets. We find in looking over the broken 
pockets that very few railroads are paying attention to the 
quality of iron which they are putting into these pockets. We 
also find there is quite a reduction at the back end of the 
pocket in the angle, that instead of being 1x4 in. it will not 
be more than % x 4 in. at the corner, or less. I bring this 
matter up because a great many pockets are being improperly 
made. Referring to the matter of striking plates, we use a 
1 x 4 in. striking plate and we find that it will not stand the 
service but bends very quickly. On our new cars we use an 
angle iron and I believe that such angle irons should not be 
less than % in. thick. 

Mr. Cardwell: In speaking of pockets I have in use a cast- 
ing that is made in a semi-cylinder shape that fits in this 
pocket at the back end, back of the follower plate and it 
does away with the right angle bending of this pocket. It sim- 
ply curves around this casting and makes a much stronger 

Mr. Buker: I might say in regard to pockets that in making 
a great many of them I think the dies are square or put in 
the bull dozer and cuts the corner. I think if the die had 
the sharp corner taken off it would protect it a great deal. I 
think if a tail strap is made in a circular form and not with a 
square shoulder a great many would not break as they do, 
and as the gentleman that just spoke said, I think there is a 
great lot of poor iron used. Some of them break off like 
pieces of cast iron from no particular cause. I .think all short 
draft timbers should be anchored to the needle beam. I think 
more than two keys is a detriment to the short draft timber 
because I think it will split out the ends of the center sills. 
We have more trouble with center sills than anything else in 
the new equipment we got last spring. 

Mr. La Rue: Mr. Buker has voiced my sentiments in regard 
ao the ends of short draft timbers. Too many keys is worse 
than not enough. In regard to pocket straps I think the M. C. 
B. design is a half oval corner and the follower has the corner 
rounded off to suit. I think if that is followed out closely we 
will not have the pocket failing. 

Mr. Stimson: For the information of the members, I might 
add, that my experience has shown, that more satisfactory 
results may be expected and obtained, by using what is 
known as the wing former, instead of the ordinary male and 
female die. It costs but very little more, and is much easier 
on the iron; it also makes it possible to upset the corners, thus 
increasing the area at the corners, instead of decreasing it, 
which is usually done by the ordinary process of manufacture. 
We have such a former in our shop, and I understand it is the 
practice of all the principal forging manufacturers, to manu- 
facture drawbar pockets in this manner. 

We have a very large number of cars in service equipped 
with 4 in. x 1 in. pockets, with which we have had no trouble 
whatever. I am inclined to believe that much of the trouble 
referred to comes about by permitting too much strain at one 
point of the pocket. As an illustration most of the designs 
of draw gear as applied today, are provided with two springs 
either in tandem or twin; if the design is such that the entire 
strains are transmitted to the rear end of the pocket, a 4 in. x 
1 in. pocket is hardly strong enough to stand it, in my judg- 
ment, but if by some means it is distributed to the different 



January, 1902. 

points of the pocket, there should be no difficulty, at least Ave 
are experiencing no such trouble. Mr. Morris mentions in bis 
report, that he would condemn all short draft timbers in 
heavy trains. I would not concur in that recommendation, 
unless it were qualified "to condemn all short draft timbers 
in heavy trains, unless they were properly fastened by rods, 
transmitting the strains to the body bolster, or to the cross 

Mr. Morris: The report referred to the short draft timber 
with single lug, secured with three bolts, etc. 

Mr. Stimson: It is not quite clear to me how the committer 
proposes to gain the draft timbers on top 2 in. to receive end 
sill or buffer block on cars already in service, as it would ap- 
pear, that to do this, it would affect the height of the coupler. 

Mr. Evans: I would like to ask for information, whether that 
recommendation of Mr. Morris is contrary to the use of M. C. 
B. recommended practice on short draft timber, or does he 
simply refer to the cheek casting that has only three bolts. 
The recommended practice is four bolts. I think, however, 
that the report of the committee is a good one and deserving 
of more discussion than we will be able to give it now and I 
think it would be well enough to carry it over. I notice the 
committee neglected, however, to speak of the draw gear on 
steel cars, a great many of which are coining into service and 
causing us a great deal of trouble too. 1 think this associa- 
tion can well go on record as recommending a draft rigging 
that the ordinary carsinith and blacksmith can repair. I do 
not think that car building has progressed to that extent that 
the mechanism on some of the frictionless draft timbers iioav 
in existence is required. 

Mr. Manchester: The subject under discussion this evening 
is one that Ave are all very much interested in, and for that 
reason I asked that the discussion go as far as it could this 
evening and be continued. For my part I am interested in 
anything that, this association has to say about the defects as 
they find them in the draft gears of the cars of today. While 
no doubt much can be done to improve the draft gear on new 
cars and many of the older cars, especially those having 1 
longer draft timber, can be vastly improved, yet it seems to 
me that there is another all important question that has to be 
taken into consideration in reference with the damage to cars. 
and that that question has got to be over and beyond the 
question of building cars to stand such shocks. My attention 
was called a few days ago to a ucav car with an iron under- 
framing that came into our yards with a load of dimension 
iron for body bolsters. There Avere 30 tons of iron in the car. 
in tAvo tiers at either side of the door, lea\'ing a space near the 
center of the car, Avhen the iron Avas loaded, the width of the 
doors betAveen the two tiers and a space of three to four feet 
betAveen the end of the tiers and the end of the car at either 
end. The tiers were about 12 inches deep. In sAvitching that 
car it had been thrown against a string of cars with such 
force that that tier of iron had moved out and taken the end 
of the car with it. In switching at some other point it had 
been thrown the other way against a string of cars and moved 
out, taking the end of the car with it. Now with such usage as 
that it is absolutely impossible to build cars to withstand such 
shocks. What seems to me has got to come is that Ave must 
make these weak features in the draft gear stronger and that 
then there must be a law that cars shall not receive such 
usage. I further believe that the large engines are not as 
much responsible for the damage to draft rigging today as 
they are. getting credit for. That it is the rough usage in 
yards and in switching, throwing the cars together, that it is 
the impact that first does the damage to the draft rigging, 
starting the bolts loose, getting everything in good shape to 
give way and then getting mil on Hie road in the long trains 
and the big engine gets the credit of having done (he damage. 
As the committee says, with the link-ahd-pin coupler out of 
1 he way, the knuckle is open and the cars 'ire thrown together. 
There is nobody between the cars and consequently that fea- 
ture of danger no longer exists, that is Hie personal injury 

question. What has probably still further aggravated the 
breakage of the car is that all yards to-day are congested and 
business has got to be done very rapidly in order to get all 
the business through the yards that must pass through. The 
switchmen are urged on to work faster and faster and that 
means that your cars are roughly handled, and as I said ear- 
lier in my remarks, it appears to me Ave have got to weed the 
Aveak features out of our draft rigging and then make hiAvs 
that the cars must not be thrown together and damage the 
draft rigging. There have been some remarks made about the 
buffing plates. I am doubtful whether any style of a buffing- 
plate will ever be satisfactory. I think that Ave will eventu- 
ally have to go back to the old buffer. It is one of the very 
strange things that came to pass in car construction that for 
the many years that the buffer Avas really a man-killer on the 
cars with link-aud-pin draw bars, it was maintained, but just 
as quick as the automatic coupler came into use and the buf- 
fer could have continued to exist Avithout being a man-killer, 
it AA'as ordered out of service. Believing as I do iioav, that th> 
majority of the cars which are damaged are caused by hard 
shocks, Ave cannot put butting plates on that will stand those 
shocks, without possibly, the help Ave may get from the fric- 
tion draft gear, which may give some relief, and I would say 
that it would be one of the proper things in car construction 
to look in the direction of a satisfactory buffer. The question 
of material that has been already referred to, is very import- 
ant, especially in the matter of pockets. It is a difficult mat- 
ter to-day to get a good quality of iron; but I believe that rail- 
way companies building cars and writing specifications for 
cars should demand a. very good quality of iron in the pocket. 
As to what can be done toAvards strengthening and improA r - 
ing the cars uoav in service I do not know that I can add any- 
thing to what the committee has already said. Their recom- 
mendations are good and will- certainly give a great deal of 
relief if carried out. There must lie a question come up 
before long as to responsibility in connection with the han- 
dling of -these old and short draft timber cars. They do not 
stand the shocks that a car should stand to-flay in ordinary, 
reasonably careful service and Avithout the companies who 
are owning these cars do see that it is decidedly to their ad- 
vantage to maintain and keep them up so that they can afford 
to be responsible to the company handling the car for a larger 
measure of repairs for that class of equipment than they are 
with a car that is equipped with a reasonably safe and strong 
draft timber and I think a reasonable time should be given 
when they be not offered in interchange and the receiving 
road be responsible for repairs to the draft timbers. I hope 
that the discussion will be continued and this association put 
the full force of its Avisdom and observation on this question 
because I believe it is the most important question in car con- 
struction to-day. 

Mr. Stimson: The chair wishes to thank Mr. Manchester, 
for the remarks he has made, as I am sure the members pres- 
ent have been given a cue that will help them in the future 
discussion of this subject. I would ask Mr. Bates, Chairman 
of the Committee on Subjects, when he can alloAV space to 
continue this subject. 

Mr. Bates: I think possibly it can be put on not later than 
March, possibly February. We may set something else back 
and get on this, and I think we can possibly do that, Pos- 
sibly at our next meeting we will decide that. 

Mr. Stimson: For the information of the members it may 
be stated, that the committee on subjects are iioav consider- 
ing the advisability of selecting a dozen or twenty subjects, 
and placing them before the association with the information 
that they will be discussed at some regular meeting during 
llio Avinter. They may come up at the first meeting or may 
not come up until later, but this advance notice will enable 
all tlie members to look up data and study the questions that 
are coming before the Association for discussion. The report 
of the committee on draft gear Avill lie taken up at one of our 
meetings, and at as early a one as it is possible to do so. 

Meeting adjourned. 

February, 1902. 



EatablUhed 1878. 




Office of Publication, Room 610 The Boylstor. Bldg., 269 

Dearborn Street. 

A Monthly Railway Journal. 

Devoted to the interests of railway motive power, car equip- 
ment, shops, machinery and supplies. 

Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are 

Subscription price $1.00 a year, to foreign countries $1.50, 
free of postage. Single copies 10 cents. Advertising rates 
given on application to the office, by mail or in person. 

In remitting make all checks payable to the Bruce V. Crandall 

Vol. XXVI. 


No. 2. 

THE cutting off of exchange passes in the Trunk 
Line Association territory seems likely to> effect to 
quite an extent the attendance at the Saratoga conven- 
tions this coming June. While the work of the Master 
Mechanics and Master Car Builders is educational it is 
none the less important and in view of the many recent 
railroad accidents, the public i*s likely to look upon this 
educational work, which minimizes the chances of acci- 
dents and makes possible safe and comfortable traveling, 
as a very necessary adjunct to railway operation. In 
view of the fact that to these two associations is due in 
large part the credit for bringing railway rolling stock 
equipment up to its present high standard, it seems very 
poor economy to curtail in the slightest degree their use- 

•» ♦ » 

WITH the increased number of steel cars in service 
comes an increased interest in and desire on the 
part of rolling stock officials for the proper maintenance 
of this class of equipment. At the January meeting of 
the Central Railroad Club, a report on the best method 
in shop practice of meeting the requirements and main- 
tenance of all-steel cars was presented. The report of 
the committee went into the matter very thoroughly and 
recommended the painting of cars at least once every year 
and a half, considering the pneumatic painting machine 
preferable to the brush. Except in the case of wrecks the 
principal repairs which are necessary to the steel car is 
the painting. We do not claim that a protective paint is 
a "panacea for all the ills that the steel car is heir to," 
unless it is still possible to create a certain "paint wonder" 
such as was very freely advertised not so long' ago, and 
which had "five times the durability of any other paint 
and was absolutely indestructible." But when all is said 
the importance of using a good paint well applied cannot 
be overestimated. 

♦ •» 

AN official announcement confirms the various state- 
heretofore given out by the daily press that die 
New York Central has been preparing plans for the 

enlargement of the Grand Central Station and for changes 
in the Park avenue tunnel. Electricity will be substituted 
for steam in the side tunnels and the underground sta- 
tion ; and before determining that electrical or some other 
power shall permanently be used in place of steam, suf- 
ficient time will be given to see whether the trains can 
be as well and safely handled as by the old method. Pos- 
sibly the recent accident in the Fourth avenue tunnel has 
hastened the adoption of the new plans. It is not likely 
however that a railroad of the high standard of the New 
York Central waits for accidents to improve its equip- 
ment, neither is it hurried in such matters by public 
clamor. The betterment of any department of railroad 
service is anxiously sought after by the railroad officials 
themselves and the best thought and attention is given to 
such matters by men most eminently fitted to handle 

•» ♦ » 

AN interesting feature of the discussion on Mr. La- 
mont's paper on freight car bolsters at last month's 
meeting of the Western Railway Club were the sugges- 
tions brought out in reference to designing bolsters with 
a view of carrying a portion of the load on the side bear- 
ings. The idea received considerable support from some 
of the prominent members present, though to others who 
have made it a point in ordering new equipment to pro- 
vide bolsters which would not get down on the side 
bearings, and have been considering various plans to 
get their old equipment off the side bearings, it seemed 
more or less heretical. The question probably has not an 
infinite number of sides as was claimed of a subject dis- 
cussed by the club a year or two since, but it has at least 
two sides. The principal argument for carrying a part of 
the load on side bearings is the alleged difficulty of getting 
bolsters within the space available to carry the loads with- 
out undue deflection. With this argument is coupled the 
suggestion that if a good design of anti-friction side bear- 
ing is used the trucks will curve as well under normal 
conditions at if the side bearings cleared, while if the 
cars on account of eccentric loading or some other cause 
ride on one side, they will curve better than if they 
had the stiff bolsters and no anti-friction side bearings. 
It is claimed on the other hand that it is quite possible 
with most designs of trucks to provide roOm for a good 
body bolster without excessive weight and that the body 
bolsters should not be blamed for the lack of adaptability 
of certain designs of trucks ; also that roller side bearings 
have been used for years on freight equipment with un- 
satisfactory results. Passenger car equipment almost 
without exception is turned out with some Aveight on side 
bearings in order to prevent excessive rocking. In the 
case of freight equipment, the question of rocking being 
less important the cars are generally given a small 
amount of clearance in order that they may curve more 
easily and it usually takes very little reflection to con- 
vince the average man that trucks curve more easily -if 
sile bearings are free and the weight carried on the cen- 
ter plate, unless some good design of anti-friction side 
bearing is used. The question of providing a good sup- 
port for truss rod saddles should not be lost sight of in 
designing body bolsters and it is doubtful if the weight 
or strength of the bolster should be verv much reduced on 



February, 1902. 

account of the use of anti-friction side bearings. It looks 
on the whole very much as though the matter resolved 
itself into the question of using or not using anti-friction 
side bearings. Theoretically they are a good thing and 
there are undoubtedly some good designs on the market. 

■»» » 

Frankfort, November 23, 1901, translation from 
the Frankfurter Journal, as follows : The Technical High 
School in Charlottenburg has just completed a series of 
experiments with a new method for preparing steel, and 
the result will no doubt attract much attention in inter- 
ested circles. Experts claim that this new invention may 
revolutionize the entire metal 
industry. The inventor, 
named Giebeler, is a small 
manufacturer in Mecklen- 
burg, who has for years been 
interested in this new pro- 
cess, but was unwilling to 
bring it before the public un- 
til it had been thoroughly 
tested by experts. The re- 
sults reached at the Techni- 
cal High School were most 
satisfactory. By the Giebel- 
er process, all sorts of iron 
can be given strength and 
hardness double that obtain- 
ed by the Harvey, Krupp 
and Boehler processes, in 
spite of the fact that the cost 
of production is reduced 50 
per cent. Projectiles fired 
against a 7^-millimeter 
(0.305 inch) sheet of steel 
produced by the Giebeler 
process penetrated only to 
the depth of 1 millimeter 
(0.039 inch), while a simi- 
lar sheet of Krupp steel was 
completely penetrated. With 
sword blades of this ma- 
terial, other sword blades 
can be shivered as if 
they were made of 
wood. A representative of 
Mr. Giebeler will start next 
week for Pittsburg, to 

bring the invention to the attention of the great steel 
kings of America. 

dinarily large. How large no one has been able to 
tell. To determine this important question with some 
considerable degree of accuracy, The Railway Age, at 
great labor and expense, has gathered these statis- 
tics." which show 193,439 freight cars, 2,879 passenger 
cars and 4,340 locomotives. The well known accuracy 
of the Railway Age in such matters makes this report 
doubly valuable. 

■♦ • » 

Mr. George F. Baer, 


Mr. Baer began his business career in a newspaper office, 
and by studying law at night laid the foundation for his 
well known legal career. At the close of the war, in 
which he served with honor, he resumed his legal 
work and as early as 1870 became counsel of the road 
of which he is now the head. 

■» • » 

UNDER the heading of "Statistics of Cars and 
Locomotives Ordered in 1901," The Railway 
Age in its issue of January 3, 1902, published some 
very complete and interesting tables showing the 
number, the kind, the purchaser and the builder of the 
railway rolling stock ordered during 1901. It states 
that: "It is a matter of common knowledge that the 
requisitions for car and locomotive equipment made 
by railway companies during 1901 on their own shops 
and on car and locomotive builders have been extraor- 

T^| R. FREDK. W. HOSSFELD, consul at Trieste, 
1 M. under date of Nov. 15, 1901, writes the following: 
The locomotive industry of Austria comprises five dif- 
ferent establishments, employing at present 5,200 work- 
men, viz : The machine works 
at Florisdorf, with 1,300 
men; the machine shops of. 
the State Railway Company 
at Vienna, with 1,300 men; 
the locomotive works at 
Wienerneustadt, with 1,400 
men; the Kraus Machine 
Factory at Vienna, with 
from 400 to 500 men; and 
the Bohemian-Moravian Lo- 
comotive Works at Prague, 
with 800 men. The total 
number of men employed in 
normal times is about 6,000. 
The total annual capacity of 
the five establishments is 
about 400 locomotives, and 
their annual earnings are be- 
tween 20,000,000 and 25,- 
000,000 crowns ($4,060,000 
and $5,075,000). The aver- 
age price of a common lo- 
comotive without tender is 
50,000 crowns ($10,150). 
More powerful machines for 
express trains range in price 
from 75,000 to 100,000 
crowns ($15,225 to $20,- 
300). The number of the lat- 
ter type of machines built in 
Austria is, however, compar- 
atively small. The various 
establishments have at pres- 
ent orders for 92 locomo- 
tives and 24 tenders from the State, and for some 20 
locomotives from railroad corporations doing business 
in Austria. Foreign orders were quite frequent in former 
years, and even as late as 1900, no less than 60 Austrian- 
built machines went to Belgium and France. During the 
present year, however, the only foreign order received has 
been one from Egypt for six locomotives. Unless new 
contracts are obtained in the near future, four of the five 
locomotive-building establishments will be without work 
within six months. In fact, the blacksmiths and turners 
will be left idle much sooner — in January or February, at 
the latest. A representative of the locomotive industry 
states that when new orders are received, it usually takes 

February, 1902. 



from two to four months to procure the necessary mate- 
rial. If this be true, an interruption of work in some of 
the departments would seem unavoidable, and the Gov- 
ernment orders, which 1 recently reported as being under 
consideration for the relief of this industry, can not come 
any too soon. 

■♦ * » 

PURDUE'S second historic locomotive has reached 
the University. It is deposited with the Uni- 
versity by the Baltimore & Ohio R. R., as a result 
of interest shown by Mr. J. N. Barr and Mr. F. D. 
Underwood, when with the B. & O. R. R., and Mr. 
F. D. Casanave, the present general superintendent of 
motive power. The engine belongs to what is known 
as the "camel-back" type and is designated by the 
initials "B. & O., No. 173". This type of locomotive 
was originated some forty years ago by Mr. Ross 
Winans, one of the most eminent of the early loco- 
motive designers and builders. Engine No. 173 is of 
the ten-wheel type and has cylinders 19 x 22 inches, 
driving wheels 50 inches in diameter, weight on driv- 
ers 56,500 pounds and a total weight of 77,10,0 pounds. 
The shell of its boiler is 48 inches in diameter. It was 
built in 1868 and is, therefore, 33 years old. It has 
been in regular service until withdrawn, to be put in 
order for delivery to the University, after which it 
made the trip from Baltimore to LaFayette under its 
own steam in six days. This engine of thirty-odd 
years ago presents many interesting features, the 
whole machine being in fact designed with wonder- 

ful skill and ingenuity. The name "camel-back," as 
may be surmised, was given to the engine on account 
of the peculiar appearance produced by the large cab 
on the central part of the barrel, and of the rapidly 
receding back end, with its staircase and hand rail on 
the steeply inclined fire-box, all of which gave the 
engine a humped appearance. It is said that the chief 
aim of Mr. Winans was to produce a locomotive hav- 
ing a maximum capacity at a minimum cost, and this 
he apparently succeeded in accomplishing, for it is 
proverbial that the Winans engines did a larger 
amount of work than any other type used at that 
time and the business of making them resulted in a 
large fortune to Mr. Winans. The Purdue "camel- 
back" is different from the original Winans engine, 
which had eight driving wheels and no truck. The 
Purdue engine, also, has a Stephenson link motion 
and injectors, while the original engines used the hook 
motion and pumps. The driving tires of the Purdue 
engine are secured by gibs in addition to shrinkage. 
The driving springs are used as equalizers and are 
not placed central over the axles. It is of interest to 
note, also, that the fire-box of Purdue's "camel-back" 
extends entirely back of the rear axle, giving an op- 
portunity to make it wider than those boxes which 
were placed between the frames, after the manner 
which was common when Mr. Winans lived. It is 
noteworthy, also, that the wide fire-box with an in- 
clined top is now again coming into use, being found 
in the best of recent designs. 


Chautauqua Type Locomotive, Central Railroad of New Jersey. 

HE Brooks Works of the American Loco- 
* motive Co. recently delivered to the Cen- 
tral Railroad of New Jersey three Chau- 
tauqua type locomotives quite similar in 
construction to the B. R. & P. locomotive 
described in our January issue except that 
in this case the firebox is wider and the cab 
set in front of it. These locomotives are 
intended to burn fine anthracite coal. 
The weight in working order is 191,000 lbs. of 
which 99,400 lbs. is on drivers, 48,400 lbs. on front 
truck wheels, and 43,200 lbs. on trailing wheels. The 
tender with a full load of coal and water weighs 124,- 
000 and carries 6,000 gallons of water and twelve tons 
of coal. 

The boiler has 325 tubes 2 inches in diameter and 
16 feet 6^4 inches long, and a firebox 10 feet 2 inches 
long. The heating surface amounts to 2,967 square 
feet of which 2,793 square feet is in the tubes and the 
remaining 174 square feet in the firebox. The grate 
area is 82 square feet. 

With a boiler pressure of 210 lbs., 20^ in. by 26 in. 
cylinders, and 85 in. wheels the engine has a traction 

force of 22,950 lbs. The factor obtained by dividing 
the heating surface in square feet by the weight in 
pounds of one cylinder full of steam at boiler pressure 
is 1,210, which should insure a good steaming engine. 
The frames are of wrought iron, the main portion 5 
ins. wide, reduced to 4 ins. in width at the cylinders 
and to about two inches under the fire box. In addi- 
tion to the usual braces from the smoke box sides to 
the bumper beam these engines have similar braces 
extending back from the smoke box and making a 
connection with the frames at the guide yoke, a con- 
struction which ought to go far toward preventing 
loose saddle bolts and cylinder bolts. Free use of cast 
steel is made as a substitute for wrought and cast iron. 
The spring rigging is of an arrangement often used 
by these builders, the front driving springs being un- 
derhung and the back springs over the boxes, the rear 
ends connecting with a cross equalizer to which con- 
nections are made by the trailing equalizers. The 
trailing truck is of the Player design used on the Buf- 
falo, Rochester & Pittsburg, Chicago, Rock Island and 
Pacific and Burlington, Cedar Rapids & Northern En- 
gines built during the past year by these builders. 



February, 1902. 

The detailed dimensions and particulars not given 
above are as follows : 

Kind of fuel to be used Fine anthracite coal 

Weight on leading wheels 48,400 lbs. 

Weight on driving wheels 99,400 lbs. 

Weight on trailing wheels. . . . . ' 43,200 lbs. 

Weight, total 191,000 lbs. 

Weight tender loaded. . 124,000 lbs. 

Valves, greatest travel 5^ in. 

Valves, steam lap (inside) 1% in. 

Valves, exhaust clearance (outside) o 

Lead in full gear 3-32 in. 

Lead, constant or variable Variable. 

Boiler, type of . .Wagon top. 

Boiler, working pressure 210 

Boiler, material in barrel . . Steel. 

Chautauqua Type Locomotive, Central Railroad of New Jersey. 

Wheel base total of engine 29 ft. 10 in. 

Wheel base driving 7 ft. 8 in. 

Wheel base total engine and tender 53 ft. 8 in. 

Length over all engine 39 ft. 8^ in. 

Length over all total engine and tender. . . .69 ft. 8 in. 

Height center of boiler above rail 9 ft. Sy 2 in. 

Height of stack above rail 14 ft. 11 in. 

Heating surface, fire box 174 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, tubes 2793 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, total 2967 sq. ft. 

Grate area 82 sq. ft. 

Wheels, diameter 36 in. 

Wheels, driving, diameter . . .85 in. 

Wheels, trailing, diameter 51 in. 

Material of wheel centers All cast steel. 

Type of trailing wheels Improved radial axle. 

Journal leading axles 6 x 12 

Journal leading axles, wheel fit 6} 2 

Journal, driving ' g l / 2 x 12 in. 

Journal driving axles, wheel fit 9^ in. 

Journal trailing axles 8 x 14 in. 

Journal trailing axles, wheel fit 7% in. 

Cylinder diameter 20^ in. 

Cylinder stroke 26 in. 

Piston rod diameter 4 in. 

Main rod length center to center 140 in. 

Steam ports, length 2 S l A m - 

Steam ports, width 1^4 in. 

Exhaust ports, least area 75 sq. in. 

Bridge width 3^ m - 

Valves, kind of Improved piston. 

Boiler, diameter of barrel front 68 in. 

Boiler, diameter of barrel at throat 73^ in. 

Seams, kind of, horizontal Sextuple. 

Seams, kind of, circumferential Triple. 

Crown sheet stayed with Radial stays. 

Dome, diameter inside 30 in. 

Fire box, type - Wide. 

Fire box, length 123 in. 

Fire box, width 97 in. 

Fire box, depth front 59 in. 

Fire box, depth back 48 in. 

Fire box, material Steel. 

Fire box, thickness of sheets 

Crown }i in., tube $/% in., side Y% in. 

Fire box, brick arch ■. . .None. 

Fire box, mud ring, width 

T,y 2 in. back, 33/2 in. sides, 4 in. front. 

Fire box, water space at top 

4 x / 2 in. back, $y 2 in. sides, 4 in. front. 

Tubes, number of 325 

Tubes, material Charcoal Iron. 

Tubes, outside 2 in. 

Tubes, thickness 12 B. W. G. 

Tubes, length over tube sheets 16 ft. 6% hi. 

Smoke box, outside diameter 71 in. 

Smoke box, length from tube sheet 65^ in. 

Exhaust nozzle, single or double Single. 

Netting, wire or plate Netting. 

Netting, size of mesh or perforations 

2.y 2 in. x 2.y 2 in. No. 12 wire. 

Stack, straight or taper Taper. 

February, 1902. 





February, 1902. 

Stack, least diameter taper 15 m - 

Stack, greatest diameter taper 16^ in. 

Stack, height above smoke box 2.J in. 

Type 8-wheel steel frame. 

Tank, type Slope top. 

Tank, capacity for water ' 6000 gallons. 

Tank, capacity for coal 12 tons. 

Tank, material Steel. 

Tank, thickness of sheets Ya m - 

Type of underframe Steel channel. 

Type of trucks B. W. all metal trucks. 

Type of springs Triple elliptic. 

Diameter of wheels , ^36 in. 

Diameter by length of journals 5^ in. x 10 in. 

Distance between centers of journals 6 ft. 5 in. 

Length of tank inside 20 ft. 

Width of tank inside 10 ft. 

Height of tank, not including collar 5 ft. 7*4 in. 

Type of draw gear Williamson & Pries tandem. 

The special equipment includes New York automat- 
ic brakes for driving and trailing wheels and tender 
and train service, Nathan sight feed lubricators, Con- 
solidated safety valves, Hancock injectors, Consoli- 
dated steam heating system, French springs, Jerome 
metallic packing piston rods. 

♦ »» 

Thirty-six Foot 6o,ooo-lb. Capacity Box Cars, Delaware, Lacka- 
wanna and Western. 

|E are enabled, through the courtesy of Mr. 
L. T. Canfield, master car builder of the 
Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Rail- 
road, to publish herewith the plans for the 
36-foot 30-ton box cars, of which 1,000 
were recently ordered of the American Car 
& Foundry Co. These cars are built in ex- 
act accordance with the recommendations 
of the American Railway Association as to 
length, height, width and width of door opening. 

The details of construction are very clearly shown 
on the general plan drawings furnished us. The side 
and intermediate sills are 4Y in. by 8 in. in section, and 
the center sills 5 in. by 8 in. in section. The end sills 
are 8 in. by 9 in. in section and are mortised in the 
usual manner for the tenons of the longitudinal sills. 
The side posts and braces are but 2^2 in. thick, but 
the panels between bolsters and door openings are 
short so the sides are probably as stiff as will be 

The floor trussing consists of four iy& in. truss rods 
located inside the outside sills and outside the center 
sills, the latter rods being located on the centers of 
the buffer castings, which are so designed as to serve 
as truss rod washers. The body bolsters are of D. L. 
& W. design, made up of plates 10 in. wide and rein- 
forced by truss rods passing over the tops of center 
and intermediate sills. The draft timbers pass through 
the body bolsters. 

The trucks are of the D. L. & W. standard design, 
with Simplex bolsters and the Barber roller bearing 
Among other special equipments is the following: 
Gould couplers, Butler single spring draft attach- 
ments, Sterlingworth brake beams, Westinghouse air 
brakes, Standard Railway Equipment Co.'s outside 
metallic roof, Magnus Metal Co.'s M. C. B. journal 
bearings, D. L. & W. standard malleable iron journal 
boxes, Gould Coupler Co.'s wrought iron axle, Nation- 
al Railway Spring Co.'s springs, Chicago grain door, 
and Durham side door fixtures. 

Z" Rollers 10" Lon^ 

TBarber Roller-Bearing Truck, D., L. & W. Box Cars. 

February, 1902. 

























February, 1902. 

Boom Island Roundhouse, Wisconsin Central Railway, Minneapolis. 

HE Wisconsin Central Railway how have 

T under way some important improvements 
in their terminal facilities at Minneapolis. 
Minn., including freight yards and houses, 
a repair yard with a round house, machine 
shop, power house, oil house, sand house, 
and other buildings and conveniences for 
cleaning and repairing cars and locomo- 
tives. With the exception of the freight 
yards and house the improvements are located on 
Boom Island, which is an island in the Mississippi 

We are enabled by Mr. R. B. Tweedy, chief engi- 
neer of the railway company, to present herewith the 
plans of the round house and machine shop. The 
round house is an 80 ft. eight stall structure with brick- 
walls and concrete foundations. The posts, braces 
and roof girders and purlins are of best Oregon fir 
or Georgia pine, and the roof sheathing of 2 x 6 ins. 
No. 1 white pine. The roof is covered with a five-ply 
tar and. gravel. The pits are of concrete connected 
with a line of 12-in. vitrified salt glazed sewer pipe, ex- 
tended to an outlet into the river. A drop pit connect- 


Cross Section of Roundhouse, Wisconsin Central Rv. 

Rear tfievofiQn 

Front Elevation 

Elevations of Roundhouse, Wisconsin Central Railway. 

February, 1902. 



Plan of Roundhouse, Machine Shop, Power and Storehouse, Wisconsin Central Railway. 

4 6 


February, 1902. 

ing two adjacent pits is provided for convenience in dumped into the cinder pit car, then by moving the lever, 

removing wheels. An unusual feature of this round- 
house is the arrangement for eating, consisting of a 
hot blast apparatus with underground distribution 
through galvanized iron and tile pipes. 

Adjoining the roundhouse is the power house and 
machine shop, a building 50 ft. by 80 ft. in size with a 
wing 25 ft. by 63 ft. containing the store house, oil 
house, and offices for foreman and dispatcher. From 
the power house is supplied the necessary heat, power 
light, etc., compressed air, steam and water for use 
throughout the buildings and grounds. The whole 
arrangement of buildings and yards seems very con- 

♦ ♦» 

Cinder Pit Conveyor. 

MANY devices have been invented and put in use 
for the saving of money in railway service but 
it is claimed that none have effected a greater saving 
for the money expended than the device herewith illus- 
trated. The device consists of an air cylinder and car 
running on a track, with a third rail in the center, this 
rail being used to dump the car at the proper time. The 
locomotive is run over the pit as usual and grates cleaned 
and cinders dumped in the regular manner, but instead 
of the cinders dropping into the pit to be shoveled out 

are run up the incline railway and automatically dumped. 
It will be readily seen by this improved method no 

Cinder Pit Conveyor. 

labor is used. Where the cinder pit is located near the 
roundhouse or shops, the air is taken from the air re- 
by hand and then rehandled into the cinder car, they are ceiver in the shops, but, should there be no air used in 

Cinder Pit Conveyor. 

February, 1902. 



the shops it can be operated by the air brake apparatus 
on the engine. A saving of 60 per cent per year on the 
present system can be made when a fair amount of en- 
gines are in use, and the work performed in a more 
satisfactory manner. 

The apparatus can be adapted to any cinder pit now in 
use without any great additional expense to the present 
pit. As seen by the illustration only a small section has 
to be taken from the side of the pit to allow the car to 
pass under the rail for loading. The apparatus is sold 
complete F. O. B. cars, Chicago with drawings for erect- 
ing, or the plant will be furnished and set up in place 
ready for operation. Those interested are referred to 
the officials of the Grand Trunk Ry., this company has 

one of the devices in operation at their terminal at Chi- 
cago for some months and it is giving excellent services. 
The plant can be seen in operation any day at the round- 
house, located at Elsdon, only a few miles from Chicago. 
At the office of the company, a complete working model 
is on exhibition. The conveyor is being manufactured 
and put upon the market by the Robertson Conveyor 
System, with general offices at 1400-1 Monadnock Block, 
Chicago. The device was invented by Mr. W. Robert- 
son of Chicago, and the patent taken out by Mr. Chas. 
W. Hill, Attorney at 1527 Monadnock Blk., Chicago. 
Mr. J. A. Mason, the manager and Mr. J. H. Glenden- 
ning, the engineer of the company, will be glad to fur- 
nish further information on request. 


9(i 8 07- 


HP'^ lis /m •" - «- \.L . 

- i ft ■ "" l\ 

\ '£537 

'' . ^mmmmmm 

»*mmmmii&L , 96^' *-«!-; : ■■'■■■:■ 


Cinder Pit Conveyor. 

Cinder Pit Conveyor. 

Cinder Pit Conveyor. 

4 8 


February, 1902. 

The VanDuzen 

Railroad Fire 

Locomotive and 

THIS is a steam-jet pump of special construction, 
placed in the rear part of the locomotive tender, 
just under the top. Attached to it is a brass suction- 
pipe extending: to 

MB> > the inside bottom of 

tank, and a steam- 
pipe leading out of the tender at a 
convenient place for a steam con- 
nection with the boiler. Immedi- 
ately from the top of the pump ex- 
tends the discharge-pipe (a two- 
inch gas-pipe nipple). On the top 
top of of this is an elbow, 

tender. to which is attached, 

at ^.11 times, a proper length of hose 
— flat cotton rubber-lined preferred 
— and a hose-nozzle, the hose snug- 
ly folded in a small box close to the 
pump. The main feature is, that 
every locomotive is a steam fire en- 
gine, and every one with steam up 
means a fire engine on its way to 
the fire. Further than this, it means 
that a few barrels of water well ap- 
plied on an incipient fire will, in almost every case, 
extinguish it, while thousands of barrels applied late 
will, in but few cases, avert entire destruction and save 
life. With the ordinary pressure of steam on a loco- 
motive this device will fill a two-inch hose 100 feet 
long and discharge a solid stream of water from a 
5/^-inch nozzle to a distance of 90 feet horizontally. 
This pump requires no mechanical skill or supervision. 
All its parts being immovable, it can not get out of 
order; and, being made of brass, will not corrode or 
rust. If neglected or unused for years, it is just as 
ready for work as when first put up ; and having no 
valves, etc., to hold water, will not freeze. The cost 
is a small item compared with the saving of property 
that it will effect. The manufacturers have furnished hun- 
dreds of them to various railroads and locomotive manu- 
facturers. Further information will be furnished by E. 
W. Van Duzen Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

♦ »» 

amount of sand that will pass through this machine in a 
given time is variable and depends largely upon the con- 
ditions under which it is used ; that is to say, how wet the 
sand is when it is put in the hopper and also the intensity 

Clark's Sand Drier. 

of the fire maintained in the stove. The furnace is ar- 
ranged to use any kind of solid fuel such as hard or soft 
coal or wood. These driers are for use with clear sand 
only, as earth or clay will merely bake and will not dis- 
charge itself from the machine. These driers are claimed 
to be the best ever put upon the market for preparing sand 
for use on locomotives and street cars. 


Clark's Perfect Sand Drier. 

THE accompanying illustration shows one of the types 
of the Clark "Perfect" Sand Driers, which are 
manufactured by the Parkhurst & Wilkinson Co., of Chi- 
cago. This sand drier received the premium as the best 
sand drier at the National Exposition of Railway Appli- 
ances, and it is in extensive use not only throughout the 
United States but in Canada, Europe and South America. 
These driers are built in the fashion of an hour glass, the 
wet sand being shoveled against the stove and as it dries 
is allowed to run out through apertures in the perforated 
ring which surrounds the bottom of the hopper. The 

Fifteenth Annual Report of the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission. 

WE give herewith a synopsis of the fifteenth an- 
nual report of the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission, transmitted to Congress January, 1902, pub- 
lishing only such portions as are of particular interest 
to the department of railroad service represented by 
the Railway Master Mechanic: 

The report then shows that for the year ending 
June 30, 1901, the number of employes killed in coup- 
ling accidents was less than in the preceding year by 
about 35 per cent, and the number injured was less 
by about 52 per cent. Attention is called to the form 
of accident reports promulgated by the commission 
under the accident law of March 3, 1901, under which 
precise definitions are given for the purpose of these 
reports to the words "killed" and "injured," and that 
this has resulted in a uniform system of reporting. 
According to the accident returns for the month of 
July, only four employes were killed during thai- 
month while coupling and uncoupling cars. This war- 
rants the expectation that casualties due to this cause 
will be less for 1902 than for 1901. For the full year 

February, 1902. 



ending June 30, 1902, the number killed in coupling 
accidents averaged 23^ per month. A table showing 
the complete statistics for 1893, and 1897 to 1900, in- 
clusive is given. Another table shows for those years 
the number of persons killed or injured by falling 
from trains and engines. 

There was a material increase in the ratio killed in 
1900 from the three years preceding, the causes for 
which can only be conjectured. With the use of air 
brakes on freight trains it is confidently expected to 
lessen the deaths and injuries under this head, and it 
is observed that air brakes were not nearly as gen- 
erally used in 1899 and 1900 as they are now. It is 
pointed out, however, that with more powerful loco- 
motives, heavier cars, and longer freight trains the 
use of air brakes on these trains has been the occasion 
of an increased number of violent shocks, which tend 
to increase the danger to men on the cars. 

Another table indicates the increased efficiency of 
the men. In 1893 the number of ton miles to each 
trainman was 638,635, while in 1890 it was 913,425. 
Some damage cases brought under the safety-appli- 
ance act, or similar provisions in the state stautes, are 
mentioned. The commission recommends that this 
act be amended so as to specifically require the appli- 
cation of automatic couplers to locomotives and tend- 
ers. Although about 75 per cent of the locomotives 
and tenders have been equipped with such couplers, 
the amendment is desirable if for no other reason than 
to insure uniformity on all the roads. It is also rec- 
ommended that the application of "handholds" be re- 
quired on locomotives, tenders, and snow plows as 
well as upon cars. Both of these provisions and also 
the requirement of a standard height for couplers 
might reasonably be made to cover all vehicles, pas- 
senger, freight, and miscellaneous, which are hauled 
or propelled by standard locomotives. The commis- 
sion recognizes that as a rule the railroad companies 
now need no compulsion to induce them to use auto- 
matic couplers, and that it is only in details of a minor 
character that any road has assumed a critical or re- 
luctant attitude. Both the automatic coupler and con- 
tinuous power brake are now absolute necessities in 
the operation of roads which move long trains, or use 
the powerful locomotives and heavy cars which are 
now common. Thus the policy of Congress in enact- 
ing the safety-appliance law is amply vindicated on 
what may be called business considerations, without 
regard to the question of safety of life and limb. 

Attention is called to the dangerous tise at the pres- 
ent time of old and weak cars in nearly all trains. 
This has largely been caused by the great expansion 
of business, but it is reasonable to expect that every 
well-managed road will do away with this element of 
danger as fast as is practicable. The action of the 
American Railway Association in recommending the 
adoption of a standard size for box and freight cars 
is noted and commended. The rules adopted by the 
commission for the government of its inspectors are 

appended to the report. These rules have been widely 
distributed and have come to be largely used by the 
railways themselves. About 50 copies have been sent 
at the request of the Master Car Builders' Associa- 
tion. The appendix to the report also contains a table 
summarizing the results of the inspections made by 
the commission. For the year ending June 30, 1901, 
the five or six inspectors employed examined about 
98,600 cars. The results of these inspections are dis- 
cussed with some detail. Attention is called to defects 
in couplers, uncoupling mechanism, brake cylinders, 
or triple valves. Especial reference is made to the 
breakage of the "knuckle" on couplers, which often 
results from the fact that slots and holes are still left 
in the knuckles for the purpose of coupling with the 
old-fashioned link and pin, thereby diminishing the 
strength and security of the knuckle and of the coup- 
ler as a whole. The needs of the future in respect to 
couplers are strength, simplicity, and finish, the latter 
term being used with reference to the outer lines and 
greater smoothness. 

Railroad officials complain frequently of rough 
handling of cars in the yards. With the general use 
of automatic couplers, relieving the men of the neces- 
sity of going between cars about to come together, it 
has become possible to quicken the work of switching 
by moving the cars much faster than formerly, 
and taking less care to properly graduate the speed of 
one car or a draft of cars as it approaches another. 
This condition is regrettable, not only on account of 
damage to the cars, but because it produces an ele- 
ment of danger to the men. The breakage of a timber 
or loosening of a bolt or other fastening may not be 
discovered until it has caused a derailment while run- 
ning on the road at high speed. The remedy for this 
fault lies chiefly in greater discipline of the men while 
handling the cars. Considerable space is devoted to 
the subject of air brakes, and the commission says 
that the air brake on freight trains has long been in 
need of a decided improvement. Trains have often 
been run with only a few cars air-braked, when, but 
for insufficient inspection, a very much larger number 
could have been made available. A harmful practice 
in connection with air-brake hose, which, unfortu- 
nately, seems to be on the increase, is noted. This 
results from pulling one car away from another with- 
out disconnecting the house couplings, but leaving 
these couplings to separate automatically. While 
such separation is theoretically provided for in the 
design of the coupling, the hose is strained and fre- 
quently loosened at its fastenings, so that defects are 
produced. This introduces an element of constant 
danger while trains are running, for the incidental 
rupture or parting of a hose while the train is in 
motion is sure to cause sudden stoppage, and the 
resulting shocks are quite liable to cause derailment 
or other damage to the cars. The retaining valve is a 
valuable additional safeguard, and on every steep 
grade a necessity, but it appears that only a few roads 



February, 1902. 

have as yet made regular and systematic use of these 


Another cause of unsatisfactory service is found in 
deficient arrangements at yards for testing the brakes. 
The systematic maintenance of air brakes on freight 
cars requires the intelligent co-operation of all who 
have to do with making up, movement, and distribu- 
tion of trains. The running of trains partially air- 
braked is a practice which is still tolerated every- 
where. The balance of economy is probably in favor 
of running trains partially air-braked, rather than with 
no air brakes, but such a dangerous condition must 
be obvious to every railway manager. Some com 
panies, particularly in the east, are still controlling 
trains on steep descending grades by the use of hand 
brakes. This is in disregard of the lessons of expe- 
rience on many roads in the west, and is contrary to 
the advice of expert engineers. An object of the 
safety-appliance act was to provide for the use of uni- 
versal and continuous power brakes on all trains, and 
it is the purpose of the commission to pay particular 
attention to this feature. Attention is called to the 
benefits accomplished by the establishment of a stand- 
ard height for drawbars, and that the -railroads had 
made good progress in that direction before the pas- 
sage of the law. It is gratifying to be able to state 
that many railroads are introducing or extending the 
use of the block system, and otherwise improving 
their signaling appliances, all of which decreases the 
dangers of train movement and makes the duties of 
the men simpler and easier. In conclusion, particular 
reference is made to letters in the appendix from offi- 
cers of railway companies and trainmen's brother- 
hoods, testifying to the good results of the law. 

♦ » » 

The R. A Car Mover. 

EVERYONE who has had occasion to move a heav- 
ily loaded car with the ordinary pinch bar, knows 
how difficult a matter it is, especially when there is even 
a slight amount of snow or ice on the track. We illus- 
trate in the accompanying cut a car mover manufactured 
and for sale by the Railway Appliances Company, 680 
Old Colony Bldg., Chicago, 111. It will be noticed in the 
illustration that the desirable feature of this device is that 
the clamping arrangement makes it impossible for the bar 
to slip. The greater the resistance, the tighter the clamp 
grips the rail. One man with this car moved can easily 
do the work of four. There are 1,200 "R. A." car mov- 
ers in use, and all said to be giving perfect satisfaction. 
To any one who has a switch it will save its cost twice 
over in time and labor, and the same is true of car 
shops, round houses, barns, etc. 

The Railway Appliances Company have received many 
letters in regard to this car mover and we quote from 
several of them. The Crescent Coal & Mining Com- 
pany of Chicago say that they are glad to report that 
the device works better than they had expected. They 
believe that they have tried all the car movers in 
existence and can cheerfully say that they have never 
had any that has proven so satisfactory as the "R. A." 
They have no difficulty in moving three loaded cars 
at one time with it. 

Aurora Metal Company of Aurora, 111., under date of 
January 10, 1902, write as follows : "We received one of 
the R. A. car movers some time ago and find that it does 
its work perfectly. One man can move a car with its 
aid, more rapidly than four or six men have been able to 
do previously. We regard it as an exceedingly useful 
and labor saving implement which we can cheerfully rec- 
ommend.'' Mr. A.M. Clark, Supt. of the American Brake 
Shoe & Foundry Co. of Chicago Heights, III, has sent 
the Railway Appliances Company the following letter: 
"I take great pleasure in testifying as to the unusual 


R. A. Car Mover. 
merits of your "R. A." car mover. Two of these have 

been in constant use for some time, one in our yards mov- 
ing cars of pig iron and sand, the other in our shipping 
department. Your mover possesses decided advantages 
over any other bar we have seen or used on account of its 
"never slip" construction; its lightness and strength and 
on account of the excessive leverage which can be 
exerted on the wheel which enables the operator to 
move two loaded cars with perfect ease. I can heartily 
recommend its adoption as a great labor saving device. 
Further information in regard to the "R. A." car mover 
will be gladly furnished upon application to the Railway 
Appliances Company, 680 Old Colony Bldg., Chicago. 

February, 1902. 



Cleveland Car Foremen's Association. 

THE regular monthly meeting of the Car Depart- 
ment Foremen's Association of Cleveland, O., 
was held at the Kennard Hotel Saturday, Jan. 18. 
Meeting was called to order at 8:00 p. m. by President 

Among those present were the following: 

A. Berg, J. C. Dennerle, W. J. Frey, J. D. McAlpine, 
C. A. Halleen, J. H. Acker, C. Schneider, J. Johnson, 
Geo. Lynch. 

Reading of the minutes of the previous 
meeting was dispensed with. 

The committee composed of Messrs. John- 
son, McAlpine and Dennerle reported several 
changes in the constitution, which they rec- 
ommended, and also presented an application 
blank which they recommended for adoption. 
On motion of Mr. Frey, seconded by Mr. Hal- 
leen, the report was referred back to the com- 
mittee with instructions that they make such 
further changes as they deem advisable, and 
report at the next meeting*. 

The following made application for mem- 
bership, and their names were placed on the 
rolls : 

C. Schneider, assistant foreman, L. S. & M. 
S. Ry., Sandusky, O. 

J. Johnson, assistant foreman, L. S. & M. S. 
Ry., Ashtabula, O. 

Subjects for discussion. Among the sub- 
jects taken up and discussed by the members 
present were the following : 

No. 1. "Is the delivering road or car owner 
responsible for an axle which is too long or 
too short, found in a foreign car?" 

After some discussion it was made the sense 
of the meeting that the change of an axle of 
improper length found in a foreign car would 
be chargeable to the car owner. 

No. 2. "In view of the additional item added to the 
labor schedule, which specifies that a labor charge of 
two hours shall be made for replacing one or two 
coupler stops at same end of car, what is the proper 
charge for replacing a coupler in connection with 
Butler casing?" 

After considerable discussion pro and con it was 
made the sense of the meeting that according to the 
1901 rules four (4) hours would be the proper charge 
in making the repairs mentioned. 

Election of officers. 

As the hour was getting late, and the attendance not 
being up to expectations, it was decided to postpone 
the annual election of officers until the next meeting. 

Meeting adjourned. 

A New Radial Drill. 

IT is probably a fair statement -that the radial drill 
has developed less during the past fifteen years 
than any other standard type of machine tool. It 
would seem that other tools — particularly the several 
types of lathes — have so engrossed the attention of de- 
signers that the radial drill has been more or less neg- 
lected and the possibilities of its development rather lost 
sight of. The Bickford Drill & Tool Company, of Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, have just placed upon the market the 

Fig. 1. — Bickford Radial Drill. 

new radial drill is illustrated in Fig. 1. This machine 
possesses many novel features, and gives evidence 
throughout of a bold effort to introduce at once every 
means of augmenting output, while at the same time in- 
creasing the accuracy of the work done. 

The machine is provided with a wide range of speeds 
and feeds operated through nests of gears that give in- 
stantly any speed and feed without stopping the spin- 
dle; a depth gauge for reading all depths from zero; 
a multiple automatic trip that can be set to operate at 
as many different depths as there are holes to be drilled ; 
an absolute safety stop; and a tapping device that oper- 
ates at all speeds. All the adjusting levers are within 
easy reach of the operator and changes can be made so 
quickly that there would seem to be every reason why 
on this machine the several sizes and kinds of tools used 
should be operated at their correct speeds and feeds. 



February, 1902. 

-Bickford Radial Drill 

American .V.icltinist 

The power is applied to a single driving 
pulley and is transmitted through a speed 
box mounted on the base at the left of the 
column. The single lever shown gives any 
one of four speeds instantly without stop- 
ping any part of the machine, by operating 
the friction clutches shown in the sectional 
view Fig. 2. This speed box takes the place 
of the customary cone pulley. The advan- 
tages claimed for it are that it does away 
with all belt shifting; prolongs the life of 
the belt ; gives great economy of power — 
the belt speed being constant and the pull, 
therefore, directly proportional to the power 
absorbed at the drill; can be driven with 
unimpaired convenience from below the 
floor — when the arm is free to describe a 
full circle about the column ; permits setting 
the machine at right angles to the line shaft- 
ing by using a quarter twist belt; and is 
equally efficient when driven electrically be- 
cause it permits the direct connection of a 
constant speed motor. 

The second shaft of the speed box trans- 
mits through mitres to the back gears. 
These are mounted in a box bolted to the 
back of the cuff, or sleeve, of the arm, and 
are operated through friction clutches, with- 
out stopping any part of the machine, by the 
pair of levers shown at the extreme left of 

the arm. An engraved index plate on the 
cuff tells the operator how to manipulate 
these levers. The speed box and back 
gears together give 16 spindle speeds, 
which are arranged in geometrical pro- 
gression from 16 to 256 revolutions per 
minute. The back gear shaft transmits 
to the head and through a simple train 
of gears to the drill spindle. The feed 
box is mounted on the head immediately 
to the left of the drill spindle and con- 
tains a nest of gears that give instantly 
any one of 8 feeds, ranging in geometric- 
al progression from .005 in. to .1 in. per 
revolution of spindle. The method of 
feed changing is shown in Fig. 3. The 
sliding key A is hinged to the pull pin 
B ; there are three keyways in each gear 
and between each pair of adjacent gears 
there is a steel ring so shaped that the 
key is free to be moved at any instant to 
any one of the four gears and then en- 
gages automatically with the first of the 
three keyways that comes around. 

It will be seen that the position of 
lower C, a quarter turn of which changes 
the feed either to. the next higher or the 
next lower, indicates which of the gears 
is operating. The cone of gears shown 
gives 4 of the 8 feeds ; the other four are 
obtained by means of a similar pull 

Fig. 4. — Bickford Radial Drill. 

February, 1902. 



Fig. 2. — Bickford Radial Drill. 

Fig. 3. — Bickford Radial Drill. 

ilnurudi Maohinitt 

pin key actuating two gears immediately below. Taken 
together, the feed changing, speed box, and back gear 
levers give practically instantaneous speed and feed 
changes — a feature of no small importance when it is 
remembered that the time required to drill an average 
hole is a matter of seconds rather than minutes, so that 
any time spent shifting belts or locking and unlocking 
back gears decreases by a very large percentage the pos- 
sible output of the machine. The engraved plate on 
the front of the feed box gives positions of levers for 
the 8 feeds. The range of these feeds is effectively indi- 
cated in Fig. 4, the specimen shown was prepared with- 
out stopping the spindle — each half inch of traverse be- 
ing read direct on the dial depth gauge — and with only 
sufficient interruption of the feed to give a clear line of 
demarkation between changes. One of the most novel 
features of the machine is the zero depth gauge and mul- 
tiple automatic grip. Fig. 5 in the lower view shows this 
trip and gauge set for drilling three holes, the respec- 
tive depths of which are 3, 6^2 and 8^4 inches. To set, 
the graduated dial is turned until its stop pin brings its 
zero opposite the fixed pointer; the dogs are then set 
by the graduations on the dial for the depths required. 
An important feature of this tripping mechanism is that 
while drilling the 8^-inch hole, for which the third 
dog is set, the other dogs can be rendered inoperative 
by simply lifting a latch on the clutch pawl; or if by 
any chance the workman neglects to lift the latch and 
so permits an intermediate dog to trip, the feed can be 
continued without interruption by throwing the clutch 
in again by hand. The upper view of Fig. 5 shows the 
first dog at the moment of tripping. 

The safety stop, S, Fig. 5, is a steel pin permanently 
secured in the face of the tripping gear. When the 
spindle reaches the end of its transverse this pin engages 
positively with the fixed part of the clutch pawl and 
makes it impossible for the feed to be continued or the 

clutch thrown in again until the spindle has been raised. 
In the general design of the machine great rigidity has 
been aimed at by making the arm as well as the column 
in pipe section so as to overcome both the twisting and 
the bending stresses, while to take care of exception- 
ally severe conditions the base has been provided with 
a circular arc slot from which the end of the arm can 
be supported. It will be noticed that the hand wheel for 
operating the head is on the head itself immediately in 
front of the tapping lever. The machine is being built 
in four styles — in which modifications of some of the 
above features are introduced — and in three sizes, to 
drill to the centers of 8 ft., 10 ft., and 13 ft. circles re- 
spectively. The illustration shows the smallest size; this 
has a total vertical feed of 15 inches and will, the mak- 
ers assure us, pull a 4-inch twist drill through solid cast 
iron under a feed of .012 inch per revolution. We un- 
derstand that the novel features are being well covered 
bv patents. We may add that an exceedingly interesting 
and instructive booklet entitled "56 Points of Vantage" 
lias been published by the Bickford Drill & Tool Com- 
pany, in connection with their new line of radials, in 
which the general design of drilling machinery as well 
as the proper speeds and feeds of tools used are ably 
discussed. This booklet can be had upon application. 

♦ »» 

New Heavy Planer and Matcher. 

The machine we are pleased to show our readers is 
designed for working lumber, car shops and other 
places having a large amount of flooring, surfacing, 
jointing, tongueing and grooving to do. It is espe- 
cially for heavy work, and for working uneven lumber 
will be found of great advantage, both as regards 
quality and quantity. Its many operations save and 
do the work of several machines. It was patented 
January 9th and March 20th, 1900, and is called a 
New No. 16 Extra Heavy Double Cylinder Planer and 



February, 1902. 

Matcher. A detailed description of the machine is 
necessary to fully understand what it can do, so we 
will only consider a few of the most important fea- 
tures is has for insuring fine work. Its range of work 
is extraordinary. It will plane four sides to 8 inches 
thick and from 15 to 30 inches wide. It is also made 
with divided rolls, planing two pieces of uneven thick- 
ness at the same time. The frame is very heavy and 
prevents any vibration. The matching works are sub- 
stantial, will match as narrow as ij^ inch, and free 
access can be had to heads. The steel cylinders are 
slotted on all four faces, with chip breakers for work- 
ing cross-grained lumber. All adjustments are made 
easily, quickly and accurately. The feed is six large 
rolls, powerfully driven; can be regulated as desired, 
and is under positive control of the operator. An im- 
proved belt-tightening device enables stock \y 2 inch 
machine, J. A. Fay & Egan Co., of No. 145 to No. 166 

West Front St., Cincinnati, Ohio, will be pleased to 
thick to be matched accurately. The makers of this 
furnish any further particulars and details desired, and 


Improved Heavy Planer and Matcher. 

will also send to those interested their new combined 
450-page catalogue, showing to advantage each and 
every machine they make, free of charge. 


Mr. J. G. Woodworth, traffic manager of the Pacific 
Coast Company, has resigned to accept service with an- 
other company. Hereafter correspondence relating to 
the traffic of the Pacific Coast Steamship Company and 
Pacific Coast Railway will be addressed to Messrs. Good- 
all, Perkins & Co., general agents, San Francisco, Cal. 
Correspondence relating to the traffic of the Columbia & 
Puget Sound Railroad Company and Port Townsend 
Southern Railroad Company will be addressed to Mr. 
C. W. Miller, general freight and passenger agent, Seat- 
tle, Wash. 

Mr. George H. Baker has been appointed fuel superin- 
tendent for the Rutland Railroad Company, with office 
at Rutland, Vt. Engineers, firemen, roundhouse men 
and coal shute men will respect his orders in the handling 
of fuel. 

Mr. M. S. Monroe has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Gulf, Beaumont & Kansas City, Beaumont Wharf 
& Terminal Company and Gulf, Beaumont & Great 
Northern, with headquarters at Beaumont, Tex., vice Mr. 
S. L. Trotter, resigned. 

Mr. James P. Renecker has been appointed foreman of 
locomotive repairs of the Southwest system of the Penn- 
sylvania Lines at Logansport, Ind., vice Mr. Thomas 
Austin, resigned. 

Mr. Samuel Millican has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Houston, East & West Texas, with head- 
quarters at Houston, Tex., to succeed Mr. A. S. Grant, 
resigned to accept the position of master mechanic of the 
St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern at Little Rock, 
Ark. ........ 

On the Metropolitan West Side Elevated of Chicago 
the title of general foreman as heretofore applied to the 
head of the shop department has been changed to master 
mechanic. Communications will hereafter be addressed 
to Mr. M. N. Scott as "Master Mechanic and Road Mas- 

Mr. S. Pierce has been appointed superintendent of 
motive power of the Orange & Northwestern, with gen- 
eral headquarters at Orange, Tex. 

Mr. James Lander has resigned as master mechanic of 
the Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe at Cleburne, Tex. 

Mr. R. P. Blake has been appointed mechanical engi- 
neer of the Northern Pacific, with headquarters at St 
I 'aul. 

Mr. J. G. Kalbaugh has been appointed superintendent 
of motive power of the West Virginia Central & Pitts- 

™ g k W ^ th J ieadqUarters at Elkins > W - Va -> to succeed 
Mr. 13. C. Courtney, resigned. 

Mr. J. A. Gibson has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Peoria & Eastern division of the Chicago, Cleve- 
land, Cincinnati & St. Louis, with headquarters at Ur- 
bana, 111., vice Mr. John McClurg, resigned. 

Mr. A. L. Humphrey, superintendent of motive power 
and car department of the Colorado Southern, has been 
appointed superintendent of motive power of the Chicago 
& Alton, with headquarters at Bloomington, 111., to suc- 
ceed Mr. C. M. Mendenhall, resigned. 

Mr. J. H. Rathbone has been appointed assistant mas- 
ter mechanic of the first division of the Denver & Rio 
Grande, vice Mr. John Kelker, resigned. 

George S. McKee has been appointed superintendent 
of motive power and car equipment on the Mobile & 
Ohio, with headquarters at Mobile, Ala., vice Mr. M: T. 
Carson, resigned. 

Mr. N. L. Smitham has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Texas Central, with headquarters at Wal- 
nut Springs. 

Mr. William Henry has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Texas Midland to succeed Mr. Smitham, 
with headquarters at Terrell, Tex. 

Mr. Z. A. Baird has been appointed general foreman 
of shops of the Wabash at Tilton, 111, to succeed Mr. 
George W. Smith, who has been appointed general fore- 
man at Peru, Ind., vice Mr. Thomas B. Hindle. 

Mr. W. C. Walsh has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Southern Indiana, with headquarters at Bedford, 
Ind., vice Mr. E. S. Walker. 

Mr. R. A. Moore, formerly master mechanic of the 
Wrightsville & Tennille, has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Hawkinsville & Florida, vice Mr. M. G. 
Howe, resigned. 

Mr. F. H. McGee has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Seaboard Air Line at Americus, Ga., vice Mr. 
D. J. Justice, who has been made general foreman at 
Savannah, Ga. 

Mr. C. C. Robinson has resigned as master mechanic 
of the Peoria division of the Illinois Central at Mattoon, 

^ Mr. D. E. McBain, master mechanic of the Michigan 
Central at Saint Thomas, Out., has been transferred to 
Jackson, Mich., as master mechanic. 

Mr. P. F. Mooney has been reappointed master car 
builder of the Texas Central. 

Mr. J. R. Slack has been appointed superintendent of 
motive power of the Delaware & Hudson, with head- 
quarters at Albany, N. Y. 

Mr. John Witmer, of Lima, has been appointed gen- 

February, 1902. 



eral foreman of the Detroit Southern shop at Spring- 
field, O., vice Thomas Cahill, resigned. 

Mr. W. J. Hayward has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Chesapeake Beach, with headquarters at 
Washington, D. C, vice Mr. C. F. Winn. 

Mr. J. W. Fogg has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Chicago Terminal Transfer, with headquarters at 

Mr. M. B. Hunt has been appointed mechanical en- 
gineer of the Erie, with headquarters at Eagle Lake, 
Tex., vice Mr. Theodore H. Curtis. 

Mr. D. J. Timlin has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Cane Belt, with headquarters at Eagle Lake, 
Tex., vice Mr. A. C. Snyder. 

Mr. Charles Wolf has been appointed road foreman 
of engines of the Saint Louis division of the Cleve- 
land, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis, with headquar- 
ters at Mattoon, 111. 

Mr. Theodore H. Curtis has resigned the position of 
mechanical engineer of the Erie Railroad to accept a sim- 
ilar position on the Louisville & Nashville, with office at 

•♦ »♦• 

Notes of the Month. 

Secretary Taylor has sent out for the committee the 
following circular of inquiry on splicing passenger car 
sills : 

The Committee on Splicing Passenger Car Sills re- 
quests replies to the following questions : 

1. Do you consider a sill as strong with a splice in it as one 

2. At what point in each sill do you consider it best to make 
the splice? 

3. Would it, in your opinion, be safe to make the splice di- 
rectly over the body bolster? 

4. Do you consider it good policy to make the splice over the 
tie timbers? 

5. In your opinion, would it be better to use an iron plate 
on the side of the splice of J / 2 inch or Y% inch in thickness, the 
depth of the sill and of sufficient length to strengthen the sill, 
instead of wood? 

6. Would you advise the use of a key in making the splice? 

7. What do you consider the length of the splice should be? 

8. What do you consider the best form of splice? 

9. What number and size of bolts, in your opinion, should be 
used in making the splice? 

The committee will be glad to have you furnish 
prints showing your practice* or preference of splicing 
sills. Replies are to be sent to John S. Lentz, Master 
Car Builder, L. V. R. R., Packerton, Pa., not later 
than March 15, 1902. John S. Lentz, Chairman, Mord 
Roberts, T. W. Adams, Committee. 

The organization of the Chicago Pneumatic Tool 
Company, of New Jersey, has been completed, and on 
December 21st, 1901, took over the properties pro- 
posed, namely, the business and plants of the Chicago 
Pneumatic Tool Company of Illinois, the Boyer Ma- 
chine Company of Detroit, Michigan ; the Chisholm 
& Moore Crane Company of Cleveland, Ohio ; the 
Franklin Air Compressor Company of Franklin, Pa., 
and the New Taite-Howard Pneumatic Tool Company 
of London, England, and the executive board have just 
announced the following appointments : W. O. Dunt- 
ley, vice-president and general manager ; C. E. 
Walker, assistant general manager ; Thomas Aldcorn, 
general sales agent; W. P. Pressinger, general man- 
ager air compressor department ; Chas. Booth, man- 
ager Chicago office ; S. G. Allen, manager New York 

The general passenger and ticket agent of the Chi- 
cago, Rock Island & Pacific Ry. recently honored for 
redemption an emigrant's ticket issued in 1857. The 
ticket was issued over the Pennsylvania and the Chi- 
cago, Rock Island & Pacific roads, from New York 
to Peoria, 111., and was found on the person of a Ger- 
man emigrant who had committed suicide in the Illi- 
nois & Michigan canal during the year of the purchase. 
It fell into the hands of a party who laid it aside and 
only recently discovered it. 

The Watson-Stillman Company, of 204-210 East 
Forty-third street, New York City, has just issued 
their catalogue No. 63, which is an assortment of 
sheets selected from illustrated sheets describing; their 

hydraulic tools. Their printed matter, consisting, as 
it does at this date, of over six hundred illustrated 
sheets, and covering machinery for a great variety of 
purposes, is too large and varied for general distribu- 
tion, so they have prepared a series of subdivided cata- 
logues, among which is this one. The tools shown 
are all thoroughly guaranteed in every particular, and 
the greatest possible care is used to make them abso- 
lutely reliable. They make a very large line of high- 
pressure hydraulic tools for all purposes, and if a spe- 
cial machine of any sort in this line is required, they 
are ready to enter into the matter with exceptional 
facilities, and produce the article in the best possible 
manner. As they have drawings and patterns for 
many special machines, and are constantly designing 
new ones, they would be pleased to hear from those 
wanting tools in their line which are not illustrated 
in this catalogue or differ from the illustrations. It is 
the desire of the manufacturers to distribute this cata- 
logue wherever it will be of value, and parties apply- 
ing for it should give their position or line of business. 

With the January issue of their magazine, on the 
front cover of which is a design illustrative of the mod- 
ern railway, comes their announcement for the com- 
ing year, which certainly shows that during 1902 Mc- 
Clure's Magazine will be filled with articles of exceed- 
ing interest. The history of the Standard Oil Com- 
pany, by Ida M. Tarbell, is a study of one of the most 
vital subjects in our recent history, and an account of 
the many recent consolidations, especially in railway 
circles, will attract much attention. 

Mr. W. H. Tew, formerly connected with the Amer- 
ican Locomotive Co., Brooks Works, Dunkirk, N. Y., 
and later with the mechanical engineering department 
of the Chicago & Northwestern Railroad, has been • 
appointed managing director of the newly organized 
German branch of the Standard Pneumatic Tool Com- 
pany, with headquarters at Klosterstr., 13- 15a, Berlin, 
Germany, in which country the Standard Pneumatic 
Tool Company are about to erect works for the manu- 
facture of "Little Giant" pneumatic tools and appli- 
ances for supplying the trade in continental Europe. 
They are now purchasing machinery for the plant 
mentioned, which they expect to have completed be- 
fore long. This has been necessitated owing to the 
unprecedented demand for "Little Giant" pneumatic 
tools in Europe, particularly France, Germany and 
Holland, which they are unable to supply, although 
they recently greatly enlarged their plant at Aurora, 
111., U. S. A. Their export business during the month 
of December, 1901, was 100 per cent greater than the 
corresponding month of 1900, and there is every indi- 
cation that there will be a proportionate increase dur- 
ing the present year. 

A very neat catalogue of the Q. & C. Priest snow 
Hanger has been recently issued by the Railroad Sup- 



February, 1902. 

ply Company, illustrating and describing this snow 
flanger. The several photographs which are illus- 
trated show very plainly the satisfactory results ob- 
tained from the use of this device. 

Purdue University will inaugurate, about February 
1, 1902, a new department of instruction in telephonic 
engineering. This step is taken in response to the in- 
creasing demand by telephone interests for men 
trained in the particular branch of electrical engineer- 
ing pertaining to telephony. Investigation has dis- 
closed the fact that students completing the ordinary 
courses in electrical engineering must devote upwards 
of two years additional work to acquiring the special 
details of telephone practice before they are sufficiently 
equipped with the knowledge which is valuable to 
manufacturers and consumers of telephone material. 
It is confidently expected that the courses now offered 
by Purdue University will largely take the place of the 
two years practical employment or apprenticeship and 
will enable the engineering graduate of this depart- 
ment to at once fill telephonic positions demanding 
special qualifications. The proposed course in tele- 
phonic engineering will be based upon the general 
course of electrical engineering already provided for 
by the curriculum and extensive laboratory equipment 
of the university. It will include practically all of the 
required work of the present course in electrical engi- 
neering through the junior year, in English, mathe- 
matics, shop practice, drawing, German, physics, 
chemistry, history, descriptive geometry, physical and 
electrical measurements, mechanics, engineering design, 

Mr. C. L. Robison, who is well known in railroad 
trade circles, has accepted a position with the Detroit 
Graphite Manufacturing Company. Mr. Robison's 
headquarters will be in Chicago, in the office of Mr. 
T. R. Wyles, western agent of the Detroit Graphite 
Manufacturing Company. 

At a meeting of the board of directors of the Pressed 
Steel Car Company recently held in the office at Pitts- 
burgh, at which three vacancies in the board were 
filled by the election of Judge J. H. Reed and Mr. T. H. 
Given of Pittsburgh, and Mr. H. E. Moller of New 
York. Judge Reed is the head of the well-known firm 
of Knox & Reed of Pittsburgh, and a director in the 
United States Steel Corporation, and president of the 
Philadelphia Company of this city. Mr. Given is presi- 
dent of the Farmers' Deposit National Bank, the largest 
bank in Pittsburg, and also a prominent director in many 
other companies. Mr. Moller represents the interests 
of large stockholders resident in New York. The 
president reported gratifying trade conditions, and 
stated that the company's output, which had been in- 
terrupted by failure to secure materials in consequence 
of the switchmen's strike, had now resumed its former 
proportions, and conditions are now practically 

A decision of Judge Coxe, in the United States Cir- 
cuit Court for the Northern District of New York, has 
been handed down. It covers the suit of the Westing- 
house Air Brake Co. against the New York Air Brake 
Co. for infringement of a patent of the former com- 
pany in the manufacture and sale of the form of en- 
gineer's brake valve for some time past furnished by 
the New York Company under a patent granted to 
Vaughan and McKee. The decision grants the decree 
asked for, namely, for an injunction against further 
infringements and an accounting of damages and profits 
arising from sales hitherto made. 

Taking effect January ist, 1902, the Pressed Steel 
Car Company made the following appointments : Geo. 
H. Goodell appointed chief engineer. Mr. Goodell has 
been assistant chief engineer for several months past. 
Prior to this time he was connected with the North- 
ern Pacific Railway in the capacity of mechanical en- 
gineer, and has also had experience in various capaci- 
ties on other railroads. G. E. Moore appointed audi- 
tor. Mr. Moore is an expert accountant, having been 
employed by both the Carnegie Steel Company and 
the Philadelphia Company in this capacity. G. H. 
Judy appointed superintendent of the McKees Rocks 
works. Mr. Judy was formerly in the Pennsylvania 
Railroad service, and has been in the employ of the 
Pressed Steel Car Company as assistant superintend- 
ent at McKees Rocks for some months. 

The "Record of Recent Construction" No. 30, just 
issued by the Baldwin Locomotive Works, contains 
an address upon compound locomotives to the officers 
and employees of the Union Pacific Railroad by Mr. 
S. M. Vauclain. 

The Emperor and Empress Dowager of China had 
their first experience in railway travel this week, going 
by special train from Chengting to Paoting. After- 
ward they personally thanked the director-general and 
expressed themselves pleased and interested. Special 
trains were busy for two days moving the baggage of 
the court from Paoting to Peking. 

At the annual banquet of the Western Society of 
Engineers, held on the 7th inst., at the Auditorium 
hotel, Chicago, Mr. Octave Chanute, the retiring presi- 
dent, presented the society with $1,000 to be used as 
an endowment fund to provide medals each year for 
meritorious papers presented before the society. The 
new president of the society is Mr. W. H. Finley, prin- 
cipal assistant engineer of the Chicago & North- 
western Ry. 

The management of the Chicago & Northwestern 
Ry. has made a change in its pension system, cutting 
down the service limit from 30 to 20 years. As orig- 
inally planned retirement from the company's service 
was compulsory at 70 years of age, after a service of 
30 years with the company. Under the new rule some 
employees of 70 years and upwards who have not seen 
30 years of service are now subject to retirement. 

The Philadelphia & Reading Ry. has inaugurated a 
pension system for some of the oldest employees. This 
system will give authority to retire all employees who 
have been continuously in the company's service 50 
years or more. Such employees will be retained on the 
pay rolls with pensions amounting to 50 per cent of 
the wages received at the time of retirement. The 
minimum pension will be $30 per month, whether the 
rating on the 50 per cent basis amounts to this sum or 
not. It is stated that Mr. Seymour H. Garrigues, a 
machinist, has been in the employ of the company for 
58 years. 

The mechanical officers of the Vanderbilt Lines 
have formed an organization which contemplates bi- 
monthly conferences for the discussion of topics per- 
taining to the motive power department of the system 
and ought to prove of exceeding value to the roads 
which go to make it up. It is no doubt intended to 
embrace the mechanical field in a manner similar to 
that in which the transportation branch of railway 
service is covered by the association of officials in that 
department of the Pennsylvania Lines West of Pitts- 
burgh, which does much admirable work through its 
committees. In the present instance, Mr. A. M. Waitt, 

February, 1902. 



superintendent M. P. & R. S. of the New York Cen- 
tral, is chairman, and the New York Central & Hud- 
son River R. R., Boston & Albany, Lake Shore & 
Michigan Southern, Michigan Central, Big Four (C, 
C, C. & St. L.), Nickel Plate (N. Y., C. & St. L.), and 
other lines are included in the organization. 

The Standard Pneumatic Tool Company make the 
following important announcement to the trade: 
"Two of the best informed and most reliable firms of 
patent attorneys in the United States make us the 
following statement: The 'Little Giant' reciprocating 
piston air drills, now being manufactured by the 
Standard Pneumatic Tool Co., of Chicago, do not in- 
fringe in any particular on any patent for rotary or 
other drills. We hereby guarantee all purchasers and 
users of 'Little Giant' drills against all liabilities. We 
will assume the defense of any litigation against our 
customers which may result from the sale or use of 
our drill, and respectfully request the trade to pay no 
attention to intimidating circulars which are sent out 
for the sole purpose of attempting to injure our busi- 

Advices dated London, December 28th, state that 
the Highland Railway, who have had a number of 
their carriages lighted by the Stone axle electric sys- 
tem, have finally abandoned all attempts to use that 
method of lighting, and have placed an order with the 
Pintsch's Patent Lighting Company of London for the 
erection of a large gas plant, and at the same time 
have ordered of the same company equipments for 212 
of their carriages. As is well known, efforts have been 
made during the past few years by many people, on 
the other side of the Atlantic as well as in this country, 
to make practicable the use of electricity for train 
lighting, but the test of experience has not in all cases 
proved satisfactory. The determination on the part of 
the Highland Railway to pursue their experiments no 
further and to equip all their carriages with the 
Pintsch system of gas lighting is in line with the 
action taken by many American railroad companies. 

The Standard Pneumatic Tool Company have issued 
a very neat catalogue in the German language describ- 
ing and illustrating their 'Little Giant', pneumatic tools 
and appliances. 

Since the reorganization of the Chicago Pneumatic 
Tool Company, whereby they acquired the plants of 
the New York & Franklin Air Compressor Co., they 
are devoting special attention to this branch of their 
large interests, and report the outlook very encourag- 
ing. Among recent orders received may be mentioned 
one for seven 500-ft. air compressors from the Lehigh 
Valley R. R. Co. The crane department is running 
full time on orders in hand, and from the number of 
inquiries received since January 1st the outlook is that 
this plant will shortly be working double shift. The 
compressor department have ample orders to keep a 
full complement of workmen employed for some time 
to come. Mr. Reuben C. Hallett, who has a large 
circle of friends throughout the country, has accepted 
a position with the Chicago Pneumatic Tool Com- 
pany's eastern sales department. 

At a meeting of the Boards of Directors of the Safety 
Car Heating & Lighting and Pintsch Compressing Com- 
panies, January 15th, 1902, the folowing appointments 
were made : Mr. R. M. Dixon was elected vice-president 
of the Safety Car Heating and Lighting Co., and first 
vice-president and manager of the Pintsch Compressing 
Co. He will have charge of the Mechanical Departments, 
embracing also adoption of all standards, and experi- 
mental work, together with the construction and opera- 

tion of the gas works. He will also have charge of the 
preparation of all applications for patents. The assist- 
ant engineers and superintendents of the gas works will 
report to him. In the absence of the president, he will 
perform the duties assigned to the president by the by- 
laws of the companies. Mr. D. W. Pye was elected as- 
sistant to the president of the S. C. H. & L. Co., and 
second vice-president of the Pintsch Compressing Co. He 
will have charge of the commercial interests of the com- 
panies, and perform the duties of general purchasing 
agent. ^ He will aso perform such other duties as may 
be assigned him by the president. 

The following circular of inquiry from the committtee 
on Laboratory Brake Shoe Tests has been sent out by 
Secretary Taylor with the information that the Arbitra- 
tion Committee will probably hold its next meeting the 
last week in April to formulate its report to the associa- 
tion on the Revision of the Rules of Interchange. Any 
member having suggestions to make as to any revisions 
should forward them to the secretary's office before that 

"The Committee on Laboratory Tests of Brake Shoes 
at the Convention of 190 1 recommended the following 
specification for brake shoes: 'Shoes when tested on 
the Master Car Builders' testing machine in effecting 
stops from an initial speed of forty miles an hour, shall 
develop on a cast-iron chilled wheel a mean coefficient 
of friction of not less than 22 per cent when the brake 
shoe pressure is 2,808 pounds, 20 per cent when the 
brake shoe pressure is 4,152 pounds, 16 per cent when 
the brake shoe pressure is 6,840 pound. In the case of 
steel-tired wheels, a mean coefficient of friction of not 
less than 16 per cent when the brake shoe pressure is 
2,808 pounds, 14 per cent when the brake shoe pressure 
is 4,152 pounds, and 12 per cent when the brake shoe 
presure is 6,840 pounds ; in the case of steel-tired wheels 
the speed bing sixty-five miles per hour." The specifi- 
cations were subsequently submitted to letter ballot (see 
questions 1 and 2) and adopted as standard by a large 
majority, indicating that they were satisfactory. The 
committee has not as yet received any request from any 
railroad company to test shoes on the machine to deter- 
mine whether or not the shoes now used are of a com- 
position necessary to produce the mean coefficient of 
friction, and believe some effort should be made to ascer- 
tain whether or not the standard adopted is the most ef- 
ficient that can be obtained for practical service. For 
the purpose of arriving at some more conclusive results, 
the committee requests replies to the folowing questions : 

1. Do you use the same make of shoes on both passenger 
and freight cars? 

2. If not, please give name of shoe used on each class of cars. 


3. Do the passenger and freight car brake shoes used by your 
company have the same area of surface? If not, please give 
area of each. 



4. Do you wish the committee to test the shoes you use to 
ascertain their relative coefficient of friction to the standard 

5. It is presumed the shoes used by your company are satis- 
factory, but if not entirely so, please state what objection you 
may have. 

6. If your road is mountainous, do you experience any ob- 
jectionable results to either the wheel or the shoe by reason of 
the continuous application of the brakes while descending heavy 



February, 1902. 

If so, kindly state what the results are, and, if possible, the 

7. Kindly state what particular make of shoe you find best 
adapted to your service. 

Replies are to be sent to James E. Simons, superin- 
tendent rolling stock and machinery, Pittsburg Coal 
Company, Pittsburg, Pa., not later than March 15, 1902. 
McClure's Magazine for February is one of the best 
all-around numbers its editors have got out. The time- 
liness of the articles, their range of subject and the variety 
of short stories make it possible to read the number from 
cover to cover without monotony. One article stands out 
for special notice as among the most opportune and read- 
able magazine articles for the month — "Marconi's 
Achievement," by Ray Stannard Baker. It is of interest 
to learn that the author of it was the first special corre- 
spondent for any paper or magazine to catch Marconi in 
Newfoundland after his success in telegraphinp" across the 
ocean without wires. Mr. Baker had many opportuni- 
ties of seeing Marconi at work, and when the inventor 
left Newfoundland traveled across the island with him, 
and so has been enabled to write the most authoritative, 
and by far the most thorough account of the matter yet 

■» » » 

Paint Spraying Machines. 

KEEPING pace with the increasing demand for 
good and efficient paint spraying apparatus, 
the Wallace Supply Co., 54-58 Fifth Ave., Chicago, is 
marketing what may be regarded as the most com- 
plete line of pneumatic painting machines in the world. 
From the small hand machine used as shown in ac- 
companying illustration, for spraying oil paints onto 
box cars, etc., now commonly used by roads through- 
out the country, a much larger and more efficient type 
of machine has been developed, with reservoir for 

any single hose type. For those who have available 
compressed air it will perform a remarkably large 
amount of work continuously. Space will not permit 
us to give but a few illustrations of these machines, 
but the manufacturers will gladly send their catalogue 

No. 7, in which will be found a variety of sizes and 

In addition to oil painting machines for use in con- 
nection with compressed air power plants, they manu- 
facture a complete line of hand power spraying ma- 
chines for cold water paint, calcimine, whitewash, etc. 
These machines are specially valuable for cleaning up, 
making shops light and wholesome, coating unsightly 
wooden buildings, dirty rough brick walls, outhouses, 

Hand Power Whitewashing and Paint Machine. 

holding a much larger supply of paint and equipped railroad fences. Unusual success has been, attained 

with two sets of nozzles, so two men can operate from with "Sticktite" cold water paint, which is not only 

a single machine at one and the same time. weather-proof, so that it is suitable for outside use 

The accompanying illustration shows their No. 6-B the same as oil paint, but also is fire-proof. The cost 

double-hose painting machine, ready to connect to air sup- of "Sticktite" is very trifling as compared with nearly 

ply. This machine has a much larger capacity than every other sort of coating material. 

February, 1902. 



^ Railroad Paint Shop ^ 

A Department Devoted to the Interest of Piaster Car and Locomotive Painters 
Edited by CHAS. E. COPP, General Foreman Painter, Car Department, Boston & Maine Railroad, Lawrence, Mass. 

Official Org'an of the Master Car and Locomotive Painters Association 

Meeting of the Advisory Committee- 
Official Notice. 

THE advisory committee of the Master Car and Locomotive 
Painters' Association will meet at 9:30 a. m., Feb. 22, 
1902, at the Hotel Lincoln, Pittsburgh, Pa., for the pur- 
pose of formulating a list of subjects for discussion at our Bos- 
ton convention. 

All members of the association are cordially invited to meet 
with the committee and any suggestion they desire to make will 
be duly considered by the committee. 

Th Hotel Lincoln is conducted exclusively on the European 
plan, with rates at $1.50 to $3.00 per day for rooms. As the 
house is usually crowded, it is desired that those who attend 
the meeting write to Frank A. Brobst, Hotal Lincoln, and se- 
cure rooms a few days in advance, stating rate you desire to 
pay. A large committee room has been reserved for us free of 

D. A. Little, Chairman. 

* ♦ » 

Exterior Decoration. 

ON passenger equipments with dark body colors that are 
susceptible of being cut in with one coat of color two 
gold stripes Y% to Vz ipch wide, horizontally around the 
car, one sufficiently below belt-rail or window sills to nicely allow 
cutting in between, with a two-inch flat camel's hair brush, and 
the other about three inches or so from the bottom edge of car, 
is all the decoration the up-to-date equipment should receive in 
these days, excepting possibly some lines on the letter -belt at 
the end of the short names of some roads, if it is to be main- 
tained in first-class condition as to brightness and clearness of 
color. In order to do this, frequent cutting in must be done, 
and to this end plainness of decoration facilitates the operation 

We know one of the largest passenger equipments that are 
cut in annually with the result that the cars always look bright 
and new instead of seedy and ancient. The lettering also should 
be plain and without shading or edge lines. How much better 
to have a car plainly striped with heavy lines so that cutting in 
can be done with large brushes and often, than to have so much 
difficult and intricate decoration that cutting in is so expensive 
that it is deferred and the whole job of painting held on to so 
long with simple annual washings and varnisbings that its an- 
tiquity is a sore and self-evident fact that is but little abated by 
what you have done to it ! 

"It shines !" So does your old boot that you have blacked, 
but it is an old patched boot still. What is wanted is some way 
to renew the appearance of age at not too great cost and this 
a cutting in does, for it renews the color which is the most 
noticeable thing about a car. Crimps and bangles do not renew 
the complexion of an old maid — hist ! — don't say anything about 
this to the better half of our annual conventions ; — what she 
needs is a complexion renewer most of all and then she'll pass 
for young again and catch some old widower who happens to 
attend our conventions with money to burn. 

Varnish renews the appearance of our equipment wonderfully 
when well cleaned ; but it does lfot do it satisfactorily when the 
color is "off" in various ways — faded, streaked and patched like 
Joseph's coat. 

We are of the opinion that there can be extremes both ways, 

however, in this matter. Cutting in cars every year seems to 
us one unnecessary extreme; they ought to "touch up" once or 
twice satisfactorily by good watching and the color used very 
sparingly. There is no need of dabbing on a patch two inches 
square on a small speck. Cars should probably be cut in twice 
or thrice during the time from painting to burning off which 
will be about eight years in all. 

Our Official Organ and Our Conventions. 

To the Editor of the Railroad Paint Shop : 

^OMEBODY has said "the good die young." Don't you 
Vj believe it. The writer is very much pleased to see that 
"the Railroad Paint Shop" does not die at all, just gets 
"another coat" and lives right on. All members of the associa- 
tion must be pleased to recognize the same old friends as editor 
and "pusher." May he be willing to push for many years to 

Reading the printed report of the convention makes one feel 
as if he had not been able to go home and see the old folks at 
Christmas. 'But it was a pleasure to read the words of cheer 
and encouragement to the younger members from Mr. Brazier, 
Gohen and others. When I attended the convention at St. Paul 
it was with the expectation of being treated as a one-horse west- 
ern painter. Instead of this, every pains was taken to show 
me kindness. Later, when notified that my name was chosen 
to write for the Philadelphia convention, it would have seemed 
to me as a ridiculous joke had it not been for the broad encour- 
agement previously shown. There can be no doubt of the 
earnest desire on the part of the old members to welcome and 
help all young or new members who are willing to learn. 

However, there is one thing which friends Gohen, Quest, and 
others old ones seem to forget, which is this : Comparatively 
very few men can talk well in public, notwithstanding they 
may have the finest mental abilities; and it is not pleasant to be 
reminded by reading thep rinted report at home of some gram- 
matical error, or a showing that they were a little nervous and did 
not say just what they intended. It seems to me if some plan 
could be adopted, either by revising or correcting these little 
errors, so that the published report would show what was meant 
by the speakers, that it would be an inducement for everyone 
to say what his evident interest prompted. 

Still, if this can be thought of as a cloud, there is a silvery 
lining, namely, just outside the convention doors one can hear 
the question, "Well! what have you got new this year?" and 
the exchange of experiences in conversation is very often worth 
as much as what is said in the hall. By comparing notes this 
way I learned "a dodge" that I am sure is worth a hundred 
dollars a year to any railroad. This privilege of exchanging 
thoughts in private must be a strong factor in the interest and 
success of the association. 

Sincerely yours, 

J. L. Johnson, Salida, Colo. 

•»♦ » 

Locomotive Tank Painting. 

OUR association President Dane showed us a locomotive 
tank recently in his shop that had only been in service a 
year from the contract shop in which it, with the engine, 
was built new, that was a sight as to the rust problem, which 



February, 1902. 

shows that there is something in the subject of protective coatings 
for iron and steel that is still worth considering. It was scraped to 
the iron arid such a crop of rust-scale, paint and varnish as they 
got from it only the sweeper can tell accurately. Such a case of 
pock-marks from rust we never saw, except where the letters 
"Boston & Maine" were located and that, which was sized and 
gilded at the time of painting, was in such good condition that 
the letters were plainly readable after the tank was scraped 
and primed with Prince's Metallic Brown. This shows that if 
that tank had been sized all over with the gilding size and gilded 
all over with something cheaper than the gold leaf of the letters, 
for economy's sake, say aluminum leaf, and then painted and 
varnished over that, no such a condition of rusting would have 
been found. Who will make some experiments on this line? Or 
has some one done so already and will give us the benefit of it 
in these columns? It occurs to us that Mr. Gohen gave us 
something of the kind a couple of years ago at one of our con- 
ventions wherein dry graphite or plumbago was rubbed into the 
sign, when sufficiently dry, in the form of dry-bronzing with 
good results as to durability. Also that some one else reported 
on the aluminum gilding of a tank all over for durability. Who 
will advise us on this topic? If they will wear like that under 
gold leaf it might be advisable to gild them all over, if thev 
would not be taken for a circus chariot, and lettered in black 
instead of the reverse of this which is now done. 

purpose, saving possibly such things as are only painted to make 
them salable, is a grave error that the consumer will sooner or 
later find out to his sorrow. 

♦ • » 

♦ * » 

Fiddler's Gum in Paint and Varnish. 

THOUGH the paint and varnish consumer or user is not a 
manufacturer in the strict sense of that term, he can make 
a paint, Japan or varnish "upon a pinch" and knows what 
such articles should and should not contain. He knows that they 
should not contain that upon which the fiddler depends for the 
proper working effect of his bow and which the tinsmith sometimes 
uses in his soldering, viz., resin; or, as it is more commonly 
pronounced, rosin. Almost any product from a tree, excepting 
maple sugar in New Hampshire and Vermont and India rubber 
in South America, is called a resin, but the product in question, 
"rosin," comes from the North Carolina pine. Now this pine is 
a mighty help to the painter in furnishing him with his spirits 
of turpentine, which is one of the most indispensable adjuncts 
of the average paint shop, or varnish factories for that matter; 
but with this yield of milk of the motherly pine there is no more 
that she can do for the painter; the residue of resin is of no 
earthly use to him. Yet unscrupulous and unskilled manufac- 
turers will use it to impart a gloss to the paint, and the first 
soaking rain will turn it white wherever it strikes and it will 
never turn back without some heroic treatment, or repainting. 
When such a paint, or enamel, is put on it should be immediately 
labeled, "Keep dry." 

Years ago, at the desire of an old master car builder, now 
deceased, a barrel of a new brand of freight car paint with a 
funny name was tried by the writer and a freight conductor's 
caboose painted. After the next rain it reminded one, who 
knows about such things, that turkeys had roosted all around 
its edges and let their white marks go clear down its sides ! 
The writer was at once interrogated by that M. C. B. in stern 
tones as to what ailed that caboose. Why, that is some of that 
paint you wanted tried. "If that fellow ever comes around here 
again, shoot him; and there is a gun in my office" was his char- 
acteristic reply. 

There are various cunning and ingenious ways to treat rosin 
gum to utilize it in paint and varnish to save buying a right 
article at a higher price, but he who makes a paint or varnish 
of it is making money for himself and a fool of you, and havoc 
of your work. 

Non-drying animal oils are juggled with it to make them dry; 
shellac is adulterated with it ; enamels for carriage and car work 
are made of it largely, only to turn hopelessly white in the first 
rainstorm. In fact its introduction into paint-stock for any 

Cadmium Yellow. 

THE following, clipped from a current newspaper, may be of 
interest to some as showing the origin of cadmium yellow, 
a pigment in use by artists, and also by the "Big Four" and 
C. & O. Railways as a car body color; but for the latter use 
it is doubtless prepared in a more crude or extended form to 
reduce the cost, as in its purity it is a very expensive color. 
Should a reported discovery of cadmium ores of comparatively 
rich quality and in great quantities in Aspen, Colo., prove to be 
truethe increased supply of this rare metal from this source 
would come at a time when it is likely to be of high service in 

A Headlining Corner by Mr. Warner Burley. 

the development of the much needed new electrical storage 

Nothing is more necessary today for forwarding the applica- 
tion of electricity to scores of purposes, and particularly to make 
it the ideal motive power for land and water vehicles, than a 
light-weight storage battery which shall give satisfactory serv- 

Mr. Edison's invention is believed to contain these qualities, 
and many electricians are confident that it will create a revolu- 
tion in the application of electricity. In this battery cadmium 
is an essential element, but unless this metal can be produced in 
quantities much greater than at present the invention would be 

The output of cadmium at present is estimated at only about 
two tons a year. It comes principally from Silesia and Belgium, 
where it is reduced from zinc ores in which it frequently occurs. 

Cadmium also occurs in combination with sulphur in a rare 
mineral called greenockite. From this is manufactured cadmium 
yellow, a pigment used by artists, and in the arts, for coloring 
soap, in calico printing and for giving a yellow luster to porce- 

According to the report from Aspen the whole face of the 
drift in the Delia S. mine is of ore which assays 8 per cent of 
cadmium and contains 19 ounces of silver and 21 per cent of lead, 
with an estimated value of $125 a ton. 

February, 1902. 



Terminal Car Cleaning. 

The Modoc Soap Co., whose advertisement appears elsewhere 
in this issue, make the following claims and give the following 
directions for using their valuable Car Cleaner agauist the time 
of need when "spring cleaning" comes : 

"1st: — Cars having run through the shops to be revarnished 
during. the winter will show three or four months' wear, and 
should have immediate attention, as well as those coming out 
of the shops now. The great economy is in taking these kind 
of cars in hand at once, not allowing them to run five or six 
months and then clean them, for then it will cost as much as 
though cleaned with soap and water which, often repeated, takes 
off the paint and varnish and costs an average of $5 a car, while 
if cars are cleaned regularly every 30 days after leaving the 
shops, they can be cleaned for 
$1.25 each ; thus, if you have 
fifty coaches running into any 
one terminal, they will always 
be clean and bright at a cost 
of $62.50 per month. We have 
some customers that clean their 
coaches semi-monthly, they 
averaging eight men to a coach, 
cleaning three coaches every 
two hours, this being done ow- 
ing to the condition of their 
road or color of their cars. 

"2d: — It is needless to expect 
our Liquid to clean as rapidly 
the first time over dirty coaches 
as well as with soap and water, 
because if it was an article con- 
taining component parts as 
strong as that, it would take but* 
very few cleanings to eat all the 
paint and varnish off, and would 
necessarily have to contain an 
acid,, alkali or ammonia. Our 
material cleans rapidly enough, 
as the figures show, after the 
coaches have had their first 
cleaning, but if we were given a 
tolerably clean coach to start 
with, we could then keep it up 
at the figures above given. 

"3rd: — Cars that have been on 
the road without cleaning from 
five to six months get very dirty 
and should be first cleaned 
with our Modoc Powdered Soap and then dressed with our 
Liquid, afterwards using nothing but our Liquid every 30 days, 
avoiding the use of water at all times, as it is injurious to 
varnish and does not clean; in the interim wipe down with dry 
or the old moistened waste. You can readily figure out the 
economy in thus systematizing your cleaning and not allow 
cars to run so long as to necessitate the double expense of 
cleaning with powdered soap, then dressing with the Liquid. 
Cars treated properly by cleaning regularly, as suggested above, 
taking them in hand right from the shops, or soon thereafter, 
will be kept at least eight months longer on the road, and will 
always present an attractive appearance. 

"4th :— On cars where the dirt is absolutely ground in and the 
varnish gone, it would be a waste of time and money in attempt- 
ing to clean them with either the Modoc Powdered Soap or 
Modoc Liquid Car Cleaner, as they should go to the paint 

"5th :— A large number of cars that are sent to the shops for 
slight repair work should be given a thorough cleaning with our 

Liquid before being turned out, thus insuring their being in a 
clean condition at once for their run, and will look like new 
coaches and can be kept so. 

"6th: — The regular and systematic method of cleaning coaches 
with our Liquid should also be adopted for locomotives, proving 
equally as beneficial and economical. 

"7th: — In preparing our Modoc Powdered Soap according to 
printed or previous directions for shop use and when necessary, 
for first cleanings at terminals, we particularly desire to call 
your attention, when making a solution with the soap, not to 
use water at a higher temperature than 80 degrees (which will 
produce a soft soap), then allow it to stand three or four hours 
(it being even more preferable to allow it to stand over night) 
before using. Our Powdered Soap for shop use is the mildest 

soap made, yet cleans rapidly, 
because it comprises materials 
that produce the greatest fric- 
tion without scratching, but its 
use should not be repeated often 
for terminal cleaning. 

«»» » 

A Corner Post Ornament. 

Notes and Comments. 

January 9 Mr. Chas. Mason, 
of the P. R. R. at Altoona, was 
still in Denver with his invalid 

Mr. Geo. W. Lord, Foreman 
Painter at the E. Fitchburg 
shops of the Boston & Maine 
R. R., has been elected a mem- 
ber of the Common Council of 
the city of Fitchburg for 1902. 

We insert in this issue sev- 
eral designs for headlining bor- 
ders by Mr. Warner Bailey, 
Foreman Painter, Concord (N. 
Y.) shops, B. & M. R. R. Who 
else will favor us with some 

We learn that Mr. W. H. 
Truman was (Nov. 18th) placed 
in charge of all painting at the 
Columbia (S. C.) shops of the 
Southern Ry., having previous- 
ly had the locomotive painting 

The editor of these columns has just been re-elected president 
of the Boston & Maine R. R. Relief Association for the third 
term, at a salary of $100.00 per annum! — a thank-ye job, if you 
get the thanks instead of the kicks. Membership, about 1,875; 
paid during iooi, $22,000 in death benefits and nearly $10,000 in 
sick benefits; pays $1,000 each death and $6 per week, after first 
week, for sixteen weeks, for sickness, or other disability. 

The Long Island R. R., one of the youngest babes in the 
Pennsylvania R. R. family, is now adopting the standards of 
the latter in the painting of its equipment. Mr. R. J. Kelley 
of the former was in Altoona recently for data and pointers 
along this line. 

Mr. Joseph Pomeroy of Pomeroy & Fischer, New York City, 
mentioned in our last issue, passed away December 16. A genial 
business acquaintance of ours he has, like others, gone to join 
the great majority. Though we have not seen him for years, 
he left a pleasant memory of himself with us, and for him we 
sincerely mourn. 

An increase of from 4 to 12 per cent in the wages of about 



February, 1902. 

45,000 trainmen will be made soon by the Pennsylvania Railroad 
company. The new scale of wages will take effect from Jan. 
I. The clerical -force is not included in the plan, but may 
come in for consideration later. So says a clipping from the 
Boston Herald, Jan. 2. How about the shop force? 

This scribe was notified at the January meeting of the N. E. 
R. R. Club to be "on deck" with a paper on "Painting," choosing 
his subject, for the February meeting, the nth inst. We have 
in mind quite a lengthy paper, if we are able to present it, being 
at present (Jan. 17) about used up with a cold and the Advisory 
Committee meeting to attend to in addition to all our regular 
routine. "It never rains but it pours." 

We insert an interesting letter from Mr. J. L. Johnson, of 
the Denver & Rio Grande, in another column. He has not been 
■so situated as to meet with us since the St. Paul convention in 
'98, consequently he is all the more worthy to be heard. He is 
the man hard of hearing, with the ear trumpet, that many will 
remember, and here is an important consideration ; if he, labor- 
ing under that affliction and difficulty, finds so much to praise, 
what ought to be the attitude of the man with two good ears, 
and his superior officer who sends him, towards our conven- 
tions? Or is this nature's way of compensation for losses in 
balancing her accounts? 

The following clipping is from a current daily paper, which 
we use here to show the utter worthlessness of such matter 
found in an untechnical publication. If the reader will strike 
out the words "varnish" and "varnishing" and substitute the 
words shellac and schellacing, he will come nearer the truth, 
though we see no need of such a high temperature so long as 
the atmosphere is dry : "When varnishing wood, the work 
must be done in a warm room at a temperature of at least 
74 degrees F. At a lower temperature the moisture in the air 
will give a milky and cloudy appearance to the varnish. On 
the other hand, at the higher temperature the moisture is not 
precipitated until the alcohol of the varnish has sufficiently evap- 
orated to leave a thin smooth film of shellac. The durability 
and gloss are dependent on this." 

The Joseph Dixon Crucible Company Jersey City, N. J., give 
interesting information concerning the protective painting of 
the Union Railroad Bridge, which crosses the Monongahela 
River at Pittsburg (Rankin), Pa. The associate engineers were 
Mr. Emil Swensson, designer and engineer of construction, and 
Mr. Wm. H. Smith, chief engineers, Carnegie Steel Company. 
The total weight of this bridge is 5,135 tons, and it has a total 
length of 2,338 ft. Designed for carrying molten metal from the 
Carrie Furnace to steel mill and raw material to the furnace, 
this notable steel structure is subjected to heat from and molten 
metal, sulphur fumes from locomotives and river steamers, also 
from the adjoining furnaces and steel mills. No other steel 
bridge in all the world is exposed to so many and severe de- 
structive agencies. The best metal preservative was necessary, 
and the eminent engineers selected for its protection Dixon's 
Silica-Graphite Paint as manufactured by the Joseph Dixon 
Crucible Company. 

Since forwarding our "copy" for the February issue the fol- 
lowing sad news comes in from Mr. D. A. Little, being clipped 
from an Altoona paper of Jan. 22 and reaching us the 24th. The 
sympathies of the entire membership of the M. C. & L. P. A. 
will go out to Charlie Mason in his affliction. Mrs. Mason was 
a constant attendant at our conventions until failing health took 
her from them some four or five years ago : Mrs. Charles W. 
Mason, wife of the foreman of the locomotive paint shop, who 
had been in Denver, Col., for her health for several months, 

died there last evening- of tuberculosis. Deceased was 50 years 
of age and lived at 1007 Third avenue. She is survived by 
her husband and two daughters, Anne B. and Helen W., at 
home, and b one son, now in Mexico. Mrs. Mason was a mem- 
ber of the Second Methodist church and a constant Christian 
woman, beloved by all who knew her. The remains will be 
brought to Altoona for interment. 

Those who have entertained any doubts of attending our next 
convention on the anti-pass score may now consider them brushed 
away, if the newspaper reports are to be accredited. We clip 
the following from The Boston Journal, Jan. n, 1902: "So far 
as the territory of the Central Passenger Association is con- 
cerned the anti-pass agreement apparently has been broken past 
all mending for another twelve months at least. Circulars were 
received in Chicago today which were issued by the Pennsylvania 
and Lake Shore roads, announcing that for the year 1902, ex- 
change passes would be given and inviting the same. Similar 
notices are being issued . by all the lines. The decision 
to abrogate the agreement was reached in a meet- 
ing of the trunk line presidents in New York two days ago, at 
which it was decided that conditions were not favorable for 
carrying out the agreement in Central Passenger territory." A 
correspondent also sends us the following from the Philadelphia 
Press : "The anti-pass agreement has been wrecked beyond 
hope of repair, for the present at least, in Central Traffic As- 
sociation territory. The Pennsylvania railroad notified its con- 
nections to-day that it would exchange passes with them in 
all the territory west of Pittsburg." 

This is the humorous way a Boston paper views the matter 
of relettering the Boston & Albany passenger equipment to 
New York Central : A tall man in a fur-lined overcoat stood 
at the extreme end of one of the log platforms that extend be- 
yond the train shed of the South station the other day, and 
appeared to take deep interest in the frequently passing trains. 
He was evidently^ stranger, and after viewing the busy scene 
for 15 mnutes he turned to a man who was trundling a hand 
cart loaded with irregular pieces of ice and inquired: "Where 
is Boston?" The iceman stopped suddenly, and, looking quizzi- 
cally at the stranger, replied: "This is Boston." "That's what 
I thought; but while standing here I have had serious doubts 
as to just what part of the East I was in." "That's singular," 
said the iceman, as he eased himself on one of the handles of 
his cart. "May I ask what led to this singular impression?" 
"It came about in this way. I have been out here some little 
time watching the trains come and go, and upon one set of 
equipment I have noticed 'New York, New Haven & Hartford 
Railroad,' while upon another the words 'New York Central & 
Hudson River Railroad' have appeared. I have looked in vain 
for the name of your city on either locomotives or cars, and I 
began to have doubts as to where I was. I fully realize the fact 
that New York, the leading city of the country, is entitled to 
representation in the naming of the railroads that radiate from 
her municipal boundaries, but I can hardly understand by what 
right New Haven and Hartford, which are tenth-rate cities, 
should be set out in gold leaf, and Boston, the second commercial 
port in the United States and possessing more personal wealth 
than 50 New Havens and Hartfords, should be eliminated alto- 
gether. I am not a crank sentimentalist, but it seems to me 
that there should be sufficient of this quality lying around here 
to bring about the display of the word 'Boston' on the equip- 
ment of these lines." The iceman melted under the force of this 
argument and admitted that the stranger had presented a good 

February, 1902. 



2f/?e Car Foremen's Association 

A Department Devoted 

to the 

.Interests of the Car Department 

of Chicago 

<£? -£? <£> -^ J& j£? 

Official Organ 

of the Association 

January Meeting 

Bodler, 0. W. 
Barrowdale, J. M. 
Bossert, Chas. 
Bourell, J. W. 
Bogle, E. W. 
Bradley, W. H. 
Brown, Wm. 
Bruce, Wm. 
Buker, J. 
Carroll, J. T. 
Carey, C. H. 
Carr, Geo. R. 
Cather, C. C. 
Casgrain, G. D. 
Chambers, Frank, 
Chadwick, A. B. 
Clark, T. H. 
Connors, J. J. 
Cornwall, J. R. 
Cook, Ray J. 
Cook, W. C. 
Copper, Thos. 
Conger, C. B. 
Casper, W. P. 
Cuthbert, J. R. 
Drust, Frank, 
Downing, I. S. 
Earle, Ralph R. 
Elkin, J. L. 
Etten, L. 
Evans, W. H. 
Flanagan, Jos. 
Fildes, R. D. 
Franz, W. 
Gallagher, A. 
Godfrey, J. 
Gradl, M. 
Grieb, J. C. 
Griffin, H. G. 
Gusckle, A. G 
Hanson, W. L. 

HE regular meeting of the Car Foremen's Asso- 
ciation of Chicago was held in the lecture room of 
• the International Correspondence Schools, seventh 
floor Manhattan Building, Wednesday evening, 
January 8th. Meeting called to order at 8 :oo p. 
m. by President Grieb : Among those present 
were the following : 

Baldwin, M. J. 
Ball, J. H. 
Bates, G. M. 

Benning, Wm. 

Blohm, Theo. 

Harvey, H. H. 

Harvey, W. M. 

Hubbard, J. H. 

Johannes, A. 

Johnson, Axel F. 

Johnson, A. G. 

Jones, R. R. 

Kanimski, N. 

Keeler, B. A. 

Kennedy, Chas. 

Ketchum, I. J. 

Krischel, M. 

Kline, Aaron, 

Knauss, O. J. 

Kroff, F. C. 

Kuhlman, H. V. 

Lamb, E. J. 

Law, W. C. 

La Quay, M. 

La Rue, H. 

Lendseth, A. 

Lundquist, C. J. 

Lutz, Jos. 

Manchester, A. E. 

Marsh, Hugh. 

Marsh, Jos. 

Mattes, J. 

Mattes, Jos. 

Mileham, C. M. 

Miller, G. W. 

Miller, R. S. 

Mitchell, A. E. 

Mitchell, W. M. 

Morris, T. R. 

Murray, Jos. 

McRae, D. 

Nicholson, W. S. 

Northam, F. R. 

Olsen, L. 

Parish, Le G 

Parke, P. 

Paton, E. R. 
Peck, P. H. 
Perry, A. R. 
Phelps, G. T. 
Plummer, A. K. 
Pottinger, H. T. 
Queenan, Wm. 
Richard, L. 
Rieckhoff, C. 
Robinson, Jno. 
Rohrback, G. T. 
Russell, M. F. 
Saum, C. L. 
Saum, G. N. 
Sawusch, E. G. 
Schmidt, C. 
Schmidt, M. P. 
Schonberg, John, 
Schultz, F. C. 
Scott, J. B. 
Senger, J. W. 
Shannon, S. 
Sharp, W. E. 
Shearman, C. S. 
Stimson, O. M. 
Skilling, J. K 
Sponholtz, C. 
Sponholtz, Chas. 
Steinmueller, F. C. 
Stephens, Gus, 
Stevens, C. J. 
Tabler, M. H. 
Taylor, Saml. 
Terry, O. N. 
Thomson, Geo. 
Warlick, Geo. 
Wendt, Ernest, 
Wensley, W. W. 
Wentsel, Geo. 
Wessel, W. W. 
Wessendorf, L. H. 
Westphaln, H. G. 
Willcoxson, W. G 
Williams, T. 
Wirtschareck, E. H. 
Wolfe, Ralph. 

Pres. Grieb: As is customary, we will dispense with the read- 
ing of the minutes of the previous meeting, assuming that every 
one had received the Railway Master Mechanic in which the 
proceedings are printed in full. If there are no objections we 
will consider them accepted as printed and proceed directly to 
the reading of applications for new members. 

Secretary Kline: The following have made application for 
membership : 

W. App, M. C. B., Can. Pac. Ry., Montreal, Que. 
Peter Anderson, car insp., L. S. & M. S. Ry., Englewood, 111. 
M. W. Barnes, air brakeman, C. B. & Q. R. R., Chicago 

A. W. Bair,, G. R, C. M. & St. P. Ry., Milwaukee, Wis. 

L. E. Bridenstein, foreman, C. B. & Q. R. R., Council Bluffs, la. 

V. M. Black, inspector, Armour Car Lines, Columbus, O. 

H. G. Bentley, M. M., C. & N. W. Ry., Clinton, la. 

Geo. A. Cooper, manager Atlanta Brass Co., Chicago. 

J. R. Cuthbert, air brake foreman, C. B. & Q., Aurora, 111. 

Jos. Chidley, R. H. foreman, L. S. & M. S. Ry., Toledo, O. 

W. A. Clark, car builder, C. M. & St. P., Milwaukee. 

Geo. R. Carr, Mgr. Dearborn Drug & Chemical Co., Chicago. 

F. H. Clark, M. E-, C. B. & Q. R. R., Chicago. 

Frank Drust, air brakeman, C. B. & Q., Chicago. 

Chas.' Derkin, truckman, C. M. & St. P., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Jas. F. DeVoy, chief draftsman, C. M. & St. P., Milwaukee. 

L. L. Dawson, M. M., I. C, McComb City, Miss. 

Martin Farrell, Insp., M. St.P. & S.S.M. Ry., Hermansville, Mich. 

Jno. R. Flint, bill clerk, C. M. & St. P., West Milwaukee. 

T. Gaughan, clerk, C. & N. W., Clinton, la. 

W. A. Granneman, M. M., I. S. Ry., Sparta, 111. 

Chas. A. Haas, machinist, L. S. & M. S., Chicago. 

Fred Hickstien, Insp., L. S. & M. S. Ry., Chicago. 

John Henry, Insp., L. S. & M. S- Ry., Chicago. 

Max Hickstien, foreman, L. S. & M. S. Ry., Chicago. 

Carl Houser, foreman, L. S. & M. S., Toledo, O. 

J. D. Hunter, boiler inspector, C. M. & St. P., Milwaukee. 

Jno. Horan, Trav. Blr. Insp., C. M. & St. P., West Milwaukee. 

John C. Homer, M. M., C. H. & D. R. R., Cincinnati, O. 

A. G Johnson, Insp., C. & E. R. R., Chicago. 

C. E. Johnson, Insp., L. S. & M. S. Ry., Chicago. 

A. Johnson, Insp., L. S. & M. S. Ry., South Bend, Ind. 

E. Josephson, Insp., L. S. & M. S. Ry., Chicago. 

James Johnston, R. R. foreman, CM. & St.P., Council Bluffs, la. 
J. M. Jackson, R. H. foreman, C. M. & St. P., Marion, la. 
Herman Kern, Insp., L. S. & M. S. Ry., South Chicago. 
W. A. Kenyon, foreman, L. S. & M. S-, Monroe, Mich. 

F. J. Krueger, clerk, M. C. R. R., Chicago. 

S. S. Koehler, R. H. foreman, C. M. & St. P., Savanna, 111. 

Jas. E. Keegan, M. M., G. R. & I., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

J. A. Laughlin, A. C. F., C. & N. W. Ry., Clinton, la. 

A. L. Lathrop, stenographer, A. C. Lines, Chicago. 

J. W. Lucas, carpenter, B. & O. R. R., New Haven. 

R. H. L'Hommedieu, Gen'l Supt, M. C. R. R., Detroit, Mich. 

Henry Moushey, R. H. foreman, L. S. & M. S. Ry., Chicago. 

J. B. Morgan, M. M., T. & O. C. Ry., Bucyrus, O. 

Charles Meyer, clerk, C. M. & St. P., Chicago. 

T. A. Oliver, foreman, Armour Car Lines, New Orleans, La. 

E. R. Paton, salesman, N. Y. Belting & Packing Co., Chicago. 
A. K. Plummer, foreman, C. B. & Q., Aurora, 111. 

Samuel Payne, foreman, U. P., Council Bluffs, la. 

T. B. Purves, Jr., supt. M. P. & R. S., B. & A. Ry., Springfield, 

G L. Potter, G. M. B. & O. R. R., Baltimore, Md. 

F. E. Rick, D. F. C. D., M. P. R. R., A.tchinson, Kan. 
John C. Seng, wheelpressman, B. & O., Chicago. 

A. P. Schuck, foreman, M. St. P & S. S. M. R. R., Pembine, Wis. 

Thos. Scott, draftsman, C. M. & St. P., Milwaukee. 

W. L. Shinefelt, A. F., C. M. & St. P., West Milwaukee. 

J. B. Smalley, T. M., C. M. & St. P., Marion, la. 

John Schonberg, Insp., C. M. & St. P., Council Bluffs. 

H. H. Swift, G C. F., C. H. & D., Lima, O. 

W. M. Snider, foreman, B. & O., Connellsville, Pa. 

F. D. Tucker, T. M., C. M. & St. P., Savannah, 111. 

John Taylor, D. M. M., C. M. & St. P., Minneapolis, Minn. 

W. H. Walter, shipper, C. M. & St. P., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Fred Weaverson, Railway Review, Chicago- 



February, 1902. 

Thos. R. Williams, clerk, C. M. & St. P., Racine, Wis. 
Gro. Warlick, foreman, C. R. I. & P., Chicago. 
M. T. Willis, foreman, C. & N. W. Ry., Boone, la. 
S. D. Yarnelle, clerk, Armour C. L., Chicago. 

Pres. Grieb: You have heard the list of applicants for member- 
ship. They will be acted upon by the board of Directors in the 
usual manner and enrolled as members. I have endeavord to 
keep track as the Secretary read the names and find that we 
have a total of 70 for tonight, which certainly is very pleasing 
and augurs well for the new year. This gives us a total of 235 
new members admitted in the present fiscal year. We started 
out, as you know, with the intention of doubling our membership 
this year, which would require 420, and with 235 secured it seems 
to be an easy matter to get the uemainder, but I do not wish any- 
body to feel that he should relax his efforts in that direction, 
because if we would all assume that position and everybody de- 
pend on some one else to carry on the good work we would fail 
in our undertaking. On the occasion of our first visit to the 
lecture hall of the International Correspondence Schools, which 
has been so kindly tendered us by Mr. W. N. Mitchell, General 
Manager of the Schools, Mr. Ralph Earle, of the Earle Photo 
Art Company, has kindly volunteered to take a picture of the 
assemblage, which I am sure, if successful, will make a very 
pleasant and lasting souvenir of the occasion, and we will now 
allow him the necessary time for that purpose. It has occurred 
to me desirable that a committee be appointed to recommend a 
code of rules for the examination of car inspector. As you 
know, the Master Car Builders' Association has appointed a com- 
mittee to look into the subject and in view of that fact and that 
we have such a large representation amongst our members of a 
class of men who have direct supervision of car inspectors, I 
think that this subject can be exploited to good advantage to our 
own Association and possibly be of some assistance to the com- 
mittee appointed by the Master Car Builders' Association. On 
that committee I have appointed Mr. Geo. M. Bates of the C. B. 
& Q. R. R., Chairman; Mr. W. E. Sharp of the Armour Car 
Lines, Mr. E. R. Campbell of the Minnesota Transfer Ry., Mr. 
M. P. Schmidt of the C. M. & St. P. Ry., Mr. H. La Rue of the 
C. R. I. & P. Ry. I would request that they get to work as 
soon as possible and if they find it is convenient, we would be 
glad to receive this report at the March meeting. I will also ap- 
point LeGrand Parish, L. S. & M. S. (chairman) ; Hugh Marsh, 
C. N. Y. & B. Ref. Line; H. H. Harvey, C. B. & Q.; F. C. 
Kroff, Penna. Lines; T. R. Morris, C. M. & St. P., a committee 
to Recommend Changes in the Rules of Interchange, to report at 
April meeting. 

This brings us to the regular program of this evening, which 
consists of a lecture by Mr. Clinton B. Conger of the Interna- 
tional Correspondence Schools on the Maintenance of the Air 
Brake from the car man's point of observation. In introducing 
Mr. Conger to you it almost seems a superfluous task to say 
anything about him. possibly some present may not have met 
the gentleman personally, there will be found but few who have 
not heard and read of Mr. Conger, who served as expert adviser 
to the Railroad Commissioners of the State of Michigan from 
1887 to 1891, after which he was appointed Road Foreman of 
Engines and Air Brake Instructor on what is now known as the 
Pere Marquette Ry. He also was for several years Associate 
Editor of Locomotive Engineering and is now Superintendent of 
the Air Brake Instruction Cars of the International Corre- 
spondence Schools. He has, as you are aware, written a great 
many very interesting articles and books on air brakes. Gen- 
tlemen, I take great pleasure in presenting to you the speaker 
of the evening, Mr. C. B. Conger. 

Mr. Conger: When Mr. Grieb, your President, asked me to 
say something about the air brake apparatus he spoke some- 
thing about the maintenance of the device. I have noticed by 
looking over the proceedings of the last two or three meet- 
ings that the air brake maintenance, that is, the care, repairs, 
cleaning, etc., of the air brake equipment on cars, we might say 
freight equipment, has been talked over pretty thoroughly twice 
in your own meetings and once by the Western Railway Club, 
only one or two meetings previous, so I thought best to say 
something about the relation of the air brake maintenance to the 

work of the car foreman or car man who is looking after the 
damage done by poor air brake work, both in maintenance and 
operation. It might interest you, and I thought it might possi- 
bly draw out a good many ideas that an article complete and per- 
fect in itself would not do. I do not think it is a good idea 
to completely cover every point in a paper so that there is no 
chance for discussion, but I believe in raising questions to draw 
out the fire of the men who have to take care of the air brakes 
and keep them up. Some of this report may not agree with your 
ideas, but my intention is to bring to your notice some facts 
that I think from my observation around the' United States have 
been overlooked. I do not think they are short sighted enough 
not to see it, but I do not think they realize the importance 
of it. 


In coming before this Association of Car Foremen, whose in- 
terest is in the line of building, rebuilding and maintaining the 
car equipment in such good condition that it will give good ser- 
vice at a minimum cost, I am a little modest in the matter, for I 
am not much of a car man in that sense, but an air brake man, 
who believes that efficiency should rank higher than economy, 
for there can be no mistake in fixing the standard of efficiency, 
while there may be a false standard of economy. 

There are a great many points at which the work of the car 
man and the air brake man come closely together. There are 
many items of repair work done by the car man, the amount and 
cost of which depend in a great measure on the cars and amount 
of work done on the air brake. All repairs cost money, but re- 
pairs which are needed on account of damage to one part of a 
car from a failure of some other part of the equipment, whether 
on that particular car or not, are in a measure a dead loss. 

There is no doubt, if it is shown that an expense of one dol- 
lar put on at the right time and on the right part of the 
air brake equipment would save two dollars later on for the car 
department, that every one here would have a lively interest in 
knowing about it. The object of this talk by an air brake man 
is to show some of these points of common interest. My point 
of view may not be yours, and I hope the discussion at this 
meeting will bring out the different points of view. 

Most of the damage to cars in transit, as well as to the lading, 
is due to shocks, not to steady strains. Now if we can reduce 
the number and severity of these shocks, we will diminish the 
expense of repairing the damage. 

We will, of course, leave out of consideration at this time the 
shocks and damage at terminal yards by careless switching, as 
that is something that depends on the men and not on the cars, 
and just so with the defective work of the men operating the 
engine and the brakes. That is a matter of discipline, which we 
do not have to handle. The officials up nearer the top of the 
ladder will look out for that. 

You will admit that serious shocks to moving cars will do 
more or less damage, and damage to the draft rigging possibly 
gives as much trouble to the repair man and causes as much ex- 
pense to the car department as any one item except changing 
wheels. Work done on any part of the equipment that will tend 
to diminish these shocks, is well worth doing as well as worth 
doing well. 

Now a defective triple valve, whether some part of it is dis- 
abled, or when it only needs cleaning to put it in order, can 
cause serious shocks. If the triple valve is dirty and gritty, so 
the piston and slide valve stick, or move with a jerky motion, 
this brake is liable to set with the emergency application, while 
the engineer is making a moderate service reduction as is proper 
at the first reduction, and this defective triple valve will set all 
the quick action brakes with the emergency application. If at 
a slow speed or with a part air brake train at any speed, this 
causes a very severe shock to the draft rigging and may dam- 
age it so it will need repairs. Other defects in the triple valve 
may cause the same trouble. Most of these troubles can be cured 
by cleaning the defective triple valves. Now it is really less 
work to clean and fix the triple valve than to repair the damage 
to draft rigging, besides some of the package, freight may be 
damaged also- 

February, 1902. 



To prevent further damage from this triple valve, it must be 
put in good order at once. Would it not be in the line of true 
economy to fix the valve before it does any damage, instead of 
after? It must be cleaned anyhow. If kept in good order right 
from the beginning, shocks from this cause would be eliminated 
almost entirely. 

Leaks in the train pipe can and do cause serious shocks to the 
equipment. A moderate reduction of train pipe pressure will 
operate the brakes moderately. The engineer may make a very 
moderate reduction, but the train pipe leaks also take air out of 
the train pipe and make a heavy reduction which will cause very 
serious shocks on a train. Besides that, train pipe leakage takes 
the control of the brakes out of the hands of the engineer, so 
he cannot make a smooth easy stop. Right here it should be 
noted that nearly all the leaks in the train pipe are found in the 
hose and the packing rings of the hose couplings, but not so 
readily in other places. 

If the car foremen, who have the opportunity, will make a 
business of testing with 70 lbs. train pipe pressure, the hose on 
a long train that is coupled up clear through, the number of leaks 
they find will surprise them. A porous hose can be repaired in 
only one way; by exchanging it for a new one. In the present 
state of the art of operating the air brake equipment, , a large pro- 
portion of the slid flat wheels are caused by defective triple 
valves, that leak past the piston packing rings, so the triple valve 
does not go to exhaust position and release the brake when the 
other brakes release. If one of these defective triple valves fails 
to release its brake when a stop is made and remains set after 
the train starts, the wheels usually slide and are spoiled. The 
leaky packing ring allows auxiliary reservoir to recharge past 
this ring; sometimes the brake cylinder pressure will raise also, 
so that with a slow speed or on slippery track the wheels slide 
and are soon spoiled. Of course, this kind of a defective triple 
can be operated so as to do fairly,, good work if close to the en- 
gine or in a short train. With a large main reservoir capacity, 
a good air pump and a tight train pipe they do not give as much 
trouble as when worked with the opposite conditions, which em- 
phasizes one of the strenuous facts in air brake operations, that 
one defect will make another defect much worse. 

A defective emergency valve, which leaks air from the train 
pipe into the brake cylinder, will set that brake much harder than 
the others which are applied, for as soon as the exhaust port is 
covered by the slide valve at the first application, the train pipe 
pressure tends to equalize with the brake cylinder and is pretty 
apt to slide wheels on an empty car. It only costs a few cents 
to put in a good emergency valve. 

The damage done to a pair of wheels by skidding will cost 
more by the time a new pair of wheels is put in than a new triple 
valve. You can easily see that it will cost less to take off the 
defective triple valve, replace it with one that has been cleaned, 
tested and known to be in good order, than to change the wheels, 
when you take the labor charge only, without counting the delay 
to the cars. 

The levers used with the foundation brake gear should be, and 
usually are proportioned to the work they have to do and the 
braking power desired on the car. If a lever is lost or taken off 
a car and one of the wrong proportion put on, it is possible to 
increase the braking power so as to slide the wheels. Some in- 
side hung brakes have first class levers, others have second class, 
and there is a great difference in the increase of power with 
these two classes of levers. If the wrong cylinder lever is ap- 
plied it makes trouble from sliding wheels, or if the braking 
power is reduced, shocks are sure to occur. Just, as bad results 
are produced if the dead cylinder lever is put up wrong end to. 
The braking power on the truck it controls may be materially 

The bottom rods frequently are lost. If another length of rod 
is put on this will change the operation of the entire brake. 
Usually the rod is too long, as a short one cannot be got on. 

The brake rods and the levers they are attached to, should be 
at right angles to each other, when the brake is set tight, as a 
right angle is the proper one to get the full power. Why? Be- 
cause the farther from a right angle the nearer they are to what 

engineers call the "dead center," where the pin gets no pull at 
all, that affects the brake shoe. 

Improper piston travel has a great deal to do with shocks to 
the draft rigging. Air brake experts are agreed that the inequal- 
ity of piston travel is the prime cause for the shocks when ap- 
plying and releasing the brakes at slow speed. The evil is such 
a serious one that some railroad officials require the engineers to 
come to a full stop rather than risk releasing the brakes on a 
long train at a slow speed. With some the limit is four miles an 
hour, with others the limit is six, others eight miles an hour. 
Sometimes, I think, that the eight mile limit must mean the 
brakes are in worse condition then, than where the four mile 
limit of speed at release is in vogue. 

First. In the matter of applying the brake ; if one brake has 
a piston travel of four inches, a seven pound initial reduction, 
which is the usual one, will give a pressure on the brake piston 
of 25 lbs. per inch, or one half the standard pressure for a full 
service application. Another brake may have a piston travel of 
ten inches. This same reduction will not pass sufficient air into 
the brake cylinder to move the piston out so that the shoes will 
come against the wheels. We will have no braking power on this 
car when the other is applied with half the full pressure. 2d. 
As to releasing, brakes of unequal piston travel, never release 
simultaneously on a long train ; if one releases and another hangs 
on, shocks are sure f?> result. 

If all the brakes on a long train had the piston travel adjusted 
to the proper limits of not less than five nor more than seven 
inches, the braking power would be so nearly uniform that the 
strains on each drawbar would be nearly uniform. Of course, 
loaded and empty cars mixed together in a train will also 
cause shocks. If it were possible to have the piston travel 
on a loaded car adjusted to the short limit of five inches and 
the empty one with seven inches, it might ease some of the 
shocks, but this is hardly possible. Usually the loaded car has 
the longest travel and thus really gets less brake power than 
the empty car. 

Part of this difficulty is due to the arrangement of the beams 
and hangers. A large share of brake beams are hung to the body 
of the car, or to the truck bolster above the springs, so that when 
a load in the car compresses the springs, the shoes hang farther 
down on the wheels. This increases the piston travel, as it al- 
lows the brake beams to come closer together. 

When this car is unloaded the springs raise the bolster and 
body of the car up, the brake beams also raise up on the wheels 
so that the piston travel is shortened. It is not unusual to see 
brakes adjusted so tight on empty cars that the shoes are against 
all the wheels, when the air brake is released. With several 
of these closely adjusted cars in a train it draws hard and the 
regular speed cannot be maintained. 

Now, if the brakes on a train are in good order, so that it 
will pull easily and the speed can be regulated down hills, 
into stations and yard limits and good stops be made, this train 
can be safely run at a higher average rate of speed during the 
entire trip. On single track roads this means that freight trains 
can make one or two stations farther when meeting trains and 
surely a longer distance between stops to allow faster trains to 
pass them on either single or double tracks. 

Fast time, if it has to be made by spurts of speed between 
stations to make up for dragging down into a station, because 
the brakes are so poorly maintained that the crew are afraid 
to risk trying to make a quick stop, is expensive. 

Freight cars earn revenue in proportion to the miles they 
make each day and immunity from special repairs that hold 
them in the repair tracks when they should be on their journey. 

The company profits by a quick despatch of freight, therefore, 
any work on the air brake equipment, that will insure better 
time is of advantage to the company. Besides, a reputation 
for quick and certain despatch has a commercial value. 

Pres. Grieb: We have enjoyed the pleasure of listening to 
a most interesting paper on the maintenance of the air brake, 
and it is now open for discussion. Mr. Conger has very kindly 
consented to answer all questions raised and requests that any 
one here who has any problem concerning the maintenance of 



February, 1902. 

air brakes to please propound the same and he will take pleasure 
in answering them. This will afford every one an opportunity 
to take part in the discussion. 

Mr. Conger: I do not know whether I can answer all the 
questions you may ask or not. I will say, though, that if you 
ask me any questions that I cannot answer, I will hunt up some 
man that can, then there will be two of us that will know it. 

Pres. Grieb: There is a stereopticon in operation and por- 
tions of the air brake apparatus will be shown which will af- 
ford better means and an unequalled opportunity to get in- 

Mr. Conger: We can show a slide of the quick action triple 
in three positions on the curtain, then you can see the various 
parts. I would like to hear some expression from the men 
who are busy fixing up draft rigging, changing slid flat wheels, 
who will agree with me that the air brake equipment is caus- 
ing a great deal of that ; whether it would not be easier to re- 
pair a bad triple valve before, than after damage is done. And if 
that is the case if the same money paid for fixing damaged parts 
could not be diverted and spent for fixing air brakes and putting 
them in good shape. Most railroad officials will say that we 
have spent all the money we can on the air brakes now. It 
is on the cars and you must take care of it the best you can. 
Is it not better to do the repairs on air brake equipment and 
save something on the damage? We can repair ten triples for 
what it costs to put in new draft rigging or change slid flat 

Pres. Grieb : I hope, gentlemen, that you have all formed 
one good resolution the first of this year and that is that when 
you attend any meetings of the Car Foremen's Association, you 
will come prepared to take active part. If we have any air 
brake experts with us tonight it will be especially desirable to 
have them embrace this opportunity and come forward. 

Mr. Wensley (C. & E.) : Why do we have more slid wheels 
in the winter time than in the summer? 

Mr. Conger : The track is more slippery in the winter than 
in the summer, that is the principal reason. Triples freeze up. 
The air brake does not operate so well in the winter time. In 
very serious cold weather the leaks in the train pipe caused 
by the hose pulling apart when frozen stiff, wastes more air 
than the train pipe can supply. When a train is standing in 
the yard with the slack closed up, if the hose are stiff, when the 
slack is stretched out with a heavy engine, the air brake will 
set at once. In the winter time we have a great deal more trouble 
keeping the train pipe pressure up. It is a pretty hard matter 
to charge the train pipe up and release the air brakes properly, 
so it makes it harder to release brakes in the winter time than 
in summer. I think those matters will explain in a measure 
why we have more slid wheels in winter than in summer. There 
is another matter. Slippery track is sometimes found where 
ballasted with cinders. A fine black powder covers the rail, 
almost like grease. Some of the ballast they have in the western 
country is clay and in wet weather it gets on the rails and makes 
them slippery. In that country men have to go to work and 
learn the business over again, who have learned how on a 
gravel or stone-ballasted road. 

Mr. Stimson (S. R. L.) : I would like to ask Mr. Conger, 
if in his judgment the condition which he would like to see, 
can be maintained if the air brakes do not receive attention 
oftener than once in nine months, as now prescribed by the 
M. C. B. rules. 

Mr. Conger: Yes sir, I do. I do not think anything is im- 
possible to the American mechanic, if he is paid for it. Now 
we do not seem to have any trouble in taking care of the coach 
equipment. That is because it is a matter we are interested in. 
If you take as much interest in repairing a Boston 
& Maine, or East & Western Florida car, or if you 
will take the same interest in cleaning the air brakes 
on foreign cars that you do on your own ; if you take as much 
care of the brakes as you do of the draw gear, they will work. 
The trouble is, as I understand it, each company endeavors to 
take care of its own cars once a year, and they have a big 
contract. There are some big companies running into Chicago 
and by doing their level best can get over their own cars once 
a year. If every single company in the United States did the 

same thing with a foreign car as with their own, if it is cleaned 
all the time just the same as if the road owned it, and they 
really do own it while they have got the car in service, I do 
not see why they cannot be taken care of just the same as 

Mr. Stimson : I do not think Mr. Conger understands my 
question. He seems to assume air brakes on freight cars re- 
ceive attention oftener than once in nine months. But if he was 
assured that the air brake equipment was properly cleaned 
but once each nine months and not given any further attention, 
I would like to know if he believes the condition he would like 
to see can be maintained. 

Mr. Conger : As to that, it is well known to every company 
that has ever cleaned air brakes than an air brake car cleaned 
in first class shape, taken out and put on a side track and left 
there six months is in almost as bad condition as if it had been 
continuously in service. About the only thing that stays the 
same is the brake shoes. The rest should be in just as good 
order. Now just exactly why that is, I do not know whether 
I am able to explain. I think if the cars were taken care of 
properly, I mean not cleaned with a tencil and a piece of chalk, 
but properly cleaned, the triples taken off, another one that was 
tested and cleaned, put on there and that triple cleaned and put 
in some other car, I think they can be just as well taken care 
of as any other part of the equipment. 

Mr. Stimson : We have something like 8,000 cars, and our 
men are under instructions, that regardless of the fact that the 
M. C. B. rules specify that the air brakes must be cleaned every 
nine months, the brakes on our cars are cleaned once in six 
months. Possibly 75 per cent are cleaned by our own people. 
I have taken occasion to go over the track after air brake men 
reported that a string of cars was repaired. I have seen the 
brakes tested and have had my men take down the triple valve 
for examination, and believe that we are getting as good service 
as can be obtained, and as is obtained by the average railroad 
company, but we are not free from the conditions which Mr. 
Conger has cited. We have had instances of a train of fast 
freight cars leaving our yard (30 or 40 cars) that have had special 
attention given them, and they were in perfect condition, as far 
as could be determined, but when they reached Buffalo, three 
of four hundred miles away, I have received a telegram that three 
or four cars were cut out on account of defective air brakes. 
Some people have reported that they have taken a hat full of 
dirt out of the triple valve and cylinder, which I knew was not 
in there, when the car left our yard, at the same time I know 
that because of the interest the railroad company had in the 
transportation of that product, they would not cut out the 
cars unless something was wrong, I am therefore personally 
of the opinion that a car cannot run nine months without giv- 
ing attention to the air brakes. 

Mr. Conger : I wish we could make all railroads believe that, 
but I do not think you can. Did you, when cleaning those triples, 
see that the work was properly done? 

Mr. Stimson : Every triple was taken off the train. 

Mr. Conger: How do you clean the train pipe strainer? 

Mr. Stimson : Put a new one on. 

Mr. Conger : If the train pipe strainer is in good order I do 
not see how you can get anything past it to the triple valve. 
Remember that the train pipe strainer is in the drain cup, or 
cross-over tee, not at the triple valve union. 

Mr. Mitcheh (C, M. & St. P.) : I would like to ask Mr. Con- 
ger if he does not find that the train pipes on the cars are yery 
often improperly clamped; that the threads on the pipe do not 
extend in the couplings far enough and that there are a great 
many leaks in that respect. 

Mr. Conger : Yes sir, we find leaks all over. In my observa- 
tion, both with the railroad company and since I have been away 
from the railroad company, I have been in a good many freight 
yards looking at the air brake equipment, both on freight cars 
and locomotives; in fact wherever anything was going on in the 
air brake line, I made it my business to be looking it up. As I 
said before, most of the leaks that are found in the train pipe 
are in the hose and couplings, not that there are no leaks in the 
train pipe, but because the inspectors do not look under the car 
for leaks except at the unions. At the train pipe tee there are 

February, 1902. 



three joints, two of them screw joints and one union. Now 
if the train pipe shifts it is liable to affect one or the other of 
these points which will give a very serious leak at that point- 
Right now we might say that enough care is not taken in putting 
up the train pipe connections and in making the joints air tight. 
We do not have to go back very many years to remember when 
we could put an engine in the house at night with 40 lbs. of 
air and take her out in the morning with 20 lbs., which showed 
that the joints were tight. Why cannot these pipe joints h~ 
made with as much care today? I was in a car manufactory 
not long ago and saw the workmen putting up train pipe. They 
screwed the connections together by hand, one man taking hold 
of one end and the other man the other and they put them up 
without using any wrenches until they put on the angle cocks 
and screwed up the union nuts. When they connected the pres- 
sure retainer pipe to the triple valve, instead of screwing the 
union up with an alligator wrench they just screwed them up 
with their hands, and neglected to put in any gaskets, yet these 
cars were passed by the inspector. Now if new cars are passed 
by an inspector in that condition, what can we expect of old 
cars which are repaired on the repair tracks? I believe if we 
put up the train pipes as we did twenty years ago, we would 
have less trouble. I can remember seeing a coach on the L. S. 
& M. S. Ry., at Kalamazoo on which the brake was set at 4:00 
o'clock in the afternoon and was still set tight at 9 :oo o'clock 
the next afternoon. If you want good work see that it is done. 
Nothing is impossible to the Omerican mechanic, if you pay 
him for doing it and give him the proper tools to do it with. 

(A picture of the quick action triple valve in three different 
positions was now placed on the screen-) 

Mr. Conger : You see here a steroplician view of the quick 
action triple valve, which we think will show just exactly how 
a triple valve operates and where the defects can be located. 
Now we have a great deal of trouble on account of the triple 
valve sticking, which is caused usually, by a leak in the pack- 
ing ring. It is impossible for a machinist to make a single pack- 
ing ring which has an opening in it to allow it to expand, that 
will be perfectly air tight, as the air will leak through the open- 
ing. It might be possible if they put in two packing rings, and 
have them break points and make them air tight, but the air 
brake companies can be depended on to know whether that can 
be done or not. If it can, they would probably have two rings 
in them. . While this opening is very small in a new packing 
ring, it is not open 1-64 in., yet considerable air will blow past 
it, and certainly a great deal will blow past as soon as it becomes 
worn. With a short train a leaky packing ring does not give 
so much difficulty, but with a long train, especially if this de- 
fective valve is on the rear of the train, it is sure to give trouble. 
After a light application of the brakes, when the engineer has 
reduced the pressure six or seven, or possibly ten pounds, and 
he wishes to release it, he turns the air from the main reser- 
voir, into the train pipe. 

Now if at the rear end of the train, the train pipe pressure 
raises so slowly that the air can equalize around this triple valve 
piston without sufficient increase of pressure to move the piston 
and slide valve to release position, that brake will remain set. I 
have seen a triple valve having a leaky packing ring stay set 
when the train pipe pressure had been pumped up from 55 to 85 
lbs. In some cases you will find that the brake cylinder pres- 
sure will raise to the same amount. This will be sure to slide 
the wheels. Even if the pressure in the brake cylinder is not 
sufficient to slide the wheels when the train is running, yet if 
the brake does not release when the train stops and they start 
again, or if running at slow speed over a slippery crossing the 
wheels are sure to slide and if it once slides it will not com- 
mence turning again until the brakes release. A leaky packing 
ring is something that particularly affects long trains. The same 
triple on a 25-car train might give good service, but if two 25- 
car trains were put into one 50-car train and we had the defec- 
tive triples on the rear end I will guarantee that you would 
have some stuck brakes. With a long train the engineer is un- 
able to raise the train pipe pressure at the rear as rapidly as 
he can with a short train. Of course if he has a large main reser- 
voir volume and high excess he can handle a long train much 

better than if he had a small main reservoir volume and a poor 
pump. One of the difficulties that we have with the triples, as 
I mentioned this evening, is the triple piston sticking in its 
cylinder or bushing. If a triple piston has been wiped off per- 
fectly clean, all grit and dirt taken out of it and a very small 
amount of thin oil put on, it can be moved backward and forward 
in its cylinder with your hand. Now we will take that same 
triple piston and its cylinder and put a little grinding com- 
pound or gritty material in there so it will work under the ring ; 
it will make it work so hard it will be necessary to get a pair 
of pinchers to move it backward and forward, which emphasizes 
the fact that a very little grit under a triple piston will cause it 
to stick, so that when it does move it will go into the emer- 
gency position. This of course affects the work of the brake 
on all the cars and gives those shocks. 

A Member : How much reduction in the train pipe pressure 
does it take to move that triple piston? 

Mr. Conger : About a pound and a quarter difference in pres- 
sure between the two slides of the triple piston should move it. 
An ordinary guage will not show this slight difference. I have 
seen triples tested, some of which would move with less differ- 
ence of pressure than that, while others take more. There are 
a little above nine square inches on this triple piston shown on 
the screen so that a pound and a quarter per square inch would 
make close to 11 lbs. total pressure on the piston. 

The Member : What I was trying to get at is, — when you 
reduce five pounds of air in the train pipe and get about 15 or 
20 lbs. in the brake cylinder, leaving the piston up pretty near 
the position shown on the screen, why should it stick in service 

Mr. Conger : A reduction of 5 lbs. of air in the train pipe 
will never give 15 lbs. in the brake cylinder, but that is not ex- 
actly the information that you want. The triple valve bushing 
usually wears more on the position where it opens and closes 
the graduating valve than on any other part of its triple. Every 
4ime you reduce the pressure in the train pipe a moderate 
amount after the first application, the triple piston moves down 
far enough to unseat the graduating valve, and as soon as the 
auxiliary pressure is reduced the same amount this triple 
piston moves forward, closing the valve. Now it does this 
each time that a moderate reduction is made and it is possible 
to make as many as fourteen moderate reductions for each 
application of the brake, although two or three will be a more 
average amount. Now if the triple piston moves backward 
and forward there four times each time a brake application 
is made, you can readily see that the bushing will wear more 
than it does any other parts and air is more liable to leak 
around there than it does either in full application position or 
in the release position, so that a triple valve could be in such 
condition that at what we might call "lap position" air could 
leak by the packing ring, while if you made a full reduction 
and pulled it clear down to the limit of its triple where the 
bushing was not worn, a very slight raise of pressure would 
throw this piston up so the brake would release- Does that 
explain to you why, wth a light service application, the brake 
will stick, while with a 20 lb. reduction it is very easily re- 
leased? Then there is another matter connected with this. Of 
course if the main reservoir pressure is 90 lbs. and you make 
a reduction of 5 lbs., from 70 to 65, you will have only 25 lbs. 
difference between the auxiliary and the main reservoir, while 
if you have made a reduction of 20 lbs. you will have 15 lbs. 
more difference, which means 40 lbs. altogether. 

One of the tests for a triple valve is to re-charge 100 ft. of 
train pipe connected to the suspected triple valve through an 
opening 1-32 inch in diameter. This allows the air to feed in 
so slowly that if the triple piston leaks it is very apt to go 
around the packing ring into the auxiliary and not release that 
brake. If, however, the air passing through that small opening 
releases the piston promptly, I will guarantee that that triple 
will give you no trouble. 

A Member : Another thing I would like to ask. What causes 
the triple valve to act like a pump? It will release at about 
10 lbs. reduction and keep on that way until all the air is gone. 

Mr. Conger : Is that triple valve in good order or is there some- 
thing wrong with it? 



February, 1902. 

The Member: The triple valve is in perfect order. What I 
want to know is what has done that? 

Mr. Conger : When a triple valve sets and releases the brake 
without being operated by some person it is in consequence 
of one or more leaks — usually there are two leaks, one out 
of the train pipe which sets the brake and one out of the auxil- 
iary reservoir which will release it again, — a combination of a 
train pipe leak and a graduating valve leak both on the same 
car, will do this. The train pipe leak will move the triple valve 
down and allow air to pass out of the auxiliary reservoir into 
the brake cylinder, but if the graduating valve also leaks, when 
the graduating valve is closed by the motion of the triple piston 
it does not shut off the flow of air from the auxiliary reservoir, 
which contnues to flow into the brake cylinder. Ths will re- 
duce the auxiliary pressure on this side of the piston (showing 
on screen) so that the train pipe pressure will move the triple 
to exhaust position. Then the train pipe leak, which is still 
there, will get its work in again and set the brake and the 
graduating valve will leak it off until the pressure in the train 
pipe and auxiliary gets so low that it cannot move the brake 
piston, when the triple valve will soon use up what air is left 
in the train pipe and auxiliary. 

Now there are other things which can cause the triple valve 
to act as you have tried to explain it. A leak from the train 
pipe line, provided there is another leak in the triple valve at 
some other point, may do this. For instance, in the emer- 
gency or rubber seated valve. That can leak into the brake 
cylinder until it equalizes. 

A Member : I had one act the same way one day. For this 
defect you want to look between the cylinder and auxiliary 
reservoir. The gasket in there gets crowded or buckled so that 
air can leak through and the triple valve will move into service 
position and when air leaks out of the brake cylinder the triple 
will move back. That is where I have found the trouble. I 
put a new gasket between the auxiliary reservoir and cylinder, 
and that rectified all the defects. 

Mr. Harvey (C B. & Q.) : What do you consider the proper 
material for that seat, hard or soft rubber? 

Mr. Conger : Soft rubber. At first they put leather seats on 
the emergency valves but they soon found that if any foreign 
substance got on the leather it made a dent in there which 
did not come out, while in the case of soft rubber seat it works 
loose, and the rubber having some elasticity, too, it will soon 
fit up against the seat so no air will pass. A hard rubber seat 
will act something like a leather seat, possibly worse, as far 
as creases, which any foreign substance has made, would be 
affected in closing up. 

Mr. Harvey: The Westinghouse Co. is furnishing a hard 
rubber, oil-proof gasket. 

Mr. Conger: I do not know that the Westinghouse Co. is 
furnishing an oil-proof seat. They may be, but I have not seen 
any of them. If so it is with the idea of making them last 

Mr. Harvey : We got hold of some so hard that if you fold 
them over they will crack in two. I think with the hard rubber 
seat, a little dirt gets in there and makes a leak. We find it 
almost impossible to get a tight seat. 

Mr. Conger : I do not know the exact reason why the West- 
inghouse Co. is furnishing these, but my opinion is that the 
soft seat is the best. 

Mr. Harvey : The lift of the seat is only the length of time the 
triple runs between cleanings, ordinarily only about nine months. 

A Member : What do you consider the shortest piston travel 
that should be allowed on a freight car when the triple is in 
first-class condition? 

Mr. Conger: Six inches. I would not adjust it less than six 
inches. As the running travel is usually one inch to one and 
a half inches more, that would make seven to seven and a half 
or eight inches piston travel when the car was running, which 
is the limit. 

A Member: Is it not a fact that the piston travel should be 
governed by the brake power? 

Mr. Conger: No, sir. However, with a very heavy leverage 
we are obliged to have a longer piston travel than with a light 

braking power in order to have the shoes clear the wheels. 
A Member: Would it not be proper to adjust the piston 
travel by the brake shoe clearance? 

Mr. Conger: If you are going to adjust the piston travel on 
the brake shoe clearance you are going to be up against it 
solid right there, for this is surely the wrong way to do it. 
The piston travel should be adjusted to give a certain air pres- 
sure on the piston, not to give a certain brake shoe clearance on 
the shoes. 

Mr. Harvey: I would like to know how an air brake man 
out in the yard can discover whether there is a leaky pipe be- 
tween the triple valve and brake cylinder. How is he going to 
do that unless he chases it up and sets the brake? 

Mr. Conger: I do not know how he is going to tell when 
there is a leak in there unless he makes a test or examines the 

Mr. Harvey: We had a case a short time ago where we 
overhauled a car and when the car got to Aurora they found 
that the pipe was split. We got a letter inquiring about it and 
I went out to look at the brake and found the pipe split, but 
it could not be seen from the outside in ordinary inspection and 
the only way it could be found was by setting the brake. 

Mr. Conger : That is an auxiliary reservoir leak and is 
pretty hard to tell by inspection. We have found some of these 
pipes split in our cars and the way we found it is by operation 
of the brake. We then took down the triple valve and exam- 
ined the auxiliary. In two cases we could see the split in the 
top of the pipe. 

Mr. Parish (L. S. & M. S.) : I would like to ask the mem- 
bers if they give the same attention to cleaning air brakes on 
foreign cars that they do with their own. We have found on 
the Lake Shore that by cleaning all cars that come on our re- 
pair tracks and making every effort possible to clean the brakes 
or foreign cars we are not able to get all of our cars once in 
12 months. At the present time we clean all foreign cars that 
come on our^ repair tracks the same as we do our own, but we 
believe that if we only cleaned our Own cars we could get over 
them once in 12 months. 

Mr. Wensley. We have every repair yard on the whole sys- 
tem cleaning air brakes. We do not slight anybody's car. We 
are not only cleaning them on the repair tracks but out in the 

Mr. Bates (C. B. & Q.) : I am very sorry to say that we have 
all we can do to clean our own cars and we do not make it a 
practice to clean foreign cars unless they are going out on our 
road, but even some of them get away from us without being 
cleaned and I think we have as large an air brake force as 
any road in town. 

Mr. Evans (B. & Q.) : We are in a good deal, the same 
shape as the C. B. & Q. We do our own cars principally and 
other cars that we have had troube with, but do not make it a 
practice of taking down all triples that come on the repair track. 
Pres. Grieb: I wish to state that Mr. Mitchell, general man- 
ager of the International Correspondence Schools, has very 
kindly offered to answer any conundrums andquestions that are 
propounded pertaining to air brakes if anybody here this even- 
ing has any hesitation in making his wants known and chooses 
to do so in writing, addressing his inquiry to our secretary. 
The International Correspondence School has offered to assist 
us to the very best of their ability, and I am sure in matters 
pertaining to the air brakes, their ability is unlimited. 

Our artist, Mr. Ralph Earle, informs me that he has been 
successful in taking a good picture of the meeting, and he will 
be' glad to supply members who desire copies of the same, nicely 
mounted, for 35 cents each in the gloss finish and for 50 cents 
each in the platinum finish. Any members desiring these pic- 
tures will kindly direct their requests to Mr. Kline, and he will 
turn them over to Mr. Earle when the orders filled. 

Mr. Harvey : I think it would be in order for this Associa- 
tion to tender a vote of thanks to the International Corre- 
spondence School for their courtesy in extending the use of 
their room and also to Mr. Conger for his very able lecture. 
Motion seconded and carried unanimously. 
Meeting adjourned. 

February, 1902. 



Modern Machinery 

A Department for the Illustrating' and Describing' of 
Improvements in, and Inventions of Machinery and Appliances of Interest to 

Railway Rolling' Stock Officials 

New Norton Plain Grinding: Machine, 

THE Norton Grinding Company of Worcester, Mass., have 
recently brought out a new plain grinding machine Avhich 
should be particularly interesting to master mechanics, 
car builders, etc., as it is particularly well adapted for taking 
care of a great many kinds of railway work, such as the pro- 
duction of piston rods, crank pins, car axles, etc. Possibly the 
matter may appear as being of particular interest to our readers. 
We therefore publish the accompanying photograph together 
with the following description of a new plain grinding machine 
for straight and taper work that revolves on two dead centres. 
A machine has been produced that will grind heavier cuts from 

from end to end with the lever shown just above the cover. The 
vertical lever at the left of the cone cover may be used at any 
time to reduce the table speed without changing the belt on the 
cone. At the center of the illustration is shown the hand and 
automatic micrometer cross or sizing feed for the wheel. When 
the knob at the center of the hand wheel is screwed tight, the 
wheel is moved toward the work by turning the crank handle 
around the small dial shown at the top over the hand wheel. 
This dial is divided into eight parts by holes in which the crank 
handle pin may rest, a movement from one hole to another caus- 
ing the wheel to reduce the diameter of the work one-quarter of 
one-thousandth of an inch. When the knob is unscrewed the 

Norton Plain Grinding Machine. 

heavier work than has been heretofore possible, and this rapidly 
and accurately. To obtain the best results a great variety of 
table, work and wheel speeds are necessary. All speed changes 
are simple in arrangement, and being an adaptation of the well 
known belt and cone will be easily understood by all operators. 
Provision is made for the amount of power and water demanded 
by the rapid rate at which the machine is designed to work. 
The detail is heavy and simple and easily understood. The 
machine has entirely new features, among which may be men- 
tioned the extra heavy swivel table of triangular section, form- 
ing a permanent water guard, and a two way front and back 
support for the head and foot stocks, one of these ways being 
at the base of table to give stability. The table is very rigid 
along its upper edge and front way to give support to steady 
rests when grinding heavy cuts from long or heavy work. The 
center of gravity of the head and foot stocks is very low and 
they rest on a wide base. All changes of speed are .conveniently 
effected at the machine, there being no overhead cones. This 
fature will be appreciated by all, and especially by those who 
have high ceilings. There are sixteen changes of table speed, 
eight changes of work speed and six changes of wbeel speed, and 
all changes can be made without stopping either the table, work 
or wheel. The table speeds are independent of the work speeds, 
so that with each work speed any of the entire sixteen table 
speeds can be used. With this arrangement the work may tra- 
verse a distance equal to the full width of the Avheel at each 
revolution of the work, which is desirable when removing stock 
rapidly. A lever change is provided to instantly reduce the 
traverse speed when desired for producing a finer finish. All 
speed changes and adjustments are effected at the front of the 
machine within easy reach of the operator. The cone shape 
cover at the right contains a belt cone, the belt being moved 

wheel is moved with the hand wheel. The pawl of the automatic 
feed is shown thrown out, but when thrown into engagement 
with the teeth of the feed wheel, will move it more or less ac- 
cording to the position of the connecting- joint block on the arc 
shown at the left of the cross feed wheel, and attached to the 
reversing lever shown at the center. This automatic feed can 
be set to stop at any desired point. The table reversing lever 
and dogs cannot be broken if the operator moves the heavy 
table by hand against the lever; in fact the table dogs may pass 
the lever in either direction at any time, and yet the correct 
reversal of the table is not disturbed when power is again 
applied. The water tank is a part of the base and the water 
falls directly into it, there being no pipes or channels to become 
clogged. The pump is very large, raising sufficient water when 
running at slow speed. It is well made, requiring no packing 
and no repair. In principle it is like an exhaust fan submerged 
in water. In order to better show the features of the machine, 
a simple water guard is omitted on both end views. This guard 
prevents the water from reaching the pump pulleys and floor. 


Vertical Turret Machine. 

THE 30-inch vertical turret machine herewith illustrated and 
manufactured by the Warner, and Swasey Co., of Cleveland, 
Ohio, is especially adapted for boring, facing and turning 
a large range of work. In design and construction it represents 
many important improvements over previous similar machines, 
and its capacity has been great-ly increased. The machine will 
swing full 30 inches in diameter and will take 22 inches in height 
under the full cross slide, while the maximum distance from 
the chuck to the turret when in its uppermost position is 29% 
inches. In order to facilitate the chucking and facing of work 



February, 1902. 

of different heights, the upper portion of the column is con- 
structed with broad ways on which the rail carrying the cross 
slide and turret can be moved up or down a distance of 9 
inches, for vertical adjustment. The cross slide has a travel 
of W/2 inches' and can be fed either by hand, using the crank 
shown at the right of the head (page 6), or by power. Fixed 
automatic stops are placed at both ends of the slide, so that when 
power feed is used, even though the adjustable steps should 
not be set, the feed would trip automatically. The turret slide 
has a motion of 16 inches, and is carried on a swivel saddle 

Vertical Turret Machine. 

attached to the cross slide by a central stud. The saddle is 
clamped to the cross slide by bolts working in a circular T- 
slot, and the turret slide is fed either by hand or by power. 
When the latter is used, an adjustable stop and two fixed 
stops, one at each end of the slide, automatically trip the feed. 
A weight connected by chain running over pulleys counterbal- 
ances the turret slide, and thus insures its easy running. The 
turret is 10 inches in diameter, and is bored to receive four 
turret tools, having 2%-inch shanks, the tools being clamped 
in place by binder bushings. One tool holder like that shown 
on page 10 is furnished with each machine. The lock bolt is 
of hardened tool steel working in a tool steel index, and is 
placed directly under the cutting tool. The spindle, which is 
of large proportions, runs in Babbitt bearings, constructed with 
adjustable half boxes. The main driving gear is of large dia- 
meter, is cast solid with the spindle, and is so placed that the 
center line connecting it and the driving pinion is directly under 
the line of travel of the cutting tool; thereby eliminating all 
torsional strain in the spindle itself. On the top of the spindle 
is fitted an extra heavy Three-jaw Geared Scroll Combination 
Chuck. The jaws are fitted in T slots planed in supplementary 
slides and not in the body of the chuck. These supplementary 
sides are adjusted universally by a scroll in the usual manner, 
or each slide can be adjusted separately by an independent 
screw, if desirable. This arrangement, which permits of either 
universal or independent adjustment, has many advantages; for 
upon setting the jaws approximately the work can be quickly 
and accurately trued by means of the fine adjustment of the 
supplementary slide, after which the jaws can be operated uni- 
versally if desired. One of the elements of the driving mech- 
anism is the friction back gears, the clutch being operated by the 
long lever shown at the side of the machine. When the machine 

is m operation the table may be brought to a standstill by mov- 
ing the friction clutch lever to its central position. The cone is 
three-grade for 3%-inch belt, the largest diameter being 18 
inches. The cone gives three speeds, the friction back gears 
double this number, making six, and the double friction counter- 
shaft again doubles the speeds, making twelve in all, ranging 
from 3% to 72 revolutions per minute. 

The horizontal and vertical feeds are both gear driven. For 
either one there are eight changes of feed ^for each speed of the 
cone, these changes being secured by means of the two side levers 
on the gear box. The lever at the right gives four changes, and 
that at the left increases or decreases either of these feeds four 
to on. All feeds are reversible, the small lever in the top of the 
gear box being used for the purpose. All gears and running 
parts are carefully protected from injury and danger by means 
of suitable metal shields, and the lower portion of the feed box 
is hinged so that the clutches can be readily gotten at for ad- 

A New Cincinnati Miller. 

THE accompanying illustration shows the latest pattern 
milling machine made by the Cincinnati Milling Machine 
Co., Cincinnati, Ohio, as exhibited by them at Buffalo. 
The chief features of the machine are the positive feed mechan- 
ism, a positive gear-driven feed, a wide range of feed changes, 
means for changing from any one rate of feed to any other rate 
of feed conveniently and without stopping the machine. 

Fart of the mechanism is placed at the rear end of the milling 
machine spindle, and part is incased in a gear box at the rear 
of the column. The connection between these two parts of the 
mechanism is by means of a vertically inclined shaft. It will be 
seen that by simply shifting the levers on the feed mechanism, 
any one of the sixteen different rates of feed may be obtained, 
and a change from any one rate of feed to any other may be 



" ■ ■■ ■ - - : ■ ■ '■■■ : ■.- |: ■ ■ ■" "■-. ■ ' \ ' 
.- 'V - .:■ . 1 ..' ■.. .;',., . / . . ., 

mm *.^ ■ Im'ii It! 

»t-~--'<:- j ; _ 

-^m ".'. 

New Cincinnati Miller. 

made without stopping the machine, since there are no change 
gears to interpose nor belts to shift. Any one of these rates 
of feed may be used in combination with any of the sixteen 
different spindle speeds, providing, in all, 256 different combina- 
tions. The spindle speeds vary from 9 to 350 turns per minute 
and have been chosen with a view to secure the proper cutting 
speed for cutters of standard diameters. The rate of feed can be 
changed practically instantaneously. It is positive, at all times, 

February, 1902. 



imparting an even motion to the table, thereby avoiding the 
broken cutters and spoiled work which so often result from a 
slipping feed belt. In addition to this new feed mechanism, there 
are other improvements on these machines. Notable, among 
which, are a telescopic vertical feed screw which does away with 
the necessity of cutting a hole through the floor. 


Far well Milling Machine. 

IN the accompanying illustration we show the Farwell Milling 
Machine No. 3 on planer manufactured by the Adams Com- 
pany of Dubuque, Iowa. The spindle is of steel with a 
diameter of 4% inches and length of 22 inches, the taper hole is 
in both right and left end of spindle, with a 
taper Vz inch to 1 foot, and the center of the 
spindle 11 inches from planer rail. A recess 
forming a clutch on each end of the spindle, 
allows the clutch collar of arbor or face mill 
to engage therewith. The spindle runs in 
bronze boxes of special design, affording ready 
means for taking up all lost motion. Three 
pulleys for worm shaft, 10, 14 and 18 inches, 
will, with two speeds to countershaft, give 
six speeds to spindle. The pulleys have 6% 
inch face and the belt can be put on either way 
and spindle driven in either direction. The 
spindle is driven by a hardened steel worm en- 
gaging with a bronze worm wheel. The worm 
wheel runs in oil. Hardened steel ball-bearing 
thrust collars take care of the heavy end thrust 
on worm shaft in taking heavy cuts. The balls 
are confined in a cage in spiral rows which 
guide them in separate paths, so the collars 
will not wear in grooves. The collars are 
thoroughly hard and both sides are ground per- 
fectly true and can be reversed if one side be- 
comes worn. Each saddle is specially made to 
fit the planer rail on which the miller is to 
work. The bracket, or support for outer end 
of horizontal arbor, is, like the' saddle, spe- 
cially made to fit the planer rail. It can be 
easily and quickly removed. 

into the lower end of the connecting rod, and from it derives a 
partially rotary motion, thus locking the tool block on the down 
stroke and causing the tool to clear on the up stroke. 


Plain Millina Machinery. 

A PLAIN milling machine, new in design and known as No. 
24, has recently been brought out by the Brown & Sharpe 
Mfg. Co. Several important features that have not been 
combined before in a machine of this size and capacity are em- 
bodied in its construction. This machine is built for work requir- 
ing unusually large table capacity and long cuts. Exceptionally 
heavy gearing is provided, thus fitting the machine especially for 
the requirements of machine tool builders, engine and railroad 


A Small Die Slotter. 

THE accompanying illustration shows a die slotter manu- 
factured by the Garvin Machine Company of New York 
City which is suitable for all die work, small key seating, 
both straight and taper; also internal or external gear patterns, 

and affords greater strength 
than an adjustable pin. The 
speed can be changed by means 
of the cone pulley. The slide 
for the ram can be swiveled five 
degrees either way and set by 
a graduated index, therby . in- 
suring the same draft to every 
part of the die. The tool block 
is well adapted for holding spe- 
cial tools. It swivels in a centre 
upper end, carried in a yoke, 
near its lower end, and at the 
are two hardened plugs which 
bear on a cam that is bushed 
where draft is required, and all 
that class of common slotting. 
The two cross motions and the 
rotary table provide for follow- 
ing any outline. The handle 
for the rotary table is arranged 
for using dials for dividing pur- 
poses, but for small divisions and 
rapid work it may be entirely 
removed, and the table revolved 
by hand, using the lock-pin de- 
vice, which provides twelve di- 
visions for square, hexagon, oc- 
tagon, duodecagon, etc. The 
stroke of the machine has been 
fixed at 2^4 inches, which is am- 
pie for this class of woTk for 
bMALL DIE bLOTTER. which the machine is intended, 

Farwell Milling Machine No. 3. 

Plain Milling Machine. 



February, 1902. 

shops. The steel spindle has ground and lapped bearings and 
runs in phosphor bronze boxes, provided with means of compen- 
sation for wear. The spindle is smoothly and powerfully driven 
by a worm wheel, the worm wheel being made of phosphor 
bronze, while the worm is made of steel, hardened, and runs in 
oil. The thrust of the worm is taken by ball bearings. Pro- 
vision is made for taking up the wear of the worm and wheel, 
thus insuring proper contact and the smooth running of the 
spindle. The spindle cone runs idle and in the same direction 
as the shaft on which it is mounted, thus reducing the friction 
to a minimum. It has only two steps, the power being trans- 
mitted through a system of gearing, arranged to give an excep- 
tionally high ratio. The changes of spindle speed are obtained 
by means of transposing gears. With 2 speeds of the counter- 
shaft, 8 changes of speed are obtained, varying from 15 to 100 
revolutions per minute. The method of clamping the spindle 
head and knee is improved, each being clamped by one lever in 
place of two as formerly. This will tend to show the care and 

Horizontal Drilling Machine. 

THIS new machine manufactured by the B. F. Barnes Com- 
pany, Rockford, III, has been designed particularly for 
work which, by reason of length, cannot be handled advan- 
tageously on either an upright or a radial drill. • It is specially 
adapted for drilling in the end of long pieces, as, for example, 
in the end of a column or shaft, and generally for any work 
within the range of its capacity which cannot be done at all, 
or with difficulty, or a vertical drilling machine. It is provided 
with a reversing friction countershaft, adapting the machine 
for tapping as well as drilling, and is capable of drilling up to 
one and one-half inches and tapping up to one and one-fourth 
inches. The cut shows very clearly the construction of the 
machine, and its method of operation will be easily understood. 
The upright arm swings on journels which are in line with the cone 
shaft and is properly counterweighted as shown. It can be 
swung in either direction and moves through 180 degrees of a 
circle having a radius of 24 inches. The spindle is provided 

attention given throughout to the details of convenience in the 
manipulation of the machine. The overhanging arm is of steel 
and can be pushed back from over the table when not in use. 
The arm support is exceptionally rigid and of improved design. 
It is made in two parts, clamped directly to the front of the 
knee and can be easily placed in position or removed. The two 
parts slide upon each other and are clamped in position by bolts 
passing through the slots. This form admits of a bearing for the 
outer end of the arbor directly in the support, and allows the 
adjustable arbor support to be used at any intermediate point 
on the arbor. The design of this machine shows that especial 
care has been taken to make it as convenient in operation as 
possible. All the working parts are easy of access, and all levers, 
hand wheels, etc., are so placed that the operator has complete 
control of the various movements of the machine. 

with power feed, hand worm feed, and also quick return me- 
chanism. The machine can be furnished either with or with- 
out back gearing, as required. The distance from table to 
center of spindle when the swinging arm is in a vertical posi- 
tion is 17 inches, and when the arm is swung so that the spindle 
is on a level with the table the distance from the center of table 
to center of spindle is 22% inches. The spindle can be operated 
at any point through 145 degrees of a circle having a radius 
of 24 inches. The table is 20 x 40 inches and has lateral T- 
slots, so that work can be held either in jigs or bolted to the 
table. The spindle is 1 5-16 inches in diameter and is fitted 
with No. 3 Morse taper and has travel of 10 inches. Required 
floor space, 90 x 42 inches. Weight 1,800 pounds. The tight 
and loose pulleys on countershaft are 8% x 2y 2 inches and 
should be speeded 450 revolutions per minute. 

March, 1902. 



Qatubllelied 1878. 


Bruce V. Crandall Company, Publishers 
XV. E-. Lewis, :: :: :: :: Manager 

Office of Publication, Room 610 The Boylstor. Bldg., 269 

Dearborn Street. 

A Monthly Rail-way Journal. 

Devoted to the interests of railway motive power, car equip- 
ment, shops, machinery and supplies. 

Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are 

Subscription price $1.00 a year, to foreign countries $1.50, 
free of postage. Single copies 10 cents. Advertising rates 
given on application to the office, by mail or in person. 

In remitting make all checks payable to the Bruce V. Crandall 

Vol. XXVI. 


No. 3. 


MANY of the friends of the late Mr. Edwin N. 
Lewis, who for many years was the manager 
of the Railway Master Mechanic, will be pleased to 
learn that his son, Mr. W. E* Lewis, has become as- 
sociated with this publication as its manager. Mr. 
Lewis has also associated himself with the undersigned 
in the ownership of a publishing company which in 
addition to the Railway Master Mechanic will pub- 
lish The Contractor, a semi-monthly publication 
covering the field of heavy construction and railroad 
building and earth moving work of every description. 
Iron and Steel, a weekly journal in the interests of 
the hardware, iron, machinery and metal trades, will 
also be published under the same ownership and man- 

Bruce V. Crandall. 


THE motive power department has been honored 
again in the recent promotion of Mr. W. H. 
Marshall from that department to the position of gen- 
eral superintendent of the Lake Shore and Michigan 
Southern Railway. The advancement of mechanical 
officials to the higher operating departments is always 
noted with pleasure by the Railway Master Mechanic 
and more especially so in this instance, inasmuch as 
Mr. Marshall was for some years editor of this pub- 

•» ♦» 

IN the Railway Master Mechanic of February, 
1888, there appeared a report of some tests made 
by the Michigan Central Ry. Co. for the purpose of 
comparing the relative durability and action upon the 
steel tire of plain unflanged cast iron brake shoes and 
flanged brake shoes, recessed over the limits of rail- 
wear, but having steel cutting inserts located in those 

portions of the brake shoe bearing on the top of the 
flange and outer tread of the wheel. We republish 
this article in another portion of this issue in connec- 
tion with a paper on locomotive brake tests, by Mr. 
W. H. Stocks, before the February meeting of the 
Western Railway Club. The results of this test show., 
that there was a strong cutting action, accompanied 
by large increase in durability with the insert shoe, 
as compared with the common cast iron. The fact that 
these insert shoes were very similar to the "B" shoes 
noted in the paper read at the last meeting of the 
Western Railway Club, is very interesting and in- 
structive, because these early tests confirm one of the 
conclusions by the author of the paper in question, 
which is, that "Tire dressing is an important factor 
in the driving brake shoe, because by reason of the 
- cutting action upon the tire, friction is generated from 
the use of a hard and durable shoe, which could not 
possibly be obtained from a shoe whose hardness is 
due to a simple rubbing face, which would not hold 
up a cutting edge." We have often advocated the 
importance of making actual road tests to confirm 
if possible, theoretical deductions and conclusions 
from shop tests, as after all, it is the actual result in 
every day use that we are all after, and upon which 
any final conclusion must rest. The paper on locomo- 
tive brake shoes gives the results of a series of intel- 
ligently planned and carefully conducted experiments 
for the purpose of establishing the comparative value 
of two distinct types of brake shoes in common use. 
Having the indorsement of the mechanical depart- 
ment of a prominent railroad system, the facts given 
cannot be neglected, and it is surprising that there 
was so little discussion on the part of the railroad 
gentlemen present at the meeting. It would appear 
from this that there is very little information at hand 
on the subject, which emphasizes the importance of 
more tests in the line of those indicated in the paper, 
wheh is certainly an important contribution to the 
brake shoe subject. The example of the C. R. I. & P. 
R. R. in conducting elaborate tests and then clearly 
and frankly presenting their results for general infor- 
mation, is one which should be appreciated and should 
be followed by other roads who are equally interested 
in developing their brake mechanism to the highest 
efficiency and economy. The work of comparing all 
the common types of brake shoes by actual tests for 
both friction and durability and action on the wheel 
tread, should be continued until we know from actual 
experience just what may be expected from each 
class of shoe, and this work should not be left to par- 
ties interested in any particular brake shoe patent, 
but should be entirelv under the unbiased supervision 
of the railroad experts, so that all sides of the question 
may be presented. A series of carefully conducted 
brake shoe tests cannot fail to result in more econom- 
ical and more efficient train control. 



March, 1902. 

N another portion of this issue will be found an arti- the coal consumption twenty-five tons for that one 
cle on the "Efficiency of Bituminous Coal," by engine in a month of thirty days. If, during Novem- 

ber, our engineers had such little appreciation of what 
an economical coal record meant, and had no one to 
remind them of the fact, we would have had an in- 
crease in our coal consumption of over 694 tons, at a 
cost of $1,096. I cite this instance to demonstrate what 
may be accomplished by a thoughtful and conscien- 
tious traveling engineer." 

Mr. H. J. German, of the B. & M. R. R. As Mr. Ger- 
man explains his ideas fully it is hardly necessary 
to do other than call attention to his article and at the 
same time an extract from a paper read by Mr. W. J. 
Schlacks, on "Locomotive Fuel" before a recent meet- 
ing of the Rocky Mountain Railway Club, will be 
of interest in this connection. The paper calls 
especial attention to the fact that the item of fuel 
amounts to thirty-six per cent of the total expense 
of locomotive operation, including renewals and re- 
pairs, or as much as the wages of enginemen, hostlers 
and wipers, and cost of lubrication combined ; or six motive power of the Chicago Great Western Railway, 

read a short paper before a 
recent meeting of the North- 
west Railway Club. These 

<♦ « » 

UNDER the caption "Notes on the Wear of Jour- 
nals," Mr. David Van Alstine, superintendent of 

note were an outcome of 
an investigation of the 

per cent more than the next 
greatest item of expense — 
the wages of enginemen. 
It further amounts to twelve 
and three-tenths per cent 
of the total cost of operat- 
ing a modern railroad. The 
importance of educating 
the firemen as regards fuel 
economy is aptly illus- 
trated in a portion of Mr. 
Seldack's paper and we 
quote from that portion of 
it the following: "When 
one thinks of the object to 
be attained by reducing the 
coal consumption just a tri- 
fle, for which a ton is now 
being used, he is liable to 
be considered neglectful 
were he not to use his best 
efforts in the direction in 
which so much can be 
gained. On the little road 
with which I am connected, 
and which is quite insignifi- 
cant compared with the 
great eastern trunk lines, 
we consumed, during No- 
vember last, 12,745 tons. 
In one year, at that rate, we 
will have consumed 152,940 
tons, at a total cost of 
$241,645. I have in mind 
a case where an engineer's 

coal record did not vary over 300 pounds on six con- lent care they receive and the light average load they 
secutive trips over a district of 238 miles, while the carry. Engine truck axles: The records, though very 
very next day there was an increase of 1,700 pounds incomplete, indicate the average life of engine truck 
under the same condition, except a change of engineers, axles for one-half-inch wear in diameter, to have been 
The increase was due to his running the engine longer about 7 years, or, say 245,000 miles. This low mileage 
'in the corner than the regular engineer, in his anxiety may be accounted for from the fact that they have 
to get out of stations, while he made no better time been run with babbit bearings, have smaller wheels, 
arriving at terminals than the regular man. If that hence a higher velocity, and have a considerable ten- 
man had been allowed to continue with the 1,700 dency to wear tapering, requiring frequent trueing up. 
pounds increase every day, he would have increased Engine truck axles have made only half the mileage 



Mr. Thomas' entire railway service has been with 
the road of which he is now general manager. He is a 
most practical railroad man, having seen active service 
in nearly every department of his road. 

consumption of axles on the 
C. G. W. Ry. Owing to 
the difficulty of keeping ac- 
curate records of journal 
wear, Mr. Van Alstine 
states that the figures can- 
not be taken as absolutely 
correct, but presents them 
with the hope that they 
would be of some interest 
to the club. The following- 
is the paper as read : "Tak- 
ing up the various axles 
separately, beginning with 
tender axles. The aver- 
age life of tender axles for 
one-half inch wear in diam- 
eter of journal appears to 
have been about 14 years, 
or, say 490,000 miles. Only 
5 per cent of these axles 
have been removed on ac- 
count of worn collars. 
Tender axles seem to be 
the most economical of 
all the axles, in that 
the journal wears 
slowly and the num- 
ber removed for collar 
wear is small. This is no 
doubt due to the excel- 

March, 1902. 



for the same depth of wear as tender and driving axles. 
Driving Axles : The record of a number of driving 
axles shows an average of 476,800 miles, or about 13 
years for one-half-inch wear in diameter of journal. 
Driving axle journals have a tendency to wear taper- 
ing and hollow, and this uneven wear is no doubt due 
to an uneven distribution of dirt in the packing. This 
unevenly distributed dirt wears both journal and bear- 
ing unevenly, concentrates the load on a small area, 
and when the. load becomes so concentrated that the 
unit of pressure is sufficient to exclude the oil, a hot 
box results. However good the bearing metal and 
packing may be, there is no assurance that a box will 
not run hot so long as dirt can work in at the sides of 
the box and produce this concentration of load at the 
center. A driving box which will distribute the dirt 
uniformly along the journal, or, better, exclude it alto- 
gether, is much to be desired. Freight Car Axles : An 
average of a number of 4% ins. x 8 ins. axles shows a 
life of 3.83 years per 1-32-in. depth of wear, or about 
30 years for y 2 in. in diameter, which is the life of the 
axle. Only 29 per cent have been removed on account 
of worn collars, so that a large majority run the full 
life of their journals, unless the wheel seats are re- 
duced to the limit before the journals are worn out. 
This indicates the importance of never reducing wheel 
seats, except when in such condition that wheels can- 
not be fitted to them. Assuming that a freight car 
makes 25 miles per day, the life of a freight axle will 
be about 274,000 miles, which is not much more than 
half the mileage made by a passenger car axle. The 
probable explanation is that freight boxes receive less 
care as to tight lids and dust guards and clean packing, 
and contain more dirt to wear away the journal. Pas- 
senger Car Axles : The average of a number of 4J4 

ins. x 8 ins. passenger axles indicate a life of 7 years, 
which at 72,000 miles per year, gives a mileage of 504,- 
000 when journal is worn y 2 in. in diameter. This is 
approximately the mileage made by driving axles for 
the same depth of wear, and is twice that of freight car 
axles. For several years past 24 per cent of all passen- 
ger car axles in service have been removed annually, 
and of those removed 94 per cent are on account of 
collars worn off. Of the axles removed with collars 
worn off, 70 per cent are mounted with steel-tired 
wheels, 30 per cent with cast iron wheels. The ten- 
dency of steel wheels to wear out their flanges is no 
doubt the cause of their wearing the collars off their 
axles so rapidly, and this tendency is what makes steel 
wheels so much more expensive than cast iron wheels. 
The rapid wear of passanger axle collars suggests the 
possible economy of using collarless axles under pas- 
senger cars. In answer to my letter of inquiry as to 
why the Pullman Company uses the collarless journal, 
Mr. H. M. Pflager, mechanical superintendent, writes 
that they find the collarless journal lasts longer than 
the collar journal, on which the collars wear thin, 
making it necessary to scrap the journals before they 
are worn down to the limit. They also find that the 
cost of maintaining trucks with the collarless journals 
is less than with the collar journal, and they have 
noticed that the wheel wear is in favor of the collar- 
less journal. They are of the opinion that they have a 
smaller number of hot boxes with the collarless jour- 
nals. In conclusion, it seems to me that the quality 
of bearing metal and packing need not be a source of 
much anxiety, but that an increase in the life of jour- 
nals and a decrease in the number of hot boxes depend 
mainly on the exclusion of dirt. 

■** » 

Bracing Boilers and Bracing Blunders. 

By W. H. Graves. 

"He who seeketh wisdom, and he himself is also 
wise, scruples not to acquire a morsel of truth, even 
from the sayings of a fool." — Hindu Saying. 

There is no detail of boiler construction that needs 
closer attention than bracing, a strict adherence to 
well defined principles of structural design, close at- 
tention to results brought out by calculation, intelli- 
gent methods of distributing braces in areas found, 
common sense methods in plotting, a thorough knowl- 
edge of the material entering into the brace, and finally 
the best form of brace for that particular area to 
supported. It is almost needless to enter the do- 
main of brace fallacies, and their peculiar design, kn^e, 
crowfoot, strap and threaded, each one has its adher- 
ents, simply because in his experience, by using that 
form, he knows of no boiler explosions resulting from 
its use, or if he is in a contract business, it is the 
cheapest form of brace that can be used, or according 
to his calculations, it is the best form he can devise, 

ignoring the saying that although theory and prac- 
tice are sisters, they are always quarreling, and prac- 
tical results are not what theory would lead one to 
believe. In most cases it is not the fault of the theory, 
but rather the fault of the one who is using it. I will 
cite several cases to demonstrate what is usually the 
cause of the quarrel between those sisters of theory 
and practice. A boiler maker finds from his calcula- 
tion that a certain crown sheet calls for a certain num- 
ber of braces we will say of % in. diameter, he will 
have them threaded, reducing the area corresponding 
to a diameter 25-32, it not only reduces the area be- 
low the safety line, but the bolt is further weakened 
by cutting in it a V thread, the poorest design that 
could be used. The boiler goes out, something hap- 
pens and he will say in triumph, "Now what does your 
theory amount to?" and if it is pointed out to him that 
the calculation calls for a bolt whose minimum area 
must not be less than that which corresponds to a 




March, 1902. 

diameter of y% of an inch, which will take a bolt one 
inch in diameter, he usually feels you are defending 
one more book fallacy. The writer has had several 
experiences of this kind. 

Another fault of a great many who find errors in 
calculations, is in the plotting and correct area for a 
brace that is not at right angles to the area to be sup- 
ported. If on the close investigation of structural 
design they will find that a brace, say, for an illustra- 
tion, has an angle of 45 degrees, it will take a brace of 
a greater cross sectional area to support a given load 

is supposed to be equalized by the two rivets in double 
shear, as they are riveted through a seam. The im- 
portance of thoroughly bracing front flue sheets has 
not received the attention that it deserves, not only 
on account of well designed brace plotting, but on the 
influence on steam pipes. The writer had an experi- 
ence of this kind. He had an egnine that continually 
gave trouble on account of leaky steam pipes. They 
were taken out frequently and ground in, only to be 
found on the next trip leaking. It was suggested that 
there may be braces loose on the flue sheet. The 

figure 2. 

area than one at right angles. The writer has seen 
in several cases brace plotting that has brought that 
error into full prominence. In Fig. 1 it will be seen 
that in spaces that have the greater angle there is a 
less number of braces, and in numerous cases the brace 
has a smaller diameter than the brace on top, which 

figure 1. 

has a less and a lighter load to support. 

A brace fallacy that is hard to combat in a great 
many cases is that which is riveted into seams. The 
designer seems to consider that the rivets are in dou- 
ble shear, which on investigation will be found to be 
only in single shear. Fig II will illustrate this. In the 
pad that is riveted to the head there are three y^ 
rivets, and the foot, that is fastened to the boiler, is 
two Y\ rivets, The difference in cross section area 

figure 3. 

dome cup was removed, and three braces were found 
to be without pins. On another occasion a pair of 
leaky steam pipes were remedied by putting in two 
extra braces, one on each side of the rigger head. It 
is evident that in this era of high boiler pressure too 
close attention cannot be given to this subject, and 
now that the United States is taking the lead of the 
world in supplying machinery to all nations, a general 
enlightenment of all people in theoretic knowledge, we 
must conform our brace plotting to some standard of 
intelligence and common sense. I will 
give only one illustration (in Fig. Ill) 
of this. The writer was putting in a 
battery of boilers in Mexico, 60 in. x 16 ft., 
containing 12.6 flues, and the bottom, with no braces 
in the space under flues. After running thirty days 
it was found that they had bulged, and it was neces- 
sary to put in braces. In this case it was conceived 
that the flues would support the space underneath 
them, and to generalize the whole subject we have 
M. C. B.'s couplers and M. M.'s standards of all kinds. 
Would it not be a good idea if we could have a stand- 
ard brace for certain areas, and at the next Master Me- 
chanics' convention the writer hopes some suggestion 
will be made in this direction. 

March, 1902. 



At the 

Locomotive Brake Shoe Tests* 

By W. H. Stocks, Master Mechanic C, R. I. & P. Ry. 

T is impossible to estimate the amount of specification, the subject has not been forgotten and 
money that has been saved to the railroads the leaven is undoubtedly working, with the result 
and investors by the celebrated brake trials that before long extensive tests will be made in actual 
of the M. C. B. committee in 1886 and 1887. train operation to confirm the conclusions of the M. 
The question of brakes was settled in favor C. B. committee, which were crystallized in its report 
of the air brake, and the buffer brakes and and specifications at the Saratoga convention in 1901, 

and these road tests will be made to determine the 
actual stopping qualities of various brake shoes, the 
texture and construction of which will be most care- 
fully noted. 

As a contribution to the knowledge on the subject 

other substitutes for the automatic air 
brake disappeared from consideration for- 
ever, to the inestimable good of railroad 

present time much money is being spent by 

Table II 

"A" and "15" and "C." Driving brake shoes. 
Emergency stops under as nearly as> possible similar conditions. 


Dynamometer Records. 




Shoes. Train. 

M. P. H. 



M. P. H. 


Value of Stops, 
Per Cent. 



"A." Engine and dvnamometer ear 

"B " " " •• 

Up 14 ft. per mile 

Up 14 ft. per mile 

Down 39% ft. per mile 

Down 14 ft. per mile 

Down 7% ft. per mile. . 








No wind. 

"A." " " " 









78 4 

"B " " " •' 






"B " " •' " 


"A." " "' " 

Up 14 ft. per mile 

Down 29 ft. per mile.... 
Down 29 ft. per mile... 

40 46W 









"A." " " " 










•C.'' " " " 

•■ \." " " " 

Down 7% ft. per mile. . 
Down 7% ft. per mile.. 







"C." " " " 

" V " " " " 









•■B " " " " % 

Down 23 ft per mile.... 
Down 35 ft. per mile 











"li." " " " 

"B." " " " 

Down 11% ft. per mile.. 
Down 17% ft. per mile.. 

















Down 23 ft. per mile 

Down 25 ft. per mile 

Down 11% ft. per mile.. 
Down 12% It. per mile.. 










••(J " " " '■ 






"C ." " " " 

"A." Engine, dynamometer and six-car train. . 

Down 14 ft. per mile 

Down 14 ft. per mile 
























Down 11% ft. per mile.. 







"A " 

Down 8 ft. per mile. . 
Down 8 ft. per mile 

40 y 2 









Light snow. 


"C." " " " . " 





Down 14 ft. per mile 



1 213 






Light snow. 

Down 11% ft. per mile. 
Down 3% ft. per mile. . . 

Down 25 ft. per mile 

Down 2d ft. per mile 











Light snow. 

Light snow. 

" \." 

Down 8 ft. per mile 

59 H 









Down K% ft. per mile.. 
Down 12}! ft. per mile.. 








"C." ■• " " " . 

Down 25 ft. per mile 

Down 35 ft. per mile 


66 H 








Light snow. 

"A " 


Down 8 ft. per mile 
Down 40 It. per mile 


58 % 









Light snow. 


Down 16% ft. per mile.. 
Down 87% f\ per mbe 

A vet 







Light snow. 

the railroads for various types of brake shoes, and if 
some road tests can be inaugurated by the M. C. B. 
Association on the lines of the M. C. B. brake trials, 
the brake shoe question will undoubtedly be much 
simplified and there will certainly result a large sav- 
ing to all concerned, together with a great improve- 
ment in the efficiency of the train control. While 
there appears to have been no immediate action on the 
part of the railroads upon the suggestion of the M. 
C. B. brake-shoe committee to select brake shoes by 

* Abstract of a paper presented before the Western 
Railway Club, February 18, 1902. 

of brake shoes, as well as to inaugurate a discussion 
in this club of the question, some results of a compar- 
ative brake shoe test recently made on the C. R. I. & 
P. Ry. are presented for your consideration. 

Last summer a certain type of brake shoe was 
offered to the motive power department of the above 
mentioned road with the claim that it was a much 
better shoe for their use than that which they had 
adopted as standard on their locomotive driving 
wheels : 

The claims made were as follows : 

First — Greater durability. 

Second — Equal, if not superior, retarding power. 



March, 1902. 

Third — Superior tire dressing effect. 

And in proof of these claims, records were presented 
showing the satisfactory results obtained on other 

In July a service test was arranged and certain 
engines were equipped with the different brake shoes, 
which, for the purpose of comparison, we will desig- 
nate in this paper by the letters "A" and "B." 

"A" representing: A cast iron brake shoe having 
two curved inserts of very hard white iron, disposed 
along the outer tread-bearing portion of the shoe, and 
three similar inserts disposed along that portion of 
the shoe covering the wheel flange, the center portion 
of the shoe over the limits of the rail wear being cut 
away. The inserts presented well-defined cutting edges 
transverse to the wheel tread. The back of the shoe 
was reinforced with a steel plate to prevent fracture. 
This plate, however, has nothing to do with the face 
of the shoe. 

"B" representing: A cast iron brake shoe, having 
four crucible cast steel inserts arranged along the 
outer tread-bearing portion of the shoe face and three 
inserts of crucible cast steel disposed along the flange 
groove, these inserts presenting well-defined cutting 
edges transverse to the wheel face. The shoe surface 
was recessed over the limits of rail wear on the tire, 
while the ends of the shoe were tapered and heavily 
chilled from the back, the chill being confined to the 
beveled .ends. 

Each engine was equipped on one side with the 
"A" shoe and on the other side with the "B" shoe, 
so that as nearly as possible the two classes of shoes 
were given equal service under similar conditions. 

The table one shows the result of the road tests in an 
average wear of 3^2 pounds of the "A" shoe for each 
i-pound wear of the "B" shoe: 





Loss in Weight. 

Tested by Master 








7- 6-01 
7- 6-01 
7- 3-01 

11- 2-01 

11- 2-01 

12- 3-01 

26^4 lbs. 

51H " 
24H " 

7% lbs. 
10*4 " 
10H " 
HYt " 
13 " 

Chicago, 111., W. H. Stocks. 

■1 tl tt ti 

tl (< ft tt 
U It *t tt 

Trenton, Mo., A. McCormick. 

"A" "B" "A" "B" 

Total loss in weight 185V4 lbs. 53. lbs. Ratio of wear.... 3.5 lbs. 1 lb. 

Engine 809, Horton, Kas. Test record incomplete. 

Engine 1224, Valley Junction, la. "B" shoes have worn out two sets 
of "A" shoes. Third set now on. 12-1-1901. 

So convincing were the figures showing the greater 
durability of the "B" shoe, the question was naturally 
raised as to their frictional effect, the general impres- 
sion being that the more durable "B" shoes would 
not stop the engine in as short a distance as the "A" 
shoes on account of being more than three times as 
hard. This point was taken up and discussed with the 
makers of the "B" shoes, who were convinced, how- 
ever, that their shoe possessed good holding power, 
which seemed to be confirmed in part by superior 
dressing effect on the tire, and that this work of wear- 

ing down the wheel tread meant that the shoe was 
surviving at the expense of the wheel, whereas the 
"A" shoe probably did the work at its own expense. 

In order to further convince our people that there 
were sufficient frictional qualities in the "B" shoes as 
furnished us for service, a series of road tests was 
suggested for the purpose of demonstrating beyond 
any doubt the difference between the two types of 
shoes in question as regards stopping a locomotive. 

Mr. George F. Wilson, S. M. P. & E., gave instruc- 
tions to make some road tests, and in order to get 
the best possible data, the dynamometer car of the 
C. M. & St. P. R. R. was secured, through the cour- 
tesy of Mr. A. E. Manchester, superintendent motive 
power of that road, accompanied by their expert, Mr. 

On December 2, 1901, the tests were started on our 
main line southwest of Blue Island, 111., to compare 
the retarding power of a set of the "A" driving brake 
shoes and a set of the "B" driving brake shoes similar 
to those noted in the service test, Table I, and a third 
set of shoes, which we will designate as "C," which 
were similar in shape to the "B" shoes, but differed 
in having the chill omitted from the ends and an 
additional insert in both the tread and flange bearing 
portion. This extra set was introduced for the pur- 
pose of determining what effect would result from 
the omission of the hardened ends and an increase in 
the cutting effect due to an additional insert. 

The test consisted: 

First — Of stopping an engine and dynamometer car, 
using the emergency application of the driver and 
tender brakes (I might say here the latter being used 
without change through all the tests), while the en- 
gine was drifting with steam shut off at nearly as 
possible the desired speed. Two stops with each set 
of driving shoes were made with the engine and dy- 
namometer car at 40 miles per hour, and two stops 
at 65 miles per hour, the endeavor being to always 
make the stops as nearly as possible on the same 
stretch of track. 

Second — Following these tests a train consisting of 
two baggage cars and four passenger coaches equipped 
with steel-tired wheels (using unflanged coach brake 
shoes unchanged throughout all the tests) were at- 
tached to engine and dynamometer car. Two stops 
were then made with each set of driving shoes at a 
speed of 40 miles per hour, and two stops at a speed 
of 60 miles per hour with the full train. 

The engine used in this test was No. 858, Engineer 
-C. W. Goodall, Fireman John Smith, engine weighing 
65 tons, exclusive of tender ; cylinder, 19 inches by 26 
inches; 6 drivers, 63^ inches outside diameter; four- 
wheeled truck; steam pressure, 180 pounds. 

The rate of grade naturally had some effect on the 
result of the test in lessening or increasing the length 
of the stops accordingly as the grade was up or down. 

March, 1902. 



The records do not indicate a close enough agreement 
in the distances run under the various rates 6! gradi- 
ent to figure definitely the proper correction in order 
to reduce the stops to a level grade basis. Below is 
indicated the average grade of the two runs of each 
set of shoes at the same speed. The only correction 
applied was that necessary to bring the stops to the 
same speed for comparison — that is 40, 60 and 65 miles 
per hour. 

The results of these tests are given in Table II, in 
which the stops are arranged in pairs for the purpose 
of ready comparison, each couple representing as 
nearly as possible stops on the same grade. Where 
the grades are different, it is so noted. 

The shortest stop made with train at 40 miles per 
hour was made in 924 feet by the "B" shoes. At 60 
miles per hour the shortest stop was made by the "A" 
shoes in 2,210 feet. 

There were no brakes used on the dynamometer 
car in any of the stops. 

Averaging the stops with the "A" and "B" shoes 
we find that the "A" and "B" shoes are practically of 
equal efficiency in stopping the engine. 

From the figures of this report we can now reach 
some definite conclusion as to the comparative merits 
of the "A" shoes and the "B" shoes: 

First — From a frictional standpoint, which is the 
greatest virtue in the brake shoe, there appears no 

Second — From the standpoint of durability, the "B" 
shoe, as shown in the service test, has three and one- 

It is regretted that no tire diagrams have been taken 
to show exactly the cutting effect of each shoe, as it 
is of considerable importance that the brake shoe 
should cut the wheel as much as possible outside the 
limits of the rail wear, and the brake shoe which has 
a continuous and uniform cutting action on the wheel 
tread can save its cost over a non-tire dressing shoe 
by the greater length of time the engine is kept out 
of the shop for tire turning, provided, of course, the 
brake shoe is recessed above the limits of rail wear, 
and this is the case in the shoes which have been 
tested on our road. 

We hope to present at some later date some records 
of tire wear by the brake shoe, and we believe it would 
be a good thing if all interested in the matter would 
endeavor to secure information in this line. Tire dress- 
ing is an important factor in the driving brake shoe, 
because by reason of this cutting action upon the tire 
friction is generated from the use of a hard and dur- 
able shoe which could not possibly be obtained from a 
shoe whose hardness was contained in a simple rub- 
bing face which would not hold up a cutting edge. 


Tire Wear as Affected by Brake Shoes. 

Reprinted from our issue of February, 1888, as being of un- 
usual interest in connection with the paper on "Locomotive 
Brake Shoe Tests," which is published in this issue. 

Interesting tests have lately been made upon the 
Michigan Central railway to determine how far the 



«» rrn — 



Fig. 8 


half times the life of the "A" shoe. It is about \2.y 2 
per cent heavier, which will reduce the advantage 
slightly, but at the same price per pound must be far 
more economical. 

Third — As to the action on the tire, there are no 
records of measurements made to determine the exact 
effect, but all who have observed the action of the 
shoes in question agree that the "B" shoes do the best 

use of an improved brake shoe will affect the wear 
of steel tires in proper lines. The results, as revealed 
by diagrams taken with the Mackenzie tire indicator, 
prove that the new shoe admirably affects its purpose, 
as our engravings clearly show. The tire indicator 
used is that devised by Superintendent of Motive 
Power Mackenzie, of the New York, Chicago & St. 
Louis, and which was illustrated in the Master 
Mechanic of July, 1887, p. 119. 



March, 1902. 

The tests were made on baggage and mail car No. 
302, Michigan Central railway, which went into ser- 
vice on July 1, 1887, on the local run between Detroit 
and Grand Rapids, equipped with 42-in. steel tired 
wheels, which, having been newly turned, were in the 
condition shown by the upper dotted line in the accom- 
panying cuts. 

Common cast iron brake shoes were applied to the 
wheels of one truck and Ross-Meehan shoes to those 
of the other. Figs. 1 and 2 show the outlines of the 
tires on one axle, and Figs. 3 and 4 those on the sec- 
ond axle of the forward truck ; Figs. 5 and 6 similarly 
show the tires on the first, and Figs. 7 and 8 the tires 
on the second axle of the rear truck — the common 
brake shoe being applied to the wheels of the forward 
truck and the Ross-Meehan shoe being applied to the 
wheels of the rear truck. 

On October 14, 1887, after the car had run 31,220 
miles, the outlines of the tires, as shown by the central 
dotted lines, were obtained by the use of Mackenzie's 
tire indicator, and on January 7, 1888, when the car 
had made 24,360 miles since the last outlines were 
taken, and 55,580 miles since the beginning of the 
test, the final outlines, shown by the solid lines, were 
taken in the same way as before. Wheels 1 and 2 
were removed on the completion of the test don ac- 
count of the sharp flange of No. 1. 

It is clearly shown that the Ross-Meehan shoe 
keeps the wear of the tire remarkably even all over, 
from the extreme edge of the flange to the throat and 
full face of the tread ; when re-turning does become 
necessary, very little metal has to be cut off. With 
the deep wear under the ordinary shoe a heavy cut is 
required to restore the standard outline. 

♦ » » 

Instrument for Graphically Recording the Wear 

of Tire 

[Reprinted from our issue of July, 1887, as being of unusual 
interest in connection with the paper on "Locomotive Brake 
Shoe Tests," which is published in this issue.] 

Mr. John Mackenzie, the superintendent of motive 
power and machinery of the Nickle Plate road, has 
invented a device for accurately measuring and re- 
cording the wear of locomotive and other tires, which 
we illustrate this month. 

In using this device the lowest point in the tire is 
found by slowly turning the wheel under the instru- 
ment or moving the instrument around the periphery 
of the tire. The lowest point will be shown by the 
pencil on the card. This point is then checked by a 
chalk mark on the wheel. To get a diagram of the 
face of the tread at this point raise the pencil holder 
and set the indicator point on the top of the flange, 
letting the pencil point come in contact with the card; 
then draw the indicator point from the top of the 
flange to the outer edge of the tread. The weight of 
the pencil bar will cause it to follow the irregularities 

in the face of the tire — thus making a diagram of the 
face. The method of attaching the instrument to the 
wheel is shown in the illustration. By using this in- 
strument a record can be kept of tire wears between 
turnings, and used as a check on the engine drivers. 
Chart 1 is to be used after turning but before the 
wheel begins service. Chart 2 will give a diagram and 
record at the end of three months, or after a mileage 
of about 12,000 miles; No. 3 after 24,000, and No. 4 
after 36,000 miles. After the fourth card the tire is 
presumed to need turning. The four charts, there- 
fore, are between turnings, and make one card, and 
it is supposed that four cards (16 sheets) will cover 
the life of the tire. Blue prints and full information 
concerning this device can be obtained from Mr. Mac- 
kenzie at Cleveland. 


Cleveland Car Foremen Associations 

At the regular monthly meeting of the Car Depart- 
ment Foremen's Association of Cleveland, O., at which 
the following were present, it was decided that as the 
constitution did not permit the admission of all classes 
of railroad employes, and in consequence the member- 
ship had not increased satisfactorily, it was decided to 
adjourn sine die: A. Berg, E. S. Mooney, J. D. Mc- 
Alpine, J. H. Acker, W. J. Frey, F. B. Johnson, C. 
Schneider, P. J. Finnigan, J. C. Dennerle. A new asso- 
ciation was immediately formed under the name of the 
Car Foremen's Association of Cleveland, O., and a con- 
stitution adopted which will admit practically all classes 
of railroad employes. 

The following officers were unanimously elected : 
President, A. Berg; vice-president, F. B. Johnson ; sec- 
retary-treasurer, J. C. Dennerle. 

A board of directors was appointed, and an applica- 
tion blank adopted. The following committees were also 
appointed: Committee on subjects, J. D. McAlpine, F. 

B. Johnson and C. A. Halleen. Committee on introduc- 
tion of new members, A. Berg and J. C. Dennerle. Com- 
mittee on amusements, P. J. Finnigan, W. J. Frey and 
E. S. Mooney. 

The third Thursday evening of each month was se- 
lected as the time of meeting. Among the subjects dis- 
cussed was the question whether Diamond brake beam in 
place of a National Hollow beam should be considered 
wrong repairs. The claim was made that if the require- 
ments of the beam adopted by the M. C. B. Association 
in 1899 were complied with it could not be called im- 
proper repairs; that the rule in regard to applying M. 

C. B. standards does not now include the word "mar", 
therefore if the strength of the car was not impaired 
"the repairs must be considered proper. In opposition 
to this view it was shown that the present M. C. B. 
standard relates only to the distances between center 
of shoes, angle of slot, etc. It was decided that the re- 
pairs in question should be considered improper re- 

March, 1902. 



Elevation Showing Section of Tire. 





Standard Specification for Locomotive Driving and Truck Axles, 

M. M. Assn. 

THE committee appointed to investigate the above 
subject, consisting of A. E. Mitchell, chairman, 
S. Higgins, W. S. Morris and L. R. Pomeroy, has is- 
sued the folloiwng circular, addressed to the mem- 
bership of the association : 

Your committee intrusted with th3 duty of formulat- 
ing a standard specification for locomotive driving 
and truck axles would respectfully request your 
hearty co-operation and assistance in the preparation 
of a comprehensive report and one that will prove 
acceptable to the members generally; consequently, in 
general give us the benefit of your experience and 
specifically furnish as full and detailed information as 

the scope of the following questions or items will 

admit : 


(1) Give the maximum and minimum limits of 
tensile strength required in steel axles. (2) Checi- 
cal and physical requriements in general. (3) Do 
you believe in prescribing any particular form of 
manipulation to insure axles being thoroughly and 
adequately worked? (4) Is it well to provide that 
hammers shall be of sueffiient size to insure the 
proper dynamic effect on the axle, i. e., that the weight 
of hammer shall be proportional to the diameter of 
the finished axle? (5) Is it advisable to require 



March, 1902. 

any subsequent heat treatment after forging to re- 
lieve the axle from internal strains, such as annealing, 
etc.? (6) Assuming you have specifications cover- 
ing the physical and chemical requirements, what form 
of tests do you prescribe to determine same, assum- 
ing that drop tests are not available for driving and 
the larger sizes of engine truck axles? (7) Do you 
favor tesi pieces for physical tests being taken from 
the cross-section of axle both at surface, as (a), and 

at a point near the cen- 
ter to be determined, 
as (b), and establish a 
minimum average or 
per cent of difference 
j in elongation between 
the points so located; 
or a test piece from the 
cross-section in the di- 
rection of the diam- 
eter, to insure ade- 
quate and proper 
workmanship? If so, kindly state distance (x) from 
center and per cent difference in elongation allowable. 
(8) How do you select axles for test, driving axles 
for instance, so that manufacturer will not know be- 
forehand which axle is to be tested,? It is quite easy 
to check the chemical contents of a given heat so as to 

know that the component parts comply with what is 
desired, but quite another matter, when drop tests 
are not available, to prescribe a test that will be a 
satisfactory measure of the hammer work given, ami 
it is on this point that information is especially de- 


(a) Do you believe in prescribing any particular 
form of manipulation to insure axles being thoroughly 
and adequately worked, (b) Is it well to provide 
that hammers shall be of sufficient size to insure the 
proper dynamic effect on the axle, i. e., that the weight 
of hammer shall be proportional to the diameter of 
the finished axle? (c) How do you select axles for 
test, driving axles for instance, so that the maunfac- 
turer will not know beforehand which axle is to be 
tested? (d) In ordinary iron axles, do you make any 
tes';s to determine if steel has been worked into axles ? 
If so, kindly give your practice, (e) What tests 
do you prescribe to determine quality and workman- 
ship of iron axles? 

Any statistical information or improvements in spe- 
cifications brought about by tentative changes would 
prove very helpful. Replies are desired not later than 
March 15, 1902. Send replies to A. E. Mitchell, chair- 
man, A. S. M. P., C, M. & St. P. Ry., West Milwau- 



■«» » » 

A Strange Japanese Railroad. 

By Willard C. Tyler. 

OWN the coast of Honshiu, the main island 

Dof Japan, about seventy miles south of 
Tokio, is a very curious sort of transporta- 
tion line, known as the "Coolie Railroad." 
It bears this name because its only motive 
power is coolies, Japanese men of the labor- 
ing class. To get to this road you must 
take a train on the Tokkaido or govern- 
ment railroad to Kodzu, sixty miles below 
Tokio, and then transfer to a trolley road, which car- 
ries you six miles southeast of that city to a town 
called Odawara. There you are at the terminal sta- 
tion of this extraordinary trunk line, a picture of which 
is shown in Fig. 1. A train (?) consisting of three 
separate cars is about ready to start. This railroad 
extends from Odawara for twenty-two miles, follow- 
ing the sinuosities of the coast line to Atami, a pretty 
place, which has a most wonderful spouting geyser 
that blows an eighteen-inch stream of alternating hot 
water and steam every five hours, the eruption lasting 
for about one hour. The "Coolie" railroad in cov- 
ering the twenty-two miles between Odawara and 
Atami rises between 100 and 200 feet above the sea 
.level and then returns to it at its other terminus. 
Atami is a pleasant place, especially in winter, being 
much sheltered from cold winds, and the geyser and 

the surrounding hot sulphur baths bring many people 
there at that season, and they must all travel over 
this railroad. The line rises to and follows the edge 
of high rocky cliffs, passing in places within a few 
feet of the edge, with a straight drop of one to two 
hundred feet to the sea. It is full of curves, many 
of them reversed, and it has also grades and curves 
combined and several wooden bridges of such appear- 
ance that you wonder if they won't fall under the 
weight of the car, as they look none too sound. The 
sole motive power of this road is men, as has been 
stated. The cars seat six persons, three of whom 
ride backward, and they weigh, light, about 1,000 
pounds. The six passengers easily weigh 1,000 pounds 
more, making a total of about one ton. The cars run 
on twelve-inch grey iron wheels, not chilled, with 
very sharp and thin flanges about one-half inch thick 
at the throat, which joins the thread at practically a 
right angle. The track is of twelve-pound rails, with 
a very old pear-shaped rail section, which did not fit 
the throat of the wheel flange at all. There is a 
brake at each end of the latch — lever type, the front 
brake operating on the two forward wheels and the 
rear one only on the back wheels. Across the end 
of each car is a "running board or shelf, on which 
the "power" coolies may jump and rest in going down 

March, 1902. 



hill. Three men furnished the power for the first half 
of the run, where the grades are light, and about 
half way there four more are taken on, making seven 
in all over the second section, to Atami. There are 
several turn-outs in order to pass trains coming in 
the opposite direction, and at each such place there is 
located a tea house for the refreshment of travelers. 
The general manager walks over the line every day 
or two, to see that everything is all right. 

the curve. This process was not very comfortable 
to the passenger. Then, when we went clown a grade, 
and they were not very steep on this part, the men 
jumped on and rode. 

Fig. 2 shows our three "pushers" toiling with each 
car up a mild grade. When we had progressed about 
half way towards our destination the grades became 
stiffer and at a station we took on seven men, all fresh, 
the first three going back. Here our troubles began. 

I. - - ■■-- ■ ;.-■..-. 

One pleasant September day last year the writer, 
with a German friend, left Odawara in one of these 
cars at about three in the afternoon for a journey to see 
the sights at Atami. For the first half of the trip we 
had only three "pushers." Some of the grades were 

1 in 50 at least, and they had to work pretty hard. 
Where there was much of a curve and the flanges 
ground, the three men would get hold of the corner 
handles on the outer sides of the car and give its rear 
a strong yank, to bring it as straight as possible on 

The grades grew heavier, approximating 1 in 30 or 40, 
and with three men pulling ahead and four more push- 
ing, we went at times as fast as one mile an hour. 
But when we reached the top of these grades it all 
changed. The mountains here, as in most of Japan, 
come down ■ to the sea, and we were going up and 
over these spurs, which ended in cliffs of rock with a 
straight drop of from one to two hundred feet to the 
ocean, where the huge swells of the Pacific rushed in 
and broke against the rocks. None of the curves on 
the road were guard-railed anywhere, and on the brow 
of the cliffs the road often ran within six feet of the 
edge, with only a bamboo fence for protection. The 
views from these heights were fascinating, with many 
little fishing villages nestling in the fissures of the 
cliffs. But when we started down, our seven "motors" 
gave a shout and a run and got our car under as 
much speed as possible — just as you give a double- 
runner sled a strong send-off at the top of a coasting 
hill. Then they all jumped on the front and back 
footboards and away we went; our speed increasing 
every second. Occasionally we dashed around curves 
on the edge of the cliff, and sometimes these curves 
reversed within a hundred feet. At these places the 
car, with its six passengers, would lurch savagely out- 
ward towards the sea, causing that rising sensation to 
be felt in our hair, while our happy and careless "mo- 
tors" yelled with delight. We were so frightened that 
we would gladly have changed places with the coolies, 
for if the car jumped the track, as it seemed likely to 


do at any second, they had only to let go and drop of this ride, until about one hour before we reached 

off, while the unhappy passengers were penned in our destination darkness came on and mercifully hid 

very much like a lot of rats in a box. Meantime, the anything interesting enough to warrant conversation 

speed kept increasing until it rose to ten and then until our arrival at Atami. 

twelve miles an hour, until at one place we were going Fig. 3 shows Atami. There were many such down- 
fully fifteen or more miles an hour for a mile or so, grades on the line, and our pushers thought it .only 
and at the bottom of this decline the road made a just clear fun to go coasting down them, but anyone 
sharp turn almost to the reverse direction. Right in who knew anything about railroading would never 
the middle of this sharp curve was a flimsy looking take this ride twice. We felt that we had been most 
wooden bridge, every visible member of which was in miraculously preserved, and that no one was justified 
a punky condition. We took this curve and bridge in tempting Providence twice in any such manner, 
on the fly. There was an awful lurch and a fearful so we determined to walk back the twenty-two miles 
grinding of the flanges, and we whizzed over the and hire a coolie to carry our luggage. It had taken 
bridge and around the curve at such a rate that we us five hours to ride (equal to a journey from New 
were both quite speechless with fear. York to Boston), and we believed we could walk 

The writer has done a mile in 47 seconds in a loco- it in six hours, anyway. Happily, though, we found 

motive cab, and some other pretty fast railroading in passage back on a small coasting steamer, and so still 

his time, but never with any such creepy sensations have a few hairs left that are not grey. It is rumored 

coupled with a strong desire to jump off, as in the that this line is to be rebuilt and equipped with elec- 

present instance. trie power in the near future. It will be anyway, be- 

During this wild flight down a 1 in 30 hill full of fore the writer journeys over it again, 

sharp curves, we thought of the grey iron wheels, with The price we paid for our pleasure ( ?)' was 60 cents 

their thin sharp flanges and throats that fitted the gold for twenty-two miles, second class. No one 

rail heads so badly, and the faster they whizzed under rides first class, and most of the people third class, 

us the more scared we became. We finally came to The equipment of this line is two first-class cars, three 

the conclusion that we must have been specially re- second-class cars and ten third-class cars. The power 

served for a different fate, or that car must, in the is all the coolies in that region, if they are needed, 

nature of things, have jumped the track and killed us They receive about 30 or 40 cents gold a day for acting 

all. Thus we journeyed on for the last three hours as locomotives. 


Efficiency of Bituminous Coal 

By Harlan /. German, B. & M. R. R. Co. 

HE attention of railroad managers all over duced from the fixed carbon, that we will speak of in 

I the country, particularly those of roads the following. To begin with, I think it would be well 

burning bituminous coal in their locomo- to first describe the several events which take place 

tives, are having their attention drawn very in the fire box in producing heat for evaporative pur- 

forcibly to the fact that the amount of their poses. 

fuel bills are assuming immense propor- We will consider that the fire box is already heated, 
tions, the expenditure of some roads for a hot fire of partially burned coal being on the grates 
this one item being from one-half to three and that the boiler is delivering steam. We now re- 
million dollars annually. It is now gener- plenish the fire by throwing in a couple of shovelfuls 
ally understood that more service should be secured of fresh coal, which we spread evenly over the surface 
from each ton of coal burned than is at present ob- of the hot bed of fire. The first thing that then takes 
tained. This can only be accomplished by education place is the evaporation of the moisture contained in 
of enginemen in the handling of fuel. In order to ac- the fresh coal. This process naturally absorbs heat 
complish this, it is necessary and very important that from the fire which is cooled more or less thereby, 
enginmen have at least a fundamental idea of the Here, we have our first loss in combustion, the amount 
principles of combustion, and it is for this purpose that of loss being governed by the amount of moisture 
I herein present a few of the various losses which are contained in the fuel. If the coal of the new firing is 
incident to the combustion of bituminous fuels, this of small size it partly fills the interstices between the 
being the fuel mainly used on our central and western pieces of hot coal and coke, checking the draft and 
railroads. The average bituminous coal contains about diminishing the supply of air entering through the 
35 per cent of volatile gases. The percentage of mois- grates. The formation of the steam in the fire box by 
ture will run from about 2 per cent to 12 per cent of the evaporation of the moisture in the coal, together 
its weight. The volatile gases contained in bituminous with a simultaneous reduction of the air supply, may 
coal contains very high heat producing properties, and cause either one of two chemical actions to take place, 
it is the saving of this heat, together with that pro- which are in the nature of decompositions or the re- 


verse of combustion or rapid oxidation, both changes generally caused by heavy firing, the air received in 
being very detrimental to an economical evaporation the fire box would not be enough to secure complete 
in the boiler. The first is a decomposition of the car- combustion, part of the carbon being only turned to 
bon dioxide, the chemical symbol of which is C0 2 , carbon monoxide, CO, and the temperature in the fire 
which is formed by the union of the oxygen of the air box will be low. Here we have two distinct losses, 
with the carbon of the hot coke and coals formed from One that is due to direct loss of heat units by imper- 
previous firing, into carbon monoxide, CO, by the re- feet combustion, and another which is due to the low 
action of C0 2 -|-C= 2 CO, which takes place when the rate of transfer of heat into boiler, thus practically 
carbon dioxide, C0 2 , is passed through the bed of hot reducing number of heat units already produced, 
coke and coals, the air supply, being deficient. The During the process of burning the coal as above de- 
second action which may take place is a decomposition scribed, heat is more or less generated according to . 
of a portion of the steam produced by the evaporation the completeness of the combustion at a rate varying 
of the moisture in the coal, by the reaction as these actions in combustion vary. The tempera- 
H 2 0-|-C= 2 H-|-CO, which takes place when steam is ture of the fire box also varies as the actions take ; 
brought into contact with very hot carbon. place, and with it the rate of transfer of heat into the 

Both of these reactions or decompositions are cool- boiler by radiation and conduction. A portion of the 

ing processes, absorbing heat from the fire, and in that heat generated in the fire box is radiated directly into 

way decreasing the rate of transfer of heat through the the boiler ; the remainder of the heat passes out of the 

heating surface of the boiler. Furthermore, they ab- fire box into flues in the heated gases of combustion, 

stract carbon from the bed of fuel, converting it into These give up to the boiler a portion of their heat as 

combustible gases, which escape through the smoke they pass along, the remainder passing into smoke 

stack unharmed, thus causing, in some cases, a serious box and out of stack. How much of this should be 

loss of heat. When the firing is done carefully and the absorbed by the boiler and how much pass out of the 

fresh coal is fired only in small quantities and at fre- stack depend upon a number of variable conditions 

quent intervals, the length of time during when these which cannot be discussed here. 

reactions take place is not long, the supply of air When the combustion is perfect in the fire box, the 

being then sufficient for the amount of fuel fired. whole of the carbon in the fuel is burned to carbon 

After the moisture is driven out of the coal, the vola- dioxide, C0 2 , each pound of which generates about 
tile matter in the coal begins to be distilled, and this 14,000 heat units, and the whole of the hydrogen is 
distillation continues until the coal has attained a red burned to steam or water vapor, H 2 0, each pound 
heat. When the amount of this volatile matter is generating 62,000 heat units. When the combustion 
small, when the air supply is sufficient, and when the is imperfect and part of the carbon only burned to car- 
heat in the fire box is at high temperature, the vola- bon monoxide, CO, that part generates only 4,450 heat 
tile matter may all be completely burned before it units per pound, or some of the hydrogen, together 
passes out of the fire box, but if the distillation occurs with the carbon with which it is combined in the coal 
in large volume, such as it western bituminous forming the volatile matter, may only be distilled from 
coal, and it is not mixed with sufficient air at a tern- the coal and not burned, it passing out of the stack 
perature high enough to maintain ignition, more or in the form of hydrocarbon gas, this condition gener- 
less of it will escape through the smoke unburned. ally caused by too much draft, thus causing an over- 
This loss is, probably, the largest one that locomotives supply of air in the fire box. Or, possibly, the hydro- 
under ordinary conditions suffer, particularly those gen only in the volatile matter may be burned, leaving 
burning bituminous coals that are high in volatile the carbon in the form of smoke to be carried out of 
matter. the stack with gases. This last condition is due to an 

After the volatile matter has been distilled, the com- insufficient supply of air. While the loss of heat 

bustion of the remaining parts of the coal is completed. caused by escaping smoke is small, careful tests plac- 

If the relation of the thickness of the bed of coal on ing it at only about 1 per cent, yet the smoke itself 

the grate to the force of draft as will cause the com- causes much annoyance and its effects are such that it 

plete combustion of the carbon to carbon dioxide, C0 2 , should be eliminated as much as possible, 
the temperature of the fire box will be very high, thus Under perfect conditions with pure carbon, an evap- 

causing a fast evaporation. If the force of draft be oration of 15.2 pounds of water, at a temperature of 

excessive in relation to resistance of grate and fuel 212 deg., per pound of carbon is the limit of its color- 

upon it to the passage of air, that is, the bed of coal ific power. The practical limit of ordinary bituminous 

and coke being too thin for the draft, an excessive coal, however, which contains 45% carbon, under the 

supply of air will pass into the fire box, lowering its best of conditions is but 8 or 9 pounds. Among the 

temperature and making conditions very unfavorable western bituminous coals, 45% may be taken as the 

to an economical evaporation. If, on the other hand, average amount of carbon that they contain. Ordi- 

the thickness of the bed of coal and coke is too great, nary grades of Illinois and Iowa coals contain about 

considering the force of the draft and amount of air 40%, Missouri coals about 45% and Colorado coals 

supplied otherwise to fire box, this condition being about 50%. The volatile matter in these coals is very 



March, 1902. 

great, ranging from about 33% in Iowa coals to 
40% in Colorado coals. An efficiency of 100% in 
fuel is an absolute impossibility, because of certain 
losses which are incident to combustion, some of 
which are inevitable, while others may be diminished 
or avoided by careful attenton. The principal losses 

1 st. The heat lost by converting into steam the 
moisture contained in the coal and the air used in 
burning it, as well as that formed by the burning of 
the hydrogen and the heating of the steam thus 
formed to the temperature that the gases leave the 
stack. The amount of moisture in coal depends upon 
the character of the coal, its temperature and its pre- 
vious exposure to the atmosphere. Ordinarily, in 
bituminous coals, it amounts to from 2% to 12%. 
The moisture, therefore, has an important influence 
upon the heating value of the coal, and if the maxi- 
mum heating power is to be realized, the coal should 
be kept as dry as possible. 

2nd. This loss is that resulting from the formation 
of smoke, but, notwithstanding the great impression 
that commonly prevails as to its greatness, careful 
tests place the actual wastes as comparatively insig- 
nificant, generally about y 2 of 1% or, under adverse 
conditions, perhaps 1% or 1^2%. The tendency of 
coal to produce smoke increases with the amount of 
volatile matter which enters into its composition. 
Pure carbon is smokeless. Smoke being a result of 
incomplete combustion, its prevention must be sought 
through the provision of an ample supply of air, with 
sufficient intensity of draft and at once maintaining 

the high temperature required. Numerous contriv- 
ances have been presented for such prevention but 
the fact now is patent that it lies mainly with the at- 
tention given by fireman to his fire. Frequent and 
careful firing is the only remedy. An improvement 
might be made, however, by changing the present 
standard of fire box doors, substituting one which 
would admit more air, yet not in too great quantities, 
to mingle with the gases over the fire. 

3rd. This loss and last of the principal ones is the 
escaping carbonic oxide gas, as, owing to the small 
amount to only 4,400, that is, for every pound of car- 
tion of the original carbon, it is not converted into 
carbonic acid gas. When the combustion is complete, 
the carbon gives off 14,600 heat units, but when only 
burned to carbon monoxide, the heat units given off 
amount to only 4400, that is, for every pound of car- 
bon that passes off as carbonic oxide, 69% of its value 
is lost. Of course, under ordinary conditions most of 
the carbon of the fuel is consumed by a complete com- 
bustion, but we find by tests of flue anaylsis that have 
been made that this loss averages about 7%. Thus it 
is plainly seen that the greatest of the losses occurs in 
this way and that it is caused by excessive firing, that 
is, placing fuel in fire box in quantities greatly in ex- 
cess of air supplied with which to furnish oxygen for 
its proper combustion. 

Is it not now plain to every reader that an import- 
ant saving in fuel may be produced by educating en- 
ginemen in the proper methods of handling the fuel so 
as to secure its greatest efficiency? 

■♦ • » 

Thirty-Six Foot 6o 9 ooo lbs. Capacity Stock Car, Illinois 

Central Railroad 

E are enabled through the courtesy of Mr. 
W. Renshaw, Superintendent of Machinery 
of the Illinois Central Railroad, to publish 
herewith the plans for the 36 foot, 30 ton 
stock cars, of which 450 are to be con- 
structed at the Burnside shop of this road. 

The details of construction are very clear- 
ly shown on the general plan drawings fur- 
nished us. The dimensions of the inside 
of the body of the car are : Length 36 feet, 
width 8 feet 6% inches, height 7 feet 2 inches from the 
floor to the under side of carline. The longitudinal 
sills are 5 inches by 9 inches. The end sills are 7 
inches by 9 inches. The underframe is 9 feet 2^4 
inches wide over side sills and 36 feet 10 inches over 
end sills. The side bracing is of 4 inch by 2^2 inch oak 
posts and 5 inch by 2^ inch diagonal braces. 

These cars will have Gould draft rigging, Kindl 
trucks, Pressed Steel brake beams, Buckeye couplers, 
Simplex bolsters on 350 cars and Bettendorf bolsters 
on 100 cars. 

Illinois Central Stock Car — End View. 

March, 1902. 





March, 1902. 

Private Car for Prince Henry. 

THROUGH the courtesy of the Pullman com- 
pany we are enabled to show herewith several 
views and the plan of the private car Columbia, which 
will be used by Prince Henry of Prussia while in this 

The special train provided by the Pullman com- 
pany for the accommodation of Prince Henry of Prus- 
sia and suite, the representatives of the government 
and others accompanying him on his southern and 

cilities, dressers and wardrobes, and has a separate 
dining and observation-room. The interior is finished 
in the most expensive woods, with marquetry decora- 
tion of appropriate design. Each of the three com- 
partment-cars contains ten private rooms, finished al- 
ternately in the Persian and Renaissance styles if 
architecture, and each room has complete toilet ar- 
rangements. The library-car is furnished with a li- 
brary of selected literature, easy chairs, bath-room and 

Interior Private Car for Prince Henry. 

western trip, consists of a baggage and buffet li- 
brary-car, dining-car, drawing-room sleeping-car, 
three compartment-cars, and a private-car, the latter 
car being for the personal use of the Prince. The 
train is lighted by electricity, heated by steam, and is 
wide-vestibuled throughout, affording easy access 
from one end to the other, and giving the occupants 
the same freedom enjoyed in hotels and clubs. The 
cars are modern and represent the latest production 
in the art of car building, and a majority of them 
are making their first trip since their completion at 
i.he works of the Pullman company, Pullman, 111. 

The private-car contains five separate rooms, fur- 
nished with stationary brass beds, complete toilet fa- 

Interior Private Car for Prince Henry. 

barber-shop, with all its appliances, a skilled barber is 
provided to perform the tonsorial duties. 

The use of the dining-car enables the occupants to 
obtain meals without stopping en route, the car being 
provided with a trained corps of skilled cooks, and 
a full supply of delicacies of every kind. The range 
and appointments for cooking are the most modern, 
permitting the furnishing of meals equal to those of 
any first-class hotel. The conductors, porters, waiters, 
etc., selected from the corps of the Pullman com- 
pany's employes, have had experience in conducting 
important parties on similar trips, and the most care- 
ful attention has been given to the details to insure 
the best of service. 

Floor Plan of the Columbia, Private Car for Prince Henry. 

March, 1902. 



The Morrison Automatic Air Safety Valve. 

HE Morrison Automatic Air Safety Valve is its travels passing the port in the cylinder, allowing 

a device to be attached to locomotives and the compressed air from the train pipe to pass below 

cars in connection with existing air brake the piston completing its stroke and holding it in po- 
system, for the purpose of automatically 

controlling the train line pressure when the 
same is accidentally applied by reason of 
burst hose, or train parting. As is well 
known to those operating railway trains, 
the couplings of adjacent cars sometimes be- 
come detached or draw bars pull out and incident 
thereto, the hose couplings of the brake system are 
disconnected or the hose ruptured, whereupon the air 
escaping from the train pipe suddenly, the brakes are 
applied instantaneously resulting in hurling the pas- 
sengers from their seats endangering life and limb. 
On freight trains moveable articles are displaced, the 
load shifted, and the cars are subject to severe shock 
with accompanying damage to the car bodies and draft 

The purpose of the Morrison Automatic Air Safety 
Valve is to obviate all such casualties and damage by 
causing the rear section of the train to be brought to a 
gradual stop and at the same time allow the front sec- 
tion to be in perfect control of the engineman, which 
will permit him to advance far enough so that a colli- 
sion will not take place between the two sections. The 
drawings illustrate a longitudinal section view, showing 
the moveable piston and stem in their normal position 


-Longitudinal Elevation and Section, 
Morrison Air-Safety Valve. 

downward movement. 

When the engineman admits the air into the train 
pipe, it will flow to the enclosed chamber above the 

with stops on inner wall of cylinder, which limits the sition, the stem closing the main pipe line. The air 

in the train pipe slowly discharges through small hole 
in the top of the cylinder to the atmosphere allowing 
the brakes to be applied throughout the rear section of 

the train gradually and without 
., shock. 

The action of the safety valve 
at the rear of the front section 
of the train, acts in a similar 
manner, but as the train pipe of 
the front section is in commu- 
nication with the main reservoir 
upon the locomotive, the dis- 
charge of the air through the 
small holes in the top of the cyl- 
inder will be replaced and the 
pressure be retained and the 
brakes will not be applied until 
the engineman uses the pressure 
in the pipe in the regular 
way. In coupling the two 


liiLii III 1 

Fig. 2 — Method of Applying Air-Safety Valve to Locomotives and Cars 

piston and as the piston has no packing, the air will sections of the train when brought together, the stop 

pass between it and the wall of the cylinder and fill cock is turned, shutting off communication between the 

the lower chamber producing equal pressures above train pipe and below the piston, the stop cock on bottom 

and below the piston. When the train breaks apart of cylinder is opened, allowing the air to escape to the 

and the hose becomes disconnected the sudden dis- atmosphere, whereupon the piston and stem drop to their 

charge of air from the train pipe relieves the pressure normal position, 
on top of the piston, forcing the piston upwards, in In a service test, made in the Pennsylvania Com- 



March, 1902. 

pany's yards, Toledo, Ohio, Feb.' 10th, 1902, with a 
train of heavily loaded cars running at a speed of 15 
miles per hour, train being broken, the rear section of 
train came to stop without shock at 200 feet from 
where the train hose parted and the front section was 
under full and perfect control of engineman, as though 
a "break-in-two" had not occurred. -The attachment 
of these valves on the train pipe did not in any way 
interfere with or obstruct the free passage of air 
through the train pipe and subsequent recharging of 

train pipe system, nor with the proper making of the 
service or emergency application of the brakes. 

This test was made before prominent railway offi- 
cials and others and its operation was entirely success- 
ful, the valve working perfectly and performing every 
claim made by the inventor. The apparatus was de- 
vised by Mr. Frank B. Morrison, a locomotive engi- 
neer, and company has been organized under the name 
of the Morrison Air Safety Valve Co., with offices in 
the Spitzer Bldg., Toledo, Ohio. 

Edwards Electric Headlight, Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul Ry. 

|NEW form of electric headlight, which has normal. In fact, the propeller has a factor of safety 

/^ -been in operation for some time on the new 
Atlantic type fast passenger locomotives 
of the St. Paul road, was given a most in- 
teresting test on the night of the 12th of 
last month. ..The locomotives hauling the 
fast express trains between Chicago and 
Milwaukee have been equipped with the 
Edwards electric headlight, ahd at the time mentioned 
a most favorable opportunity was given to see this 
light in use. 

The equipment as furnished by the Edwards "Rail- 
road Electric Light Company consists of four pans — 
the motor, a simple acting steam turbine; the dynamo, 
co-axially connected with the preceding and designed 
to yield to the arc a current of from 30 to 33 amperes 
and from 30 to 33 volts ; the lamp, including the arc, 

Edwards Electric Headlight. 

the reflectors and the case, and the bed-plate on which 
the whole apparatus is mounted. 

The steam turbine is provided with a propeller 
wheel, which is wholly constructed of rolled steel, the 
buckets thereon being die formed and so interlocked 
with the steel plates which form the body of the wheel 
as to withstand a very much higher speed than the 

of about 5 ; that is to say, while the normal speed of 
the engine and dynamo is about 2,000 r. p. m., the 


Edwards Electric Headlight. 

wheel will successfully withstand a speed of 10,000 
r. p. m. In the turbine the steam is allowed to ex- 
pand down nearly to atmospheric pressure in the noz- 
zle before it comes in contact with the buckets. This 
results in throwing all, or nearly all, of the energy of 
the steam into effluent velocity, and in this way there 
is attained a very fair degree of steam economy. 

The speed of the engine is held constant, or prac- 
tically so (that is, within about 3 per cent), regardless 
of load or initial pressure, by a simple and efficient 
governor, which is so arranged with relation to the 
other parts of the engine as to be easily and readily 
accessible, should occasion demand. The wheel shaft 
is journaled in ball-bearings, and there is absolutely 
no contact of parts in the whole machine, except at 
the ball-bearings. Hence the co-efficient of friction 
is exceedingly low ; in fact, under actual test this en- 
gine will operate, running to its full speed, under a 
pressure so light that the pointer on a 160-pound 
steam gauge will not leave its stop, the gauge being- 
connected at the point of the engine between the gov- 
ernor valve and the nozzle. All the moving parts are 
thoroughly encased in a cast iron housing, so de- 

March, 1902. 



signed as to protect them from the elements, dust, dirt, 
etc. The lubrication is wholly automatic, and is ef- 
fected by loose rings feeding the oil to the ball-bear- 
ings from the oil wells, so as to require the least 
possible attention. 

The dynamo is of peculiar construction, designed 
for the particular purpose for which it is used, and 
is the only dynamo on the market which cannot be 
burned out when operating under the trying condi- 
tions under which this machine is worked. The field 
is differentially wound, and the electric circuits so 
arranged that a burned-out armature is impossible. 

~-End of fa I re Ci/I. Bushing 
5ection through Valve; 


Section through Nozzle. 

Longitudinal Section. 

Steam Turbine for Edwards Electric 

Should a short circuit occur at any point on the circuit 
the current is killed, and no matter how long the en- 
gine may run or the armature rotate there will be 
no production of current until the short circuit is re- 
moved. As soon as this is done the dynamo per- 
forms its proper functions and operates as usual. This 
unique feature is of inestimable value. 

The current densities throughout the whole machine 
are very low, so that a minimum heat effect is pro- 
duced, regardless of extremes of temperature or other 
conditions which might affect the resistance of the 
machine. The electrical balance is so carefullv ad- 
justed that absolutely no spark or flash is ever seen 
at the brushes. Low resistance carbon brushes are 
used, and many months of constant use show very 

little wear of deterioration of them. The dynamo is 
wholly constructed in its essential magnetic parts of 
soft rolled steel, die formed, and the utmost skill and 
care at the command of modern electrical engineering 
is involved in its design and construction. Very large 
and long journal bearings are provided, and profuse 
lubrication is effected through the medium of lojse 
rings dipping into oil wells. The whole machine is 
completely inclosed and protected. One of the most 
valuable and important features of this equipment is 
involved in the lamp, which embraces within itself 
all that is required to produce a smooth and steady 
light in the most reliable way. It is very strongly 
and substantially made, and has a record of many 
thousand miles run without a waver or a flicker. 

An entirely unique and most valuable feature of 
the Edwards equipment is the provision of an auxil- 
iary plain deflector, placed outside the goggle in such 
a position and at such an angle as to intercept about 
40 per cent of the whole volume of light issuing from 
the parabolic reflector, and project it vertically. This 
vertical beam, reaching to a great height, on cloudy 
nights even striking the clouds, can be seen for many 
miles and forms a constant warning signal. Upon 
the Big Four road this vertical light has been seen 
for twent}--one miles, and on the C, M. & St. P. road 
for a distance exceeding sixteen miles. It can be seen 
regardless of hills or curves or any obstacle interven- 
ing, and should make absolutely inexcusable both 
head-end and rear-end collisions. 

The horizontal beam is very powerful, showing up 
clearly three-quarters of a mile to a mile, on a clear, 
straight track, ahead of the locomotive bearing it. 
Perhaps the only valid objection that was ever raised 
to the electric headlight is the fact that on a double 
track road there might be some tendency to blinding 
an approaching engineer. To guard against this the 
apparatus is provided with a translucent shade within 
the goggle, which may be drawn by the engineer at 
will when he is at the proper distance from an ap- 
proaching train. This shade destroys the glaring of 
the light giving to the goggle glass the effect of 
ground glass. As soon as the approaching train is 
passed, the engineer releases the shade and again gets 
the full value of the light. 

As previously indicated, this company supplies not 
only the engine, dynamo and lamp proper, but also 
the reflector, case and bed-plate, making a complete 
equipment. In Class A equipments the whole appa- 
ratus is mounted upon one cast iron bed-plate, and 
it is the work of only six to ten hours to apply the 
equipment to the locomoive. All that is necessary 
is to secure the bed-plate at the proper place on the 
smoke arch by means of brackets bolted thereon, the 
running of a three-quarter-inch live steam pipe from 
the cab, and the passing a one and one-quarter inch 
exhaust pipe into the smoke arch. In Class B equip- 
ments the engine-dynamo combination is located upon 
a separate bed-plate, and the case upon another inde- 



March, 1902. 

pendent cast iron base. This is to provide for cases 
where it is desirable and advisable to locate the en- 
gine and dynamo at some other point on the locomo- 
tive than the smoke arch. All parts of our electric 
headlight equipment are as perfectly designed and 
as carefully constructed as the best modern electrical, 
and mechanical engineering will permit, to yield the 
best results and the longest life, with a minimum of 
attention and repairs. The accompanying illustrations 
give a general idea of the appearance and design of 

the light. 

■» » » 

Examination of Car Inspectors. 

THE committee of the M. C. B. Association, con- 
sisting of G. W. Rhodes, M. K. Barnum and 
Charles Waughop, under date of January 20, sent out 
the following circular of inquiry in regard to the 
formation of a code of rides for examination of car 
• inspectors : 

"If you have any instructions or rules in force on 
your line regarding the selection of men for car in- 
spectors, will you not kindly send copy of same to the 
undersigned for the information of the committee? 
The committee would also like to have a reply from 
you as to whether you have any special instructions 
in force regarding this matter. Please send your re- 
ply not later than March 15, 1902, to G. W. Rhodes, 
Chairman, Lincoln, Neb." 


Successful Locomotive Engine Running. 

AVERY practical paper on "Successful Locomo- 
tive Engine Running," by Mr. R. S. Goble, Road 
Foreman of Engines of the Los Angeles Division of 
the Southern Pacific Railway Company, was read be- 
fore the January meeting of the Pacific Coast Railway 
Club. Mr. Goble, while acknowledging the value of 
the correspondence schools, emphasizes very strongly 
the fact that locomotive engine running cannot be 
learned except by practical experience. The paper 
in full we publish herewith : 

Frequently the question, "Can I become a locomotive 
engineer by taking a correspondence-school course in 
locomotive engineering?" is asked, and, when pro- 
pounded to me, the answer has invariably been, "No." 
Much of interest and much that may be of value in 
after life to the practical engineer can be acquired by 
a course of study in locomotive engineering intelli- 
gently and persistently followed out in any well- 
equipped school ; but the proper care and manage- 
ment of a locomotive on the road is learned only by 
experience with and on the machine itself. Successful 
locomotive engineering is not a science to be acquired 
through mental application to the writing of sundry 
authors, who, learnedly or otherwse, may have ex- 
pounded their views on the subject; nor yet a trade in 
which the eye and hand, through oft-repeated efforts 

in one direction, become expert in the manipulation of 
tools, but rather an art, developed by a combination 
of study and practice, by means of which the two for- 
mer, as exemplified in the steam locomotive, are made 
to perform their designed parts in our modern system 
of transportation. The term "successful locomotive en- 
gine running" implies the "successful locomotive en- 
gineer," and he can be found at any time on any 
division of the many railroads of the country. 

Any average intelligence, supplemented by a com- 
mon-school education, together with physical health, 
is the. most important requisite for an apprenticeship 
to locomotive engine running. Then a reasonable in- 
terest in his work, a laudable ambition to excel, and 
a conscientious desire to return a fair equivalent for 
value received, shown throughout his apprenticeship 
as fireman, will qualify him for the position of engin- 
eer; and a continuance in the same line, together with 
a knowledge gradually acquired by experience, will, 
in the course of time, entitle him to be classed as a 
successful runner. He may by this time have become 
somewhat of a crank, but that does not necessarily 
impair his efficiency, but rather enhances it instead; 
it is the crank who makes things go, and that is what 
the successful runner does, often under adverse con- 
ditions, which would paralyze the less-efficient indi- 
vidual. The successful runner must thoroughly under- 
stand his machine. It is not sufficient that he possess 
a general knowledge of the mechanism of the locomo- 
tive ; he must also have an intimate acquaintance with 
the many and varied peculiarities pertaining to his 
individual engine, in order to properly guard against 
the numerous causes of delays, which are otherwise 
sure to develop, ofttimes into engine failures, and also 
to enable him to get the greatest amount of work out 
of the machine at the lowest possible cost. A few trips 
will usually place him on good terms with the new 
engine, but acquaintance ripens only with time. 

A thorough inspection of the machine, noting that 
every bolt, nut, and key plate is in place, that fire-box, 
water, and fire are in proper condition, oil cups filled 
and feed adjusted, bearings lubricated, and air equip- 
ment ready for service, and necessary tools and sup- 
plies for the trip are in place, are some of the details 
to be looked after before a trip can be commenced with 
any confidence in its successful termination. The 
guarantee of that result is still lacking. The first trip 
on a new engine is usually very exasperating to both 
engineer and fireman. A few miles will probably de- 
velop hot bearings ; some oil cups will be found to 
have fed out in that distance, while others have not 
fed at all. ' The fireman is unable to determine what is 
the proper way to place the coal until, after the fire 
is ruined for the trip, and the results are conducive to 
profanity (I now deprecate anything of this sort), and 
an engine failure is only averted by the ability of the 
engine men ; but in a few trips the conditions are im- 
proved. Hot bearings are cooling down ; oil-cup feed- 


ers have been adjusted to the requirements which ex- valve motion, effecting the distribution of steam and 

perience has indicated ; the fireman has become accus- the possibility of cut valve. He personally sees that 

tomed to the manner in which the fuel is demanded, the margins of safety and economy in the carrying of 

and feeds the fire with regularity and precision con- water in the boiler are not encroached upon, if practi- 

ducive to the best results; and, in the language of the cable, feeding the boiler with his own injector, and not 

poet, "The blood has disappeared from the face of the leaving that most important duty to the fireman, a 

moon." practice which leads to carelessness on the part of the 

With the knowledge and experience thus gained, the engineer, and is sometimes responsible for the over- 
engineer is inspired with ever-increasing confidence ; heating of crown sheets. Economy in the use of sup- 
he knows which bearings can be depended on with plies, attention to the many rules of the road, and, 
ordinary care, and which ones require extra attention with his other multitudinous duties, ever keeping 
in order to prevent trouble. His daily inspection of within his time-card rights, and remembering and 
his engine soon shows him the particular nuts which obeying train orders (the latter not always easy, when 
are inclined to work loose and keys to work out, and orders for half a dozen or more movements at as 
he constantly guards the possibility of disaster from many different points are often held at one time), are 
these causes; with the regular assignment of tools, among the details the engineer has to look after on 
which he personally knows to be in place, supple- the road, and his innate sense of the eternal fitness of 
mented by the addition of a few small ones of his own, things will at all times impel him to exert his best 
which are not regularly furnished, but which he gladly efforts in the discharge of his duties, 
purchases (if they can not otherwise be procured), Successful locomotive engine running also implies 
together with a few extra bolts, nuts, cotters, etc., he successful shop and roundhouse methods, for, with- 
is prepared to promptly meet the small emergencies out the efficient co-operation of shop and roundhouse 
which so frequently arise, and which would perhaps forces, successful locomotive engine running becomes 
otherwise result in engine failures, if nothing worse. an impossibility. In the illustration given, starting 

The preliminaries to a successful trip having now with a new engine, or with one just out from a gen- 
been attended to, the "knight* of the road," attired in eral overhauling, and in the general good condition in 
a blue (denim) uniform, a piece of waste in his hand, which engines are supposed to be turned out from all 
a cigar (which probably some disgruntled patron of first-class shops, it then becomes the duty of the 
the road had maliciously presented) in his mouth, roundhouse force to co-operate with the engineer in 
backs his engine onto a string of freight cars, charges keeping it in that condition as long as possible; and 
the train with air, tests the brakes in the prescribed to this end all work reported by him on the comple- 
manner, checks the register, compares watches, gets tion of a trip is carefully done as required, and other 
orders of clearance, and starts. All of these various repairs found necessary by the special inspectors about 
moves are made deliberately yet expeditiously, and ash pans, extension-front fire-boxes, etc., also made, 
the start is made with the reasonable certainty, so far Dust and grease which have accumulated during the 
as the motive power is concerned, a successful trip is trip are removed by the wipers, not alone as a matter 
assured. of cleanliness, but also in order that close inspections 

In starting the train, care is taken not to break it may be made of bolts and nuts and other parts, which 
in two, and this same care is exercised throughout the would otherwise soon be buried in filth, which would 
trip, both in starting and stopping, with the result that discourage familiarity on the part of even the most 
no time is lost in replacing couplers nor in chaining inquisitive. Where required, the boiler is carefully 
up or setting out cars crippled by rough handling, washed out, ample time having first been given it, to- 
Occasionally a defective triple valve, over which he gether with any brick work within the fire-box, to cool 
has no control, gets in its deadly work, but he has down, in order that great and unusual strain of un- 
learned that, in such events, if it is possible to keep equal contraction, leading to the inevitable cracking 
the train bunched, a break in two may still be averted; of fire-box sheets, be avoided. This also allows ample 
therefore, when applying the brake at slow speed he time after boiler has cooled down for the making of 
notices the sudden stoppage of train-line exhaust air, necessary boiler repairs and the renewing of brick 
he will often either throw his brake-valve handle into work, without compelling the foreman to drive boiler- 
emergency position or quickly reverse the engine and makers and brick-arch men into suffocatingly-hot fire- 
open the throttle, and in that manner lessens the shock boxes, at the expense of their constitutions, almost of 
which invariably follows the emergency application of their lives. When the engine is again fired up, it is 
the brakes when induced by a defective triple. In ad- gradually warmed, giving time for the natural circula- 
justing the working of his engine to the load or grade, tion of the water to distribute the heat as evenly as 
he soon learns where the best results are accomplished possible to all parts of the boiler, thereby providing 
with the expenditure of least efforts, where longer cut- against the evils of rapid and unequal expansion, in- 
off and lighter throttle are preferable to shorter cut- stead of forcing the fire with roundhouse blower, as 
off and full throttle, and their attendant distortion of some modern methods demand, until a steam pressure 



March, 1902. 

of 100 or more pounds shows on gauge, while the fire- 
box sheets near the mud ring are still comparatively 
cold. When the locomotive is employed on a run of 
a large number of miles between terminals, there will 
usually be ample time to safely prepare it for follow- 
ing trips while the engine men are taking their needed 
rest; but if the run is a short one, which keeps it in 
service every day, it may be necessary to lay it in 

occasionally for washing out and other repairs which 
can not be made while it is under steam. In this man- 
ner and by these methods is the locomotive kept up 
to its highest efficiency, and the cordial co-operation 
of practical men, each experienced in his particular 
line of work, makes it possible. "Successful Locomo- 
tive Engine Running" is not furnished by correspond- 
ence schools. 

<♦ » » 


Mr. Joseph Harris of the Pennsylvania shops ai 
Fort Wayne, Ind., has been appointed assistant to the 
general superintendent of motive power, Mr. Casa- 
nave, of the Baltimore & Ohio at Baltimore, Md. 

Mr. F. H. Stark, master car builder of the Cleveland, 
Lorain & Wheeling, has been transferred to a position 
with the Baltimore & Ohio at Baltimore, Md., the lat- 
ter road having been absorbed by the Baltimore & 

Mr. Thomas Paxton has resigned as master me- 
chanic of the Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe at Cleburne, 
Tex., to accept the position of superintendent of mo- 
tive power of the Colorado & Southern with head- 
quarters at Denver, Colo. 

Mr. George W. Kenney, heretofore superintendent 
of motive power of the Rutland, has been appointed 
superintendent of motive power and rolling stock with 
headquarters at Rutland, Vt. Mr. C. J. McMasters, 
master mechanic at Malone, N. Y., has been appointed 
assistant superintendent of rolling stock. 

Mr. W. R. Phillips, foreman of car repairs of the 
Southern at St. Louis, has resigned to accept the posi- 
tion of master car builder for the Mobile, Jackson & 
Kansas City at Mobile, Ala. Mr. Phillips is succeeded 
by Mr. D. H. Harrison. 

Mr. Charles M. Bloxham has been appointed master 
car builder of the Lmion Tank Line company, vice Mr. 
C. A, Smith, who has been appointed consulting en- 
gineer. All correspondence heretofore addressed to 
Tv!r. C. A. Smith on the subject of repairs to Union 
Tank Line cars, settlement for destroyed equipment 
and all other matters heretofore handled by the mas- 
ter car builder should be addressed to Mr. Charles M. 
Bloxham, 26 Broadway, New York. 

Mr. J. H. Rathbone has been appointed assistant 
master mechanic of the first division of the Denver & 
Pio Grande at Pueblo, Colo., succeeding Mr. John Kel- 
ker, resigned. 

Mr. W. A. Nettleton, formerly superintendent of 
motive power and machinery of the Kansas City, Fort 
Scott & Memphis, has been appointed assistant super- 
intendent of motive power of the Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe at Topeka, Kas., vice Mr. George R. Hender- 
son, promoted. 

Mr. J. M. James, general inspector of the motive 
power department of the Pennsylvania at Buffalo, N. 
Y., has been appointed assistant engineer of motive 

power of the Buffalo & Allegheny division, with head- 
quarters at Buffalo. 

Mr. J. J. Whalen, master mechanic of the Philadel- 
phia & Reading at Cressona, Pa., has been appointed 
master mechanic at Palo Alto, Pa., vice Mr. W. M. 
Stellwagon, who has retired. 

Mr. G. W. Smith has resigned as master mechanic 
of the Coast Line of the Santa Fe . system at San 
Bernardino, Cal. ; and Mr. C. F. Tape, division mas- 
ter mechanic of the Santa Fe Pacific at San Bernard- 
ino, is also said to have resigned. 

Mr. A. H. Thomas, general foreman of the locomo- 
tive department of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 
at Chicago, has been appointed mechanical engineer 
of that road, with headquarters at Milwaukee, Wis., 
vice Mr. R. R. Bradley, resigned. 

Mr. W. Henry has beeen appointed master me- 
chanic of the Texas Southern with headquarters at 
Terrell, Tex., vice Mr. N. L. Smitham, resigned. 

Mr. Angus Brown, division superintendent of mo- 
tive power of the New York Central & Hudson River, 
was recently killed at Albany, N. Y. 

Mr. A. J. Haaser, after 23 years of railroad service, 
lias resigned his position as foreman of the Southern 
Pacific at Algiers, La., to accept a position in the 
United States Government, having been appointed 
by the Secretary of the Navy as "Machinist-in- 
Charge" of the new steel floating dry-dock at Algiers. 

Mr. J. C. Grieb, for many years Chief Clerk of the 
Motive Power Department of the Chicago, Milwaukee 
& St. Paul at West Milwaukee, Wis., has resigned to 
engage in mercantile business in that city. 

Mr. M. R. Coutant is performing the duties of mas- 
ter mechanic of the Wabash at Fort Wayne, Ind., Mr. 
George S. McKee having resigned. 

Mr. John Leeson, formerly general foreman of the 
shops of the Pennsylvania at Fort Wayne, Ind., died 
recently at his home in Van Wert, O. 

Mr. H. A. Beech has been appointed foreman of the 
locomotive department of the Ann Arbor railroad at 
Owosso, Mich., vice Mr. C. J. Matthews, resigned. 

Mr. F. N. Risteen, assistant superintendent of mo- 
tive power of the Chicago Great Western at Oelwein, 
la., has been appointed mechanical superintendent of 
the eastern grand division of the Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe at Topeka, Kan., and Mr. C. M. Taylor, di- 
vision master mechanic of the Santa Fe at Albu- 

March, 1902. 



querque, N. M., has been appointed mechanical super- 
intendent of the western grand division at La Junta, 


Mr. G. H. Haselton, division superintendent of mo- 
tive power of the New York Central & Hudson River 
at Depew, N, Y., has been appointed division super- 
intendent of motive power at West Albany, succeed- 
ing Mr. Angus Brown, deceased. Mr. John Howard, 
division superintendent of motive power at Corning, 
N. Y., is transferred to Depew, in place of Mr. Hasel- 
ton, and is succeeded at Corning by Mr. E. A. Walton, 
master mechanic at New Durham, N. J. 

Mr. C. H. Quereaii has resigned the position of as- 
sistant superintendent of machinery of the Denver 
& Rio Grande and the office has been abolished. 

Mr. T. W. Place, for many years master mechanic 
of the Iowa division of the Illinois Central, is to be 

Mr. Charles E. Donnatin has been appointed super- 
intendent of the mechanical department of the Los 
Angeles Street Railway company at Los Angeles, Cal. 
Mr. Donnatin is recognized as an expert car builder, 
and this especial work will be in his charge. He is a 
veteran railroad man, having been in the service of 
the Southern Pacific for twenty-seven years. He be- 
gan as car inspector at Oakland. From Oakland he 
went to Tulare, to take charge of the railroad shops 
there, and later went to Los> Angeles and has been 
superintendent of the shops there since, resigning his 
position with the Southern Pacific to go with the 
street railway company. 

Mr. J. P. McCuen has been appointed superintend- 
ent of motive power of the Queen & Crescent railroad. 
Mr. George P. Bishop has been appointed master 
mechanic of the Pennsylvania shops at Wellsville, O., 
vice Mr. J. D. Harris, who goes to the Baltimore & 

Mr. W. L. Calvert has been appointed division mas- 
ter mechanic of the Rio Grande Western at Helper, 
Utah, succeeding Mr. J. T. Schlacks, who has resigned 
to accept a position with a Colorado road at Den- 

Mr. J. R. Mitchell of the Chicago & Northwestern 
has been appointed master mechanic of the Gulf, Colo- 
rado & Santa Fe at Cleburne, Tex., succeeding Mr. 
James Lauder, resigned. 

Mr. L. L. Smith, general foreman of the Chicago 
Great Western shops at Oelwein, la., has been trans- 
ferred to Fort Dodge, la., as division master mechanic. 
Mr. E. Burgess has been appointed supervisor of air 
brakes for the Western, Rome, Watertown & Ogdens- 
burg and Pennsylvania divisions of the New York- 
Central & Hudson River, with headquarters at Depew, 

N. Y. Mr. W. H. Foster has been appointed super- 
visor of air brakes for .the middle and Hudson di- 
visions, with headquarters at West Albany, N. Y. 

Mr. H. A. Fergusson has been appointed general 
foreman of the Oelwein (la.) shops of the Chicago 
Great Western, having resigned as assistant engineer 
of motive power of the Pennsylvania at Williamsport, 

Mr. J. F. Deems has resigned as superintendent of 
motive power of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy to 
accept the position of general manager of the Ameri- 
can Locomotive Company. 

Mr. Isaac N. Kalbaugh has been appointed super- 
intendent of motive power of the West Virginia Cen- 
tral & Pittsburg at Elkins, W. Va. He was formerly 
master mechanic of the Baltimore & Ohio at Glen- 
wood, Pa. 

Mr. E. F. Needham, assistant master mechanic of 
the Wabash at Decatur, 111., has been placed in charge 
of the company's shops at Ashley, Ind. 

Mr. W. J. Wilcox, who has had charge of the Santa 
Fe shops at Los Angeles, Cal., for the last two years, 
has been offered and accepted the position of division 
master mechanic on the Mexican Central at the City 
of Mexico. Mr. A/Vilcox was at one time mechanical 
engineer at Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y., and has 
been in the service of the following railroad com- 
panies : General foreman of the Pittsburg & Western 
at Allegheny City, Pa. ; chief draughtsman of the 
Southern at Charleston, S. C. ; master mechanic of the 
South Carolina & Georgia at Blacksburg, S. C. ; di- 
vision master mechanic of the Santa Fe at Winslow, 

Mr. T. J. Hennessey, division master mechanic of 
the Michigan Central, has been transferred from Jack- 
son, Mich., to West Bay City, Mich. Mr. E. R. Webb 
and Mr. C. D. Hilferty have been appointed master 
mechanics at Michigan City, Ind., and St. Thomas, 
Ont., respectively. 

Mr. W. H. Marshall, superintendent of motive pow- 
er of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, has been 
appointed general superintendent of that road, with 
headquarters at Cleveland, O., succeeding Mr. A. H. 
Smith, resigned. 

Mr. Harry Ashton has been appointed master me- 
chanic in charge of the Moncton Locomotive shops 
of the Intercolonial Railway of Canada. 

Mr. C. F. Thomas has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Savannah division of the Southern, vice 
Mr. N. E. Sprowl, transferred. 

Mr. F. H. Clark, mechanical engineer of the Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy, has been appointed superintendent 
of motive power, with headquarters in Chicago. 



March, 1902. 

Notes of Month. 

The passenger department of the New York Cen- 
tral are now issuing monthly under the title of "The 
Four-Track News," a most handsome, artistic and in- 
teresting publication. The beautiful half-tone work 
of the magazine is among the best that has ever c«une 
to this office. It seems to be in keeping with many 
other enterprising features of the modern railroad 
for the passenger department to conduct a publication 
devoted exclusively to the interests of their own road. 
This has been done exceedingly well in this case, and 
certainly much credit is due Mr. Daniels for the man- 
ner in which "The Four-Track News" is issued. 

The Standard Pneumatic Tool Co., of Chicago, 
have appointed Mr. J. B. Wilson, formerly connected 
with the mechanical department of the Grand Trunk 
Railway, manager of their new Canadian offices, which 
they have just opened at 103 Union Station Arcade, 
Toronto, Ont., at which place they will carry a full 
line of their "Little Giant" pneumatic tools and ap- 
pliances, repair parts and accessories. In the future 
all machines for Canadian customers will be shipped 
direct from their Toronto office, thereby saving pur- 
chasers the inconvenience of making out manifests and 
paying duty. The business of this company has 
greatly increased during the past few months, and the 
outlook is very encouraging. 

Mr. G. W. Roosevelt, United States Consul at Brus- 
sels, reports that owing to the very satisfactory re- 
sults obtained with the Stone system of electric light- 
ing on 205 cars, it has been decided by the Belgian 
State Railways to equip another 141 cars in the same 
manner. The Stone system is now in general use ".i 
the continent, France, Switzerland, Austria, Italy, 
Belgium, Norway, Sweden, Holland, Greece and Fin- 
land being among the countries in which this system 
is used. India, China, Japan, South Africa, Egypt 
and South America also are included in the list. In 
Great Britain thirty-five railroads have cars to the 
number of four or five thousand on which are also 
installed the Stone system. 

powers, but also a clear insight into world politics. 
Few men possess such knowledge as the author's, 
gained from years of experience in a diplomatic and 
political career. The article is so broad in scope and 
straightforward in treatment that it will be read with 
interest not alone by statesmen, but by every one 
whose thoughts travel beyond the immediate wants of 
a single day. 

The Pond Machine Tool Company, with works at 
Plainfield, N. J., have issued a handsome catalogue, 
in which they illustrate and describe their latest line 
of heavy and powerful engine lathes, which has had 
all the benefit of their long experience as lathe build- 
ers. They are regularly manufactured in stock sizes ; 
they are uniform and interchangeable. Correspond- 
ence will be carefully and promptly attended to from 
any of their numerous offices. 

■ » ♦ » 

The Armstrong Clamp Lathe Dog. 

THIS dog is so constructed as to combine the con- 
venient features of the clamp dog with the sim- 
plicity and strength of the ordinary lathe dog. It will 
accommodate itself readily to work of any shape, and 
will hold it securely and squarely, being especially 
adapted for use of unfinished work, which would be 
liable to be damaged by the set screw of a common 
lathe dog. The sliding block is drawn up to the work 
by a loose-fitting P bolt of steel, threaded on the ends 
and with case hardened nuts, loosely fitted, so that 

The Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company reports that 
since their reorganization orders for compressors, 
pneumatic tools and appliances, including cranes and 
hoists, received from the 1st to the 15th inst., equal 
the total December business, which was greater than 
that of any preceding month. This also includes an 
order for eighty tools from the Cramp Shipbuilding 

Sir Charles W. Dilke contributes to The Cosmopoli- 
tan for February an article on "The Naval Strength 
of Nations," which gives not only a most interesting 
and comprehensive account of the navies of the great 


they can be run rapidly to size without using a wrench 
until tightened. The body of the dog is cast of steel, 
and the design is such that there are no projecting 
screws or other parts liable to catch the file or the 
workman's hand or clothing. One advantage «of this 
dog is that it can be adjusted without removing work 
from centers. It possesses a wide range of adjust- 
ment, the seven sizes in which it is made being prop- 
erly proportioned and balanced to take work from % 
in. up to 5 in. in diameter. It is manufactured by 
Armstrong Bros. Tool Company, 617-621 Austin ave- 
nue, Chicago, U. S. A., who will gladly furnish on 
application a complete catalog of Armstrong tool 

March, 1902. 



'*t* Railroad Paint SKop >? 

A Department Devoted to the Interest of Master Car and Locomotive Painters 
Edited by CHAS. E. COPP, General Foreman Painter, Car Department, Boston & Maine Railroad, Lawrence, Mass. 

Official Organ of tHe Master Car and Locomotive Painters Association 

Some Notable Promotions. 

WE understand that Mr. Richard J. Kelley, here- 
tofore Master Painter of the Long Island R. 
R., has been appointed "General Foreman Car Dept." 
of that road, effective Feb. 1st. This is an unusual 
promotion. When a painter gets as high as he can get 
on the ladder of fame and usefulness to his company 
in his calling it is a rare thing for him to attain to a 
superior position. Still they do occasionally, and we 
recall two other notable ex- 
amples, namely, Mr. Harry 
L. Libby, Master Painter of 
the West End St. Ry. (now 
Boston Elevated), who was 
a few years ago made su- 
perintendent of the com- 
pany's shops. The other is 
Mr. H. E. Farrington, Mas- 
ter Mechanic of the Boston 
& Northern St. Ry., a con- 
solidation o f numerous 
street car lines in several 
N. E. cities, of which the 
Lynn & Boston forms a 
part, where he was former- 
ly foreman painter. Messrs. 
Libby and Kelley were and, 
we think, still are members 
of our association ; and Mr. 
Farrington was in 1884- 
1887, thoueh he has not ' 
met with us in convention 
for some years. 

There may be others that 
we do not now recall. How- 
ever, let no one fancy that 
there is to be any general 
movement along these lines and get inflated with am- 
bition in place of ability. The best way for any man 
to do is to make himself just as useful to his com- 
pany as he knows how to be in the positions, however 
obscure, in which he is placed and be observing and 
studious ; and some day they may want him to step 
up higher. If not, let him stay contentedly where he 
is, loyal to his company's interests and to his like- 
minded superior officer, neither envious of > him, nor 

We take pleasure in reproducing the portrait here- 
with of our old colleague Mr. Kelley, though we once 
had his picture in our gallery of Master Painters in 
the "Railroad Car Journal," and we again use a por- 


tion of the sketch of his career then published. And 
all of this unbeknown to him, as we still retain his 
picture then used. We take this liberty on account 
of "auld lang syne," and wish him all success in his 
new sphere and hope while he goes to Saratoga in 
June he won't forget Boston in September. 

The following is an abstract of the career of Mr. R. 
J. Kelley taken from our columns in the September, 
1898, "Railroad Car Journal :" 

"Mr. Richard J. Kelley, 
Master Painter, Long; 
Island R. R., whose portrait 
appears on this page, was 
born in Trenton, N.J., June 
15, 1863. He is the young- 
est of a family of car and 
engine painters , a father 
and three sons all working 
at the business. He was 
brought up in Wilmington, 
Del., where he attended the 
public schools and served a 
full apprenticeship at car 
painting with the Bowers-' 
Dure Co. of that city. The 
day after his apprentice- 
ship expired he started in 
as a journeyman with the 
Jackson & Sharp Co., of 
the same city, and was with 
them about ten years, dur- 
ing which time he put in 
six months of what he 
terms valuable experience 
at the old East Cam- 
bridge shops of the Bos- 
ton & Lowell R. R., under 
Mr. Harnden, who was the Foreman Painter there 
then. He says he would not have missed this part, 
as he was looking for experience, and got it (good 
and strong), scrubbing cars one day and striping and 
lettering the next. This was in 1885. During his con- 
nection with the Jackson & Sharp Co. he was sent by 
that firm to be Foreman Painter for the N. Y., P. & 
N. at Cape Charles, Va., and was with that road about 
six months on account of roundhouse and shop burn- 
ing down. He was also sent to the Camden & Atlantic 
R. R. by the J. & S. Co. to paint headlinings for Mr. 
R. Hill, Superintendent Motive Power, and later re- 
turned to the J. & S. Co. and was recommended to his 
present position in August, 1891." , , 

9 8 


March, 1902. 

Maintenance of All-Steel Cars. 

IN the Central Railway Club proceedings for Jan- 
uary last is a report on the "Best Method in Shop 
Practice in Meeting the Requirements and Mainte- 
nance of All-Steel Cars ; Probable Future Shop 
Changes Necessary," by Messrs. Dow, Macbeth and 
Ferguson, from which we quote, regarding the paint- 
ing question, as follows : , 

"The question of corrosion is a very serious one in 

the hand method of painting these cars, as the cost of 
labor and material is not only much less than the hand 
method but the atomized paint is forced into crevices 
and other parts which would not be reached with the 
brush. The life of the material in these cars largely 
depends on thoroughly painting all parts." 

Quite a lengthy debate followed the reading of this 
report, most of it being devoted to the painting ques- 
tion, from which we observe that much importance 


£ W \ 



rap: J7i* r( 


tj "Ok" fU^ifO 




connection with this class of equipment and no delay 
whatever should be tolerated in procuring ample paint 
shop facilities for taking the cars in as often as neces- 
sary. The prevailing opinion appears to be that the 
cars should be painted if practicable inside and out, 
once in eighteen months. In covering this work the 
fact must not be lost sight of that the corrosion, 
scale and all parts must be cleaned off thoroughly be- 
fore applying the paint, so it will take hold in the 
manner expected. 

Your committee would recommend for this purpose, 
that a sand blast or some other suitable method should 
be used. Would further recommend that the pneu- 
matic painting machine is a decided improvement over 

was attached to the proper preparation of the steel to 
receive the paint, the sand-blast, scrapers and wire 
brushes being used for the purpose, the former being 
considered the most effective. We reproduce a draw- 
ing of the apparatus in this issue that was submitted 
in the report. It came out in the debate, what we 
foreshadowed in these columns in our January issue, 
- that this class of cars is subject to speedy decay unless 
taken care of and painted often, especially when left 
loaded on side tracks with coal a few months, in which 
case the shovels of the unloaders "went through the 
pockets down on the ties," so badly were they de- 

There was an effort made to get Mr. Dow, of the 

March, 1902. 



Lake Shore (formerly of the Boston & Maine, at 
Salem, Mass)., to state publicly what he considered 
the best paint for this purpose, having tried several ; 
but he declined to go on record. How do these men 
expect the painters to tell, if they won't? We think 
the time has come for every tub to stand on its own 
bottom ; likewise a paint publicly offered for sale for 
this important purpose. If a man has got a good thing 
all concerned should know it ; and if one or more have 
failed let them aim and fire at the bull's eye again. In 
this way good marksmanship is developed and the 
best results obtained from wholesome rivalry. Rub- 
ber hose was used for sand blast, with brass or iron 
pipe, one speaker claiming that either malleable or 
chilled cast-iron nozzles are the best to withstand the 
action of the sand cutting the nozzle out. 

The pneumatic hammer with a broad chipping chisel 
attachment was also stated to be a good device to take 
off the scale and rust from steel. We saw men lying 
on their back in the Portsmouth (N. H.) dry docks 
cleaning the bottom of the "Raleigh" with these last 
summer. All in all the above was a good subject and 
an interesting debate. , 

♦ » » 

Car Painting from the Wood. 

HOW well a railroad keeps up the appearance of 
its equipment as to paint and varnish depends 
upon how many cars are painted from the wood up 
each year in proportion to its total number; that is, 
how many are burned off or resheathed. Other an- 
nual renovations and repairs, such as cleaning, 
"touching-up," "cutting-in," or painting over the old 
paint and revarnishing, are essential in their turn and 
have their sphere in improving and lengthening the 
life of the painted car ; but they all have their limita- 
tions. There comes a time — and this is generally con- 
ceded by competent authorties to be about eight to ten 
years from the previous painting from the wood — 
when we have got to get down to first principles again 
by the aid of the scraper and the flame and begin to 
lay the foundation over again for another job of a 
like period of service and war. To the inexperienced 
and untutored mind this may seem discouraging and 
wrong; that if a right foundation were laid in the 
first place and well built on all the way up, a more 
lasting structure of paint and varnish might be built. 
Well, it may seem so; but quoting the philosophical 
poet, "things are not always what they seem." As a 
matter of fact, it is a good job of car painting in these 
hurry days that lasts and keeps in good appearance 
eight or ten years. Many are burned off from being 
badly cracked or peeling much short of that time. 
Seeing houses and other structures painted from time 
to time over the old paint without cracking, the un- 
sophisticated mind does not understand this. It is 
the purpose of this article to inform such on this and 
other points. A house or similar structure is painted 
with oil-mixed paints all the way through, all coats 

being alike. Then why not serve our cars the same 
way, do you ask? First, because you cannot obtain 
the requisite surface with an oil paint ; you cannot 
sandpaper or rub it with pumice stone, as it would 
"roll up" under your sandpaper, or stone, instead of 
being cut down to the proper surface ; and, second, 
it would not do to varnish over a paint of that na- 
ture. Why not? Because the varnish in drying would 
in short time become less elastic than the paint un- 
derneath it and would be soon pulled apart into wide 
fissures, similarly as would paper be pulled apart if 
pasted or otherwise fastened to rubber and then the 
latter stretched by the hands. What do we care for a 
fine surface On our cars and why do we varnish them 
at all, do you ask? Well, in the first place for beauty, 
and in the second place and for the far more important 
reason of making them cleanable as they follow the 
smoke of a locomotive daily. Varnish, as you ought 
to know, is. the very best foundation to clean upon 
that is known, as it not only resists to a great degree 
the accumulation and adhesion of smoke and dirt, but 
it also resists the action of suitable detergents in their 
removal by the processes of cleaning. If a car were 
painted with a sticky oil paint, like a house, smoke 
and dirt from the engine and fast-moving train would 
be so speedily absorbed by it that your car in a very 
short time would become repulsive in appearance and 
uncleanable and have to be again painted as before, 
only to have the operation repeated ad infinitum. The 
only admirable feature would be, the name of the 
road on the car would be soon obscured by smoke so 
that no shame need be experienced in its ownership. 

This, then, is why we surface and varnish cars — to 
make a practically maintainable appearance while in 
service, together with the beauty of the job at the 
start. To accomplish this, coatings must be designed 
with this end in view from start to finish, as you 
would build a house by first laying the foundation and 
then adding the" superstructure and then the finish. 
What would you think of a man who would build a 
costly house on cobble stones hastily piled up without 
cement? Well, he would be a foolish man, you say. 
So he would, but no more so than he who paints cars 
without due regard to his foundation ; and this leads 
me to contemplate, the main object of this article, 


For this purpose some use a prepared primer, bought 
all put up for the purpose, while others make their 
own from materials in the shop. Others still buy the 
former and adapt it to their use, if not just suited to it. 
Now whatever the primer is it must penetrate the 
wood sufficiently, and that which penetrates must 
have the requisite toughness and adhesion to not only 
hold itself on but all the surfacer, color and varnish 
coats to follow that are piled on to it, and hold Ihem 
through a rough-and-tumble fight of eight or ten 
years' wear and exposure to the weather, as well as 
about two coats of varnish and a "cutting-in" coat of 



March, 1902. 

color per year added afterward. It is like a monkey's 
tail that takes a twist around the limb of a tree and 
said monkey holds, in a string hanging down, twenty- 
five or thirty other monkeys. It has got to be a 
tough, strong tail. So is your primer got to be of a 
tenacious fiber, as well as of good penetration, to bold 
on of itself and all that are to become attached to it. 
This is the prime factor in a good primer. Is this the 
case with yours, reader? Yes, says the redoubtable 
supply man at once. Well, time tests all things. 

Here is a section of lathing and plastering taken 
down from an old house that illustrates our meaning 
very well. You will notice the mortar has gone oe- 
tween the laths and turned over and clinched? - Yes. 
Very well ; so far, so good, but what is in that mortar 
to give it adhesion? Hair. That is true. Now there 
must be a corresponding toughness imparted to your 
primer and it must be as well worked into the wood 
as was that mortar into the laths by the plasterers 
in order to hold on equally well. When men at piece- 
work prices, for a few cents, "swipe" over a car with 
one stroke in a plan of the brush with a primer, well 
thinned with spirits of turpentine, what can you ex- 
pect for durability? 

Some years ago the writer observed that the cars 
from one of the division shops on the road on which 
he is employed were noted for peeling to the wood 
after being painted two or three years or so. He be- 
gan to investigate and found that a man was kept in 
the woodshop during the building of cars to prime 
the sheathing, piece by piece; and as he would natur- 
ally be there two or three weeks at a time and his pot 
of primer continually evaporating and growing thin- 
ner, he had a can of spirits of turpentine handy and 
kept thinning it ! It seems almost needless to s.^y 
that this was constantly changing the nature of that 
primer and cutting its vitality and toughness all to 
pieces. We immediately gave order to have this prac- 
tice stopped and the car primed all at once the same 
day, if possible ; and have seen no trouble since of 
that character. 

Look well to your primer. A most fatally mistaken 
notion is apt to gain credence that about anything 
is good enough for this part of the work. From time 
immemorial white lead and oil, with the requisite col- 
oring, dryer and thinner, has been considered the 
only safe and sure primer in carriage, couch and car 
painting. Well, there are a good many worse; and, 
unless the master car painter can have his selection 
of some good, ready-prepared primer on the market, 
he will do well to adhere to his lead and oil formula 
until he does, for he knows what that is. But there 
is this that can be said of the ready-prepared, canned- 
up article — it contains a certain uniformity of prep- 
aration through machine mixing that cann )[ be ob- 
tained by hand, and is generally ready for use, though 
most of them require some manipulation to suit vary- 
ing needs and requirements. It seems to be a pretty 
well established fact that a large portion of linseed 

oil should enter a primer, whatever the pigment, and 
probably this oil is toughened and made better for 
the purpose by a percentage of the best varnish gum 
cooked into it when made, or good elastic finishing 
varnish added afterwards. But we believe in the in- 
corporation of pigment also ; and we think a por- 
tion of ground white lead in oil cannot be ex celled 
for this purpose, though other pigments for surfaces 
to follow work equally well, if not better. 

How long should the priming be allowed to dry be- 
fore proceeding with succeeding coats? That depends 
upon its nature and the character of the surface upon 
which it is applied, as well as the drying conditions 
of the shop. No rule can be laid down here. Suf- 
fice it to say that if a good elastic primer is used 
that under ordinary conditions requires several days 
to dry before proceeding farther, a good foundation 
is laid ; and, if properly built upon, a more lasting 
job will be the result than is too frequently met with 
in our observations. 

♦ ♦♦■ 

Locomotive Tank Painting. 

Meadville, Pa., Feb. 6, 1902. 
To the Editor of The Railroad Paint Shop : 

Friend Copp — In regard to your gilded tank, men- 
tioned in the February number of the Railway blas- 
ter Mechanic, I wish to make a few remarks relative 
thereto, as I have experienced similar cases. A num- 
ber of years ago, when this railway (now the Erie) 
was named "Atlantic & Great Western," the initials 
"A. & G. W." were lettered in gold and the tanks 
were iron. The priming coat was composed of white 
lead, lamp black and linseed oil, which made a slate- 
color coating. In those days painting was done to 
stand, and was given proper attention while in serv- 
ice, and the burning off process was a rarity ; conse- 
quently the surface of this particular tank in question 
showed no bad indications, except a few abrasions 
from time to time and was repeatedly puttied up and 
painted and kept in good appearance. This tank un- 
derwent the three changes of names of the road, until 
finally it was dismantled of its painted surface by 
the aid of steam ; the entire mass of paint blistered up 
and was easily removed ; and when we had it all off 
there stood the tank with its original priming coat 
still clinging to the iron sheets and the gold "A. & 
G. W." letters in fair and bright condition staring it 
us. This primer was then removed with lye and 
the surface found underneath was free of rust (with 
the exception of the exposed parts of the metal),. and 
still brighter where the gold letters were and stood 
out plainly as in the case of the tank you write of. 
Now, you may think this a remarkable case when I 
state to you the fact that this tank in question had 
been primed more than twenty-five years before it 
was burned off. 

The fact that gold leaf should afford protection re- 

March, 1902. 



minds me of the time when doing sign work. It a ciation in Boston (with the writer) at Young's Hotel 

knot in the wood looked suspicious, we used to size in 1884. "Fred," on account of ill health, was suc- 

and lay a leaf of gold over it, after the priming coat ceeded by Edward Webb some 20 years ago, yet he 

was dry. Why did we do it? Because we were told still performs some light work a portion of the time 

that that would hold back the pitch. The scientific in tctwn and, with a pension, makes a comfortable hv- 

point attached to this has since then presented itself ing. "Ezra" expects to attend our Boston convention 

to me in this light, namely (however, I may possibly next September and we gave him the address of this 

be mistaken), that gold leaf protects the sizing under- paper, as he wished to subscribe. 

neath, from the fact that the rays of the sun do not While there we were informed of the sad news that 

(in a scientific way) penetrate gold, but to the con- Mr. Webb, who was with us at our Buffalo convention 

trary deflect them to some extent 
being a very close-grained 
metal, would also have a 
tendency to exclude the 
other elements. This, to my 
mind, is the reason the siz- 
ing remains durable so much 
longer than the surround- 
ing surface (black surface, 
especially), and the bright 
metal underneath the let-^ 
ters would indicate. 

A good fat oil sizing is 
thus protected by the gold 
leaf on a sign still in use, 
but the ground work is 
nearly gone, on a sign I 
made nearly twenty-nine 
years ago, and it is still do- 
ing battle with the ele- 
ments, although the gold is 
in fairly good condition and 
the sign has been rehung in 
five different places to my 
knowledge. Well, I hope to 
meet you in Pittsburg soon, 
and will wish you and your 
estimable family happy and 
healthy lives, and will quit 
right off. 

Yours truly, 
J. H. Kahler. 

Then, again, gold 

» « » 

Laconia (iV. /f.), Car Shops, 

THE B. & M. is having 200 Pratt's patent coal 
cars made at the Laconia Car Co.'s shops, La- 
conia, N. H. Thursday, Feb. 13, we visited that shop 
and found Mr. Ezra Page, Foreman Painter, the suc- 
cessor of Mr. Edward Webb, busy at his post with 
at present about 28 men, some being out during a lull 
between orders, an order of electrics for Columbus, 
Ohio, having been completed and another of narrow 
gauge steam cars for the Boston, Revere Beach & 
Lynn in process of building., 

Mr. Ezra Page is the brother of T. Fred Page, years 
ago Foreman Painter there, and who joined our asso- 

and who works for Harry Liebby, of the Boston Ele- 
vated, is having serious 
trouble with his eyes, the 
sight of one having failed 
and the other likely to 
through sympathy, unless 
we were misinformed. If 
true, he will have the sym- 
pathy of our entire mem- 
bership and of Bro. Mc- 
Keon in particular, who is 
suffering with a like mal- 
ady. We shall look up 
Mr. W. in the near future 
on one of our Boston 

The paint shop of the 
Laconia shops has been di- 
vided into three compart- 
ments by the insertion of 
two wooden partitions with 
large sliding doors where 
the cars pass through. This 
is a much needed improve- 
ment as it excludes dust 
and dirt from rooms where 
the finishing is done. There 
is many a long railroad 
paint shop that could be 
likewise improved. 

Since writing the above 
wecalledonMr.Webb at his 
home, 29 Alpine St., Boston. We found him with col- 
ored glasses on, having been out of shop three weeks with 
this trouble with his eyes that began with severe neural- 
gic pains across his forehead, temporarily losing the sight 
of his left eye, which passed to the right one through 
sympathy. He is better and his eyesight slowly improv- 
ing and will be fully recovered, the doctor says. 

•» » ♦• 

Varnish Turning White. 

THERE has been much trouble from varnish turning white 
on cars in Boston and vicinity of late that, if confined to 
one brand of goods, might well be set down for its immediate 
discarding from use; but as the honors were about even with 
several makes, they can congratulate themselves, as did the old 
woman when the frost killed her beans, by looking over the 
fence and seeing that the neighbor's beans were killed also. It 



March, 1902. 

is said that "misery loves company," and we felt the comfort 
of the thought when we saw that our neighbor's cars had turned 
white also. 

The cause of it was a very heavy rain storm Sunday, Dec. 
15, which poured all day, soaking everything, during which, of 
course, the varnish absorbed moisture enough to turn it white, 
the more, the longer a car had been in service, and the more 
absorbent its surface. Had the weather cleared off warm this 
would have turned back to its normal state and probably it 
never would have been noticed; but, instead of that, it was fol- 
lowed by a freeze that set up this whiteness "for keeps." We 
had seen nothing like it for many years, in fact the usual "oldest 
inhabitant" came in with his doleful plea — "never saw the like." 
There were many cars in the Boston yards affected, some a 
sight to behold; and yet our fears were soon assuaged, for we 
soon found out by experimenting that washing with hot water 
would turn it back again, especially if followed with a swipe 
with emulsion cleaner. And the hot vapor from a yard steam 
hose is more effectual than the hot water. Indeed subsequent 
warm rains, after a week of cold weather, have done much to 
obliterate this trouble, which seemed to be permanently fixed 
by the freeze and cold days succeeding. 

There is a good deal of truth in the sold Scotch saying that 
"It's an ill wind that blows nobody good," for we feel that this 
has taught us some useful lessons as to the cause and cure of 
varnish turning white on cars, and strengthened pur mind and 
nerves so that we shall not soon be so shocked again as by this 

But we would not give aid and comfort to our enemies, the 
makers of varnishes and enamels with fiddler's gum in them. 
Let them not take to themselves consolation from the above. 
The turning white of varnish, or enamels, or gloss paints, made 
of resin from the North Carolina pine, is altogether a different 
proposition. When this whiteness turns back without some 
heroic treatment then the Ethiopean will change his skin and the 
leopard his spots. This kind of material should be relegated to 
painting toys and labelled "keep dry." 


Notes and Comments. 

A Correction. — The typos gave us a salary in our last issue 
of $100.00 per year as President of the B. & M. Relief Associa- 
tion ! Wish it was so, but it isn't. The error was in prefixing 
a figure "1" to some zeros that we intended as a joke to convey 
that our services are for nothing, save the glory and good of the 

Speaking of fast trains on the railroads nowadays, here's a 
choice sample of it. Hamilton W. Mabie tells it. A gentleman 
traveling on the New Jersey Central flyer put his head out of 
the window of his car to kiss his wife good-bye as the train 
was moving out of the Jersey City station. Instead of succeed- 
ing in his purpose, however, he found that he had kissed a 
strange lady standing on the platform of the next station. This 
is one of the New York Times' prize stories, and the only im- 
proper thing about it is that it only got a second prize. 

As noted in our last issue, the editor of these columns "held 
forth" for about an hour at the N. E. R. R. Club, Boston, Feb. 
nth, on "The Theory and Practice of Railway Equipment 
Painting," illustrated by objects and tests, and, judging by com- 
pliments received adfter adjournment from many persons who were 
strangers to us, it was well received. We have been told that we 
ought to publish the paper in these columns, running it in serial 
form through several issues. We hardly think of doing that in 
its entirety, but may publish portions of it. We had just written 
an article for these columns, "Car Painting from the Wood," 
.which we held back and partly used in that paper. We will now 
use that and perhaps follow it with other portions. 

On account of the anti-exchange pass agreement we did not 
show up at the Advisory Committee meeting at Pittsburg Feb. 
22, and at present there is a dark prospect before us for our 

coming convention in Boston next September, unless, as in many 
other instances of a similar nature, "the clouds roll by" before 
the time, revealing "a silver lining." Let us hope that they will. 
We cannot force ourself to think the railroads are going to ig- 
nore the associations that by their deliberations have saved them 
so many dollars. Some way will be provided, we believe, to 
"get there." As chairman of Hotel Committee we have can- 
vassed the matter thoroughly and have it narrowed down to 
about two houses to choose between and can close the bargain 
any day but have made no contract yet. Wish the air was a little 
clearer ! 

Among the many things Mr. J. T. Chamberlain, M. C. B., 
B. & M. R. R., knows how to do well is how to take a vacation 
when he feels he needs a rest from his arduous duties. Two 
years ago he took a trip to Jamaica. Friday, p. m., Feb. 7, he 
started for New York, from whence he sailed for Havana, Cuba, 
for about three weeks, the most of it being passed on the water 
en route. He is a veritable "sea dog," never sick. Hence these 
trips, which are beneficial to him, for he gets where the tele- 
graph wire twineth not and the drummer mourneth not for his 
first order. Jokers say he has gone over there to look after the 
equipment of another B. & M. leased line! 

The Boston & Maine output from its six passenger shops for 
January, 1902, was 227 cars, of which 23 were painted complete 
and 204 were "cut in" or "touched up" and varnished; 138 cars 
were cut in, n were burned off and 29 were varnished inside. 
Of the total output Lawrence shop did 20, Salem 18, Somerville 
54, Concord 46, Lyndonville 7 and Fitchburg 82. The same 
month the previous year the output was 199. 

Glancing hastily over a sample copy of the Railway Age (Jan. 
24) we were horrified to learn the following sad news. This 
courteous gentleman only two months previously showed us over 
his entire plant, which visit we wrote up at length for our De- 
cember issue. It seems like the loss of a relative: Angus 
Brown, division superintendent of motive power of the New York 
Central & Hudson River at West Albany, N. Y., was killed by 
being struck by a passenger train at West Albany on January 
21. He had been with the New York Central since June 1, last, 
going to that road from the Chicago Terminal Transfer, where 
he was master mechanic. He was formerly superintendent of 
motive power of the Wisconsin Central. Mr. Brown was about 
to cross the tracks when he saw a passenger train approaching. 
In attempting to hurry out of the way of the train he slipped 
and fell on the rails and was struck by the train and instantly 
killed. He was forty-five years of age. 

Dingy, stained cherry sash that do not require to have the old 
varnish scraped off may be painted a mahogany ground color, 
both inside and out, and, when dry, rolled by the gelatine roll 
transfer process from a mahogany panel, and, when dry, var- 
nished, and you have as good looking a set of mahogany sash 
as if made new of the wood itself. Stained window seats may 
be treated the same way, by using a rocker of the right length 
instead of a roller. 

♦ < » 

Sad News 

Though the following is delayed it is none the less news to us, 
and seemed peculiarly sad as Mr. Marshall's letter was delivered 
to us in church (Feb. 23). by our daughter, who had called at 
the post office on the way for a letter for herself. Miss Hoesly, 
daughter of our esteemed fellow-member, Jacob Hoesly, Foreman 
Painter of the Meadow shops of the P. R. R., near Newark, 
N. J., was married to Mr. A. Duncan Melville, Nov. 1st, 1900, 
and was always a familiar figure at our conventions and enjoy- 
able company to all who had the pleasure of her acquaintance. 
She will be mourned by a large circle of friends and Mr. and 
Mrs. Hoesly will have the heartfelt sympathy of all our Associa- 
tion family in this deep affliction. 

March, 1902. 



X5hQ Car Foremen's Association 

A. Department Devoted 

to the 

Interests of the Car Department 

0/ CHicago 

j& j& j& j& j& j& 

Official Organ 
of the Association 


THE regular meeting of the Car Foremen's Association of 
Chicago was held in Room 209 Masonic Temple, Wednes- 
day, Feb. 12th, at 8:00 o'clock P. M. Among those pres- 
ent were the following: 

Aley, David, Godfrey, Jas. Rohrback, G. T. 

Alderson, R. R. Grieb, J. C. Parke, P. 

Buker, J. Harvey, H. H. Peterson, A. 

Bates, G. M. Jones, R. R. Rorhback, G. T. 

Blohm, Theo. Johnson, A. G. Scott, J. B. 

Briden, John, Johannes, A. Schultz, F. C. 

Bickford, Wm. Jones, W. E. Stimson, O. M. 

Baldwin, M. J. Knorr, Wm. Sepke, H. 

Carey, C. H. Kline, Aaron, Schmitt, C. 

Cook, W. C. Kennedy, J. H. Sharp, W. E. 

Cardwell, J. R. Ketchum, I. J. Schultz, Aug. 

Conger, C. B. Laughlin, J. A. Stewart, H. A, 

Cuthbert, J. R. La Rue, H. Stocks, J. T. 

Depue, Jas. Lauky, M. J. Stocks, W. H. 

Earle, Ralph, Marsh, Hugh, Saum, G. N. 

Evans, W. H. Morris, T. R. Terry, O. N. 

Frenk, Wm. Murray, Jas. Wentwl, Geo. 

Frenk, Henry, Murphy, Geo. Wessell, W. W. 

Farrington, E. C. Nelson, Fred. v Willis, Milo T. 

Pres. Grieb: I presume that all present this evening have 
read the minutes of the last meeting as printed in the Railway 
Master Mechanic, and doubtless have observed that the minutes 
now appear under the caption of the official organ, under which 
title they will be hereafter printed in the Railway Master 
Mechanic. If there are no objections we will consider the min- 
utes accepted as printed. We will now ask the Secretary to read 
the applications of the new members: 

Secretary Kline: The following have made application for 
Edw. A. Moseley, secretary Interstate Commerce Commission, 

H. A. Bowen, M. M., C. B. T. Co., Kansas City, Mo. 

E. G. Brubaker, car builder, C. & E., Huntington, Ind. 

F. Baker, chief joint inspector, Kansas City, Mo. 
Arthur Ball, C. I. & L. Ry., Chicago. 

H. Chappell, clerk, C. B. T. Co., Kansas City, Kans. 
Wm. L. Cook, machinist, C. B. T. Co., Kansas City, Kans. 
J. H. Cook, clerk, C. B. T. Co., Kansas City, Kans. 

D. W. Cashin, clerk, C. B. T. Co., Chicago. 

Wm. Creger, foreman, C. B. T. Co., Kansas City, Kans. 
J. W. Cuddy, chief clerk, E. J. & E., Joliet, 111. 
W. P. Cosper, general agent, Con. Car Heating Co. 

F. A. Chase, G. M. M., Burlington Lines in Mo. 

W. T. Dunley, asst. foreman, C. B. & Q., Aurora, 111. 

C. L. Douglas, inspr. & salesman, McCord & Co. 

J. Godfrey, foreman, C. R. I. & P. Ry., Chicago. 

K. T. Graves, inspector, C. B. T. Co., Kansas City, Kans. 

J. H. Hubbard, foreman, C. B. & Q., Aurora, 111. 

Robt. Jones, air brake repairer, C. & N. W., Milwaukee. 

W. E. Jones, foreman, C. C. C. Co., Chicago. 

Chas. James, G. F., C. & E. R. R., Chicago. 

W. Kaminski, foreman, C. B. T. Co., Chicago. 

G. A. Kelley, foreman, C. B. & Q., Aurora, 111. 
Wm. Knorr, M. M., C. C. C. Co., Chicago. 

Geo. F. Mills, manager, Niles Tool Works, Chicago. 

Geo. Murphy, car inspector, C. & N. W., Clinton, la. 

Robt. Moran, M. M., L. & N. R. R., Nashville, Tenn. 

M. K. Northam, pres. & G. M., Dairy Shippers Despatch, Chicago. 

Jas. O'Neill, air brake man, C. B. & Q., Aurora, 111. 

S. J. Ogar, trav. engr., C. M. & St. P., Ottumwa, la. 

J. R. Overmyer, wrecking master, C. & E., Huntington, Ind. 

E. R. M. Pierce, G. F., A. C. L., Los Angeles, Gal. 
A. Peterson, joint inspector, Coster, 111. 

Wm. Peterson, air brake man, C. M. & St. P., Chicago. 

F. T. Reese, asso. editor, Railway Age, Chicago. 
Chas. Riddell, repr., Standard Steel Works, Chicago. 


Otis Rudd, car inspector, E. J. & E., West Chicago, 111. 

Jas. Scott, car inspector, M. St. P. & S. S. M., N. Escanaba, 

G. E. Simpson, supt. trans., C. M. & St. P., Chicago. 
Cary D. Terrell, asso. editor, Railway & Engineering Review. 
J. C. Whitridge, asso. editor, Railroad Gazette, Chicago. 

Pres. Grieb: You have heard the applications read of those 
who desire admission in the Car Foremen's Association of Chi- 
cago and these will be handled by the Board of Directors in the 
usual manner and their names enrolled as members. We have 
a total of 42 tonight which brings the total number of members 
admitted during the present fiscal year up to 280. I wish to 
say that we started out to get 420, so that we now have 66 2-3 
per cent in the clear and it' ought to be a very easy matter to 
get the other 33 1-3 per cent. We have only worked during 
October, November, December and January, four months, and 
have gotten two-thirds at present, and I do hope to see the other 
missing one-third supplied, and if I remember right we are get- 
ting in new members at the rate of two to one as compared 
with last year. If I remember right we had only 22 members 
admitted last February and this year 42 so that our growth is 
keeping up its rapid pace and I think we will accomplish what 
we started out to do, to put the Association on an independent 
and self-supporting basis. 

Secretary Kline: I have a letter here from Mr. Edw. A. Mose- 
ley, Secretary of the Interstate Commerce Commission, which 
I think you will all be glad to hear, which is as follows: 

Office of the Secretary, 
Edward A. Moseley, 

January 11, 1902. 
Secretary, The Car Foremen's Association of Chicago, 
886 S. Turner Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. 
Dear Sir: 

I am very much interested in the work of the Car Foremen's 
Association of Chicago and thinking that possibly the Reports 
of the Commission would be of interest to the Association I 
take great plesure in forwarding to you, under separate cover, 
a full set of the Annual Reports of the Commission. 
Wishing the Association every success, I am, 
Very truly yours, 


Pres. Grieb: You have noticed that Mr. Moseley became a 
member tonight, and if there are no objections I will instruct the 
Secretary to acknolwedge receipt of the communication and an- 
nual reports, thanking him for the deep interest he has taken in 
our welfare and expressing our gratitude for the information 
he has placed at our disposal. This brings us down to the regular 
program for the evening, the first of which is the Discussion of 
report of committee on condition of draft rigging in cars and 
suggestions for improvement of same. This is a subject of very 
vital importance, paramount to any other in the amount of 
money it consumes annually and delays and damage that are 
caused thereby if neglected. It has been before you for 60 
days and I hope that every one present here this evening is fully 
familiar with it and has come fully prepared to lend his active 
assistance to the discussion. 

Mr. Sharp (A. C. L.): It is hardly fair for any one but a 
member of the committee to open the discussion, and endeavoring 
to do this makes me feel a good deal like the story of the man 
under the load of hay. The story has it, that a gentleman went 
over to the yards to purchase a load of hay, and after arriving 
home, finding it had not been delivered he became a little anxious 
and started out to search for the cause of the delay. He had 
not gone far when he came upon a little boy pitching hay up 
out of a ditch where it had tumbled on account of the wagon 



March, 1902. 

upsetting going around a corner. He noticed the little fellow 
working and invited him up to his house for dinner. "Oh, no," 
he said, "I am afraid my father will not like it." "But," said 
the man, "you can work lots faster and accomplish a great deal 
more if you come up and eat dinner first." Under this persua- 
sion the little fellow came np and after dinner the man said to 
him: "Didn't I tell you you would feel better after dinner." 
"Yes, I feel better and a good deal stronger, but I am really 
afraid my father won't like it." "I don't think your father will 
take any offense at your eating dinner. Where is he?" "He's 
under the load of hay." I feel very much like the father in 
attempting to open this discussion. However, I have read this 
report with a great deal of interest and I think it shows that the 
committee have done a great deal of work and are deserving 
of a great deal of credit, perhaps more than our Association 
will give them. I believe we all agree that it is the most im- 
portant issue at the present day in car construction, but I want 
to call attention to a few of the recommendations and sugges- 
tions of the committee, to which I will direct my remarks, and 
regret that on some points I cannot agree with the committee. 
In the first place, at the top of page 34 the committee states: 
"In making this report they have decided to consider only the 
defects, causes and remedies in connection with draft rigging 
on cars now in service, and that new construction shall not enter 
into the question." Later on in the report on the same page, 
about the middle, it states, "We recommend that the construc- 
tion of the car be so arranged that the draft sills will be 
separated only as much as is absolutely necessary, a follower 
8 ins. being preferable to one 9M> ins." I believe the committee 
has' got us mixed up to some extent here, as I think the recom- 
mendation in the second one refers to designing of a car, in 
which case they enter into new construction. Also in this report 
reference is made to the old style single draw lugs, which are 
commonly called "cheek castings," bolted to the draft timber 
by %-in. bolts as being the cause of present failures of draft 
gear. While it is a fact that a large number of cars now in 
service are equipped with some such draft gear, I believe the 
majority of these cars are already out of service or at least 
assigned to certain districts where they are not handled in 
the fast freight trains with the more modern car, and while 
it may appear that there are large numbers of them, I think 
the majority of them are short cars and cars of light capacity, 
in which case I do not think the owners consider them of suffi- 
cient value to rebuild and equip with the modern style of draft 
gear, and instead they are using them in local service with a 
view of destroying them when no longer suitable for such 
service. Again, the committee "unanimously condemns the vari- 
ous kinds of continuous draft rigging." I surely do not agree 
with the committee on that. I do not think we should condemn 
all forms of continuous draft gear. I agree with the commit- 
tee as far as the long single or cheek casting is concerned. On 
the other hand I believe that the proper kind of a continuous 
draft gear is most desirable is the most practical in use at the 
present time. We use a draft gear which has a continuous 
pull and continuous buffing, so arranged that the pulling strain 
and buffing strain is taken care of. I want to emphasize no 
shearing effect. When I was at the works of the American Car 
& Foundry Co. about a year ago I was discussing the ques- 
tion of draft gear with the superintendent, and he called 
my attention to a car they had in their shops for repairs. 
The car, it was acknowledged, had been in service for 
about three years and on taking down the draft rigging found 
that the holes in the center sills were exactly as round as the 
day they were bored. I think that speaks very highly for the 
continuous draft gear, otherwise with the old style where the 
pulling out of bolts and center sills in which the bolt holes 
elongate to a considerable extent. The continuous draft gear 
I have referred to is where the rod runs from the draft key. 
Under the head of remedies they recommend the use of long 
draft timbers. I want to call attention to the report made 
to this association last year on this same subject by a part of 
this same committee, in which they condemned the long draft 
timber. There is no question in my mind that the long draft 
timber is better, so far as the draft timber itself is concerned, 
but if you use it you do it at the expense of destroying the 
efficiency of your body bolster and I would call attention to the 
remarks of Mr. Lamont in presenting (his subject recently before 
the Club. Mr. Lainonl in speaking of this subject, to]) of page 
.'!, if any of you have that report, lie says,— "Long before the 
strain has reached this point, however, the plates have deflected, 
til-' side bearings. We do not hesitate to say, that under the 

conditions imposed, in a case like this, it is a practical impossi- 
bility to design a bolster that will, for any length of time, carry 
the car free of its side bearings. To safely carry the load in this 
case, and allowing a working strain of 14,000 pounds per square 
inch, would require a bottom plate of 12x2% inches cross section; 
but a plate of this size alone, nine feet long, would weigh 900 
pounds, and the total weight of a bolster, with such a plate, 
would probably be 1,200 to 1,500 pounds. The difficulty and ex- 
pense of manufacturing such a bolster is evident." 

The committee also recommends the use of tandem springs. 
They give as their reason for this the spacing of the center 
sills. I want to call attention to the fact that the center 
sills can be used closer with the twin springs than 
can be done with the tandem. I also think the twin 
spring is preferable on account of the inspection, which is 
made easier and the fact that with the twin spring you can 
use the standard M. C. B. length of pocket and requires less 
labor to change the spring or draw bar with the twin spring 
as against the tandem springs. I might say that I coincide, 
with the committee on the points that I have not mentioned. 
They have stated that this report is made up without any re- 
gard to the effectiveness and style of draft gear now in service. 
I will have to confess that in my remarks I have not been 
so modest but have spoken from actual results obtained by 
using the form of draft timber that I have recommended. I 
think, however, that this subject is of greater importance than 
any other that might be brought up in this association, and I 
would like, if I am in order, I do not know that this report 
has been disposed of, but if I am in order I would like to make 
a motion that the report be accepted and that the committee 
be continued, if the president thinks it advisable, and instructed 
to continue its work and broaden the scope and take in the 
various kinds of draft gear now in service. I do not think that 
we should confine ourselves wholly to the old style, — what we 
call "cheek casting" draft gear. They are going out of existence 
with the short and light capacity cars which we know are rele- 
gated to the dump, but I think we should direct our attention 
also to the form of draft gear being used in new construction. 
That is the car that is going to cause trouble in the future. 

Pres. Grieb: I think we have touched the right load of hay 
in calling upon Mr. Sharp tonight to open the discussion. I 
hope that everybody has come so thoroughly prepared, and will 
take such an active part in the discussion as Mr. Sharp has. 
Regarding his suggestion or motion that this committee be con- 
tinued and asked to exploit the subject still further In the 
direction of a really modern draft rigging, it occurs to me that 
this would be asking a trifle too much from the committee on 
account of the good report and heavy work they have put in 
on it, and while I approve Mr. Sharp's suggestion and think 
it is a very good one, to still further exploit the subject, I 
think it is possibly best to assign this work to another com- 
mittee, and if that is agreeable to Mr. Sharp we will place it 
in the hands of Mr. Bates to bring before the association at as 
early a date as he can arrange among the subjects he now has 
and I will appoint the committee. 

Mr. Sharp: My making that suggestion, I did it after con- 
sulting the chairman of the committee, and knowing that the 
report had not been disposed of. I did it in all kindness and 
consideration for their report, and appreciate the fact that the 
committee liad hold of a very hard problem, and I would sug- 
gest, although I do not want to be arbritrary, that perhaps this 
committee, or the chairman, at least, would be more capable of 
handling the report from now on, having had charge of it and 
having this information all at his command and the source of 
it, and I would like to see it continued, and I believe we can 
afford to impose on our worthy past president to this extent. 

Mr. Morris (C. M. & St. P.): I think that Mr. Sharp has 
drawn on his imagination a little bit when he said he had the 
sanction of the chairman of the committee for the continuation 
of it. I think that the committee that drew up this report have 
put in about as many evenings as the association has the right 
to exepct of them just at present, and if anything further is 
done I think somebody else ought to be allowed to have a chance 
at it. I am perfectly willing they should. 

Mr. Marsh (C. N. Y. & B.): I feel in duty bound to do 
what I can for the association, at the same time I am willing 
to step aside and let some one else take it up and perhaps do 
better at it than we did. 

Mr. Morris: In regard to what Mr. Sharp has said 'about 
taking up the matter of new construction. I do not believe that 
any committee that can bo appointed from this association would 

March, 1902. 



road Gazette. It was just a sort of a general statement that 
be qualified to go into that matter and bring about satisfactory 
results. There are many different devices on the market at 
present. Some of them probably are very good ones that have 
not been thoroughly tested up to the present time, and also 
in view of the fact that the Master Car Builders' Association 
has a committee out now working with the idea of demon- 
strating which draft rigging would give the best service, I think 
we ought to let it remain as it is. They are certainly in a 
position to get the best results and any report that any com- 
mittee could make from this association could be hardly satis- 
factory in any way, although of course the association may have 
a different opinion in regard to that matter. 

Mr. La Rue (C. R. I. & P.): I move you that the report be 
received and the committee discharged. 

Mr. Evans (B. & O.): I read the report of the committee, 
also listened to Mr. Morris' delivery of it at the association, 
with a great deal of interest. I did not bring the report with 
me this evening, consequently I am not in a position to give 
it a thorough discussion. As I understood, the object of the 
committee was to make suggestions with reference to draft 
rigging already in service, rather than designing draft gears for 
new cars. Of course even in complying with those instruc- 
tions it was necessary to meet the conditions that exist on ac- 
count of the increased capacity of our locomotives and heavier 
equipment that is hndled in connection with cars already in 
service that have the weaker draft' rigging. I concur in the 
recommendations of the committee that the capacity of cars 
used now will almost require a continuous draft rigging, as 
wooden sills seem to be entirely inadequate to stand the strain 
that is necessary in handling cars in the amount of tonnage 
now handled with our large locomotives. I have seen a state- 
ment where the cost of repairs to draft gear amounted to 75 
per cent, of the total cost of repairs on cars. I am not pre- 
pared to verify this statement, but" if there is any truth in it 
it would appear to me that this committee has a most import- 
ant work to perform in connection with this association. I do 
not quite concur in what Mr. Morris has said in regard to the 
ability of the personnel of this association. Quite a number 
of our members, I have no doubt, have had to do with the 
designing of new cars and it is possible for this committee, if 
continued, and different members give their attention to the 
matter, it would possibly result in the recommendation of as 
creditable a draft rigging as has yet been devised. As I said 
before, I think the efforts in regard to draft gear shoidd be 
made toward the continuous draft rigging and that particular 
attention will have to be given to the buffing strains. I have 
seen a statement where, I think on the Erie Railroad, they 
had a test car that would register 78,000 lbs., and this did not 
begin to register the buffing strains against the draft rigging. 
My experience is that draft rigging, as a general thing, does 
not fail, on account of the tension from the draw bar pull of 
the engine. The draft rigging is first injured and damaged by 
the buffing strain, which is on account of the very common 
practice now in vogue in switching cars, to leave them run. 
This has been increased very largely on account of the auto- 
matic coupler. Formerly it was necessary for the switchmen 
to. go in between the cars to couple with the link-and-pin and 
all concerned were very careful that the cars came together 
easily to avoid taking the switchman's hands off; so it seems 
to me, in designing draft rigging, or in improving draft rigging 
already in service this is the most important thing to look after. 
That fact is also borne out by the large number of couplers 
and knuckles that it is necessary to replace. I have seen a 
statement where on the New York Central they replace every 
month 2000 couplers and 500 knuckles. A very trifling mental 
calculation will show the amount of money involved in that 
transaction on a road like the New York Central. 

Mr. Parker (S. R. L.): In connection with what Mr. Evans 
just said about a 70,000 lbs. testing machine not even beginning 
to register the force exerted in buffing, it might prove interest- 
ing to consider this matter from a theoretical standpoint. We 
know that the momentum, or force necessary to bring to rest in 
one second a body in motion, is equal to the product of mass, 
times the velocity, or: 

Weight x velocity in feet per second 

Momentum = 

Acceleration due to gravity = 32.2 ft. 

Assuming 500 tons as the weight of a train of cars moving 
with a velocity of two miles per hour or 2.93 feet per second, 
and further assuming that this weight at the speed mentioned 

and the further strain is relieved by the cars coming to rest on 
is pushed against a train of cars of equal or greater weight, 
or against cars backed up by a bumping post, the force would 
be equal to 91,000 exerted during one second. In this con- 
nection it should be remembered that trains, as made up to- 
day, weigh 1000 tons and over and that switching is quite 
frequently done at a greater speed than that mentioned. 

It is evident that this immense possible buffing stress can not 
be taken care of by the coupler and associated parts, without 
assistance from deadwood. The M. C. B. draw gear is so de- 
signed that after the spring capacity, 18,000 lbs., is exhausted 
the balance of the stress is transmitted to deadwood by means 
of horn on coupler, also by two buffer blocks. Regarding these 
latter, I heard the other day a remark attributed to Mr. Schroyer: 
"When old style link and pin couplers were used and it was 
really dangerous to have cars provided with buffer blocks (we 
called them 'mankillers' in those days), then most cars were so 
equipped. When the adoption of M. C. B. automatic couplers 
made the use of buffer blocks perfectly safe, railroads imme- 
diately began to abandon them." There can be no doubt about 
the necessity and advantage of buffer blocks, and it is clearly 
evident how totally inadequate is the small plate about 3x1 
inch frequently used on deadwood, without buffer blocks, to re- 
sist the buffing stress. With a view of finding the weakest 
part of the M. C. B. draw gear, I looked into the resisting 
power of the various parts the other day, and was really sur- 
prised to find how strong this arrangement is, considering it 
being so little used. In fact, while attachment to the draw- 
timbers are called upon to resist a compression of only 18,000 
lbs. (the capacity of the springs) the combined resisting power 
is greater than that of many modern devices using double 
springs. This is all the more surprising when we bear in mind 
that a double spring arrangement transmits double the force 
to draft attachments. We must not lose sight of the fact that 
while two independent drawings are used in connection with 
M. C. B. drawgear these lugs are connected by means of the 
follower guide and carry irons. The compression stress im- 
posed on M. C. B. drawgear attachment is amply provided for 
without depending upon resistance to bearing of bolts, but 
continuous buffing sills, commonly called sub sills, are a neces- 
sity. Regarding resistance to pulling: the drawbar pull would 
probably not exceed 24,000 lbs. under ordinary working condi- 
tions, although locomotives are being built to-day capable of 
exerting a drawbar pull of 35,000 lbs. To resist this pull the 
M. G. B. drawgear is not as strong as might be desired. In 
the first place the spring capacity is only 18,000 lbs., and, sec- 
ondly, the method of attaching draw timbers is weak. While 
the resistance offered by keys, also by shoulders against dead- 
wood, would be quite sufficient for drawgear designed for 
18,000 lbs. pull, it is not sufficient for modern requirements. 
In figuring total resistance it is not safe to rely on the resist- 
ance to bearing of bolts securing timbers to sills, as the bolts 
will in a comparatively short time crush the fibres of the wood 
thus making bolt holes oblong, allowing bolts to move forth and 
back, which soon breaks them off. From what I have mentioned 
it would appear that a necessity exists for increasing the resist- 
ance to pulling and the best way I know of accomplishing this 
is by providing continuous tie rods. 

Mr. Harvey (C. B. & Q.): I wish to say in relation to what 
Mr N Sharp said about the continuous draft rigging, the idea in 
the minds of the committee was to condemn the draft rigging 
that consists of single or double draft rods. I believe that the 
report recommends one form of continuous rigging, or sill 
strengthened, rods running from the end sill to the transom. 
The idea was to condemn the single continuous rod and the 
American side rod. Another thing is that a great many single 
side or cheek castings are still being used. I do not think 
Mr. Sharp has been around our railroad yards lately, or he 
would not say they were almost out of use, as we see compara- 
tively new cars that have single side castings and there are 
hundreds and hundreds of cars in service to-day that go in 
our fastest merchandise trains, with single side castings and 
%-inch bolts. 

Mr. Sharp: I would like to ask Mr. Evans to give us a little 
more information he started out on there. I believe I under- 
stood him to say that he had seen a report where 75 per cent, of 
the cost of car maintenance per annum was for the draft gear. 
Would he mind stating to us whether that was a statistical 
report for a railroad system or one division. 

Mr. Evans: I am not in a position to carry that out -any 
further. I think it was a general statement seen in the Rail- 



March, 1902. 

I took to be compiled by some person who was sufficiently fa- 
miliar with the cost of repairs on freight cars in general to 
make that assertion and I have simply stated it here for what it 
is worth. If it is anything like the truth it would appear to 
me that 75 per cent, of the cost of keeping up the cars is 
worth going after. 

Mr. Sharp: The reason I asked that question is that it seems 
to me like an enormous amount. I do not know what railroad 
that was taken from or what the cost of maintenance of cars 
per annum was, but in going over statistical reports that I have 
been able to get hold of, the cost of maintenance of the various 
lines was recommended by the Inter-State Commerce Commis- 
sion at $50 per car. Take 75 per cent, of that for the cost of 
repairs to draw gear and it would be a tremendous amount. 

Mr. Bates (C. B. & Q.): We prepared a table of statistics 
some time ago in regard to repairs to freight cars and I believe 
that about 50 per cent, of the cars repaired required repairs 
to the draft rigging. According to that the cost would be 
probably 50 per cent, of the total cost of repairs and I think 
the statement Mr. Evans referred to must be a little exag- 

Mr. Evans: It is quite likely and may be something like that of 
a gentleman who had evidently gone to make a reasearch and 
prepared a paper that was read before one of the Railway Asso- 
ciations some time ago, and in making his calculations in reference 
to the strain that was exerted on the body bolster, he said that 
possibly he might have forgotten to divide by two- at some place 
or other. That may be the case with the authority I have quoted. 
I do not want the association to get the idea that I am in a 
position to make that statement good. But there is no ques- 
tion in my mind but what the repairs to the draft gear on the 
car consist of a very large percentage of the repairs to a freight 
car, and it is possible that Mr. Sharp is not in a position to 
become acquainted with the very large amount of draft gear 
repairs which is necessary on the average railroad repair track, 
for the reason that usually repairs to draft gear forms a com- 
bination for which the railway company has to be responsible. 
Mr. Sharp: In relation to what Mr. Evans has said, I want 
also to emphasize the fact that I am not in a position to see 
the amount of repairs that is required to draft rigging on the 
ordinary railroad repair track, not that my position is so exalted 
that I do not come in contact with this work, but because we 
use a perfect draft gear. I might modify that and say because 
we do not have any cards only our own to repair. I asked those 
questions purely for information. I believe as Mr. Evans does, 
that I venture the assertion that 75 per cent, of the bad order 
cars that come to the repair track ordinarily are for some re- 
pairs to the draft rigging. At least that was my experience 
a few years ago when I was connected with the railroad. That 
may be reduced from the fact that with the more modern cars 
more modern draft rigging is put in service every day. I had 
occasion last year for the benefit of the committee appointed 
by the Master Car Builders' Association to draft report on this 
same subject, to reply to some questions they asked in their 
circular, one of which was the average cost of maintenance, 
and we found that the average cost of maintenance of the 
M. C. B. form of draft gear was something like $4.50 per car 
per annum. 

Mr. Marsh: I might emphasize the remarks made by Mr. 
Harvey in regard to the continuous draft rigging. It was the 
intention of the committee particularly to condemn the use of 
the two common forms of continuous draft rigging, the single 
rod and the double rod. We all favored the compression tim- 
bers with double rods either running from the end sill through 
the body bolster, or running from the draft arm to the cross 
tie and two cross ties at the key. We were somewhat limited 
in every way to work on new cars, simply looking into the 
condition of the old cars as we found them. 

Mr. Morris: I am very sorry if I hurt the feelings of any 
member of the association by reflecting on their ability, and 
.perhaps it would soothe them somewhat if I modified that and 
said that they have not the facilities for making an examina- 
tion of the various new styles of draft rigging that perhaps 
we should have in order to make a proper report. The figures 
that we got from some of the Master Car Builders' publica- 
tions showed, I think, that as the report read, something like a 
million and a half of cars were reported by the members of 
that association. Now certainly a very large proportion of 
those cars are of the old style construction and we thought 
if we could say anything or recommend anything in the way 

of making improvements to those cars it would be achieving 
the object we started out to accomplish. So far as continuous 
rods are concerned, Mr. Harvey and Mr. Marsh have both ex- 
plained what we meant by continuous rods, that they were 
not of the other designs that we all realize certainly have a 
good many points to recommend them. I will say, however, 
that in view of the fact that the members of the association 
have not responded very liberally in the matter of the discus- 
sion, the reflection which they think I was casting upon them 
gave certain grounds for my remarks and perhaps if a new 
committee was appointed with the idea of going into the question 
further, it would perhaps bring out further information and 
do a great deal of good. 

Pres. Grieb: This brings us to the second number of our 
program, which is an interchange case in dispute, as follows: 

Case in dispute: A car is delivered home to private line owner 
in the following condition: 

One Miner draft spring missing. 

Two follower plates missing. 

One deadwood damaged. 

Two draft timbers damaged, all B end. 

Car carried connecting line M. C. B. repair card, showing they 
made repairs and the missing parts were left out; using a com- 
mon yoke in place. A makes request on B for M. C. B. defect 
card on account of missing material. B declines to furnish 
card and argues that joint evidence card will cover, which the 
car owner will not accept. -B also argues that Arbitration Case 
394 will apply, as in this case car carried repair card and ac- 
cording to the rules the owner should look to that line for re- 
dress. Should defect card be issued against delivering line, or 
joint evidence card be accepted. 

Mr. Stimson (S. E. L.): After having carefully read the case, 
as it has been presented to us, it does not appear to me as 
though sufficient information had been furnished to enable this 
association to reach a satisfactory conclusion. As you doubtless 
know there are at least two different styles of the Miner Draft 
Rigging, one of which provides for the M. C. B. Standard draw- 
bar pocket, in which is encased a front or leading spring, with 
the usual follower plates.. Immediately back of this is an- 
other spring with follower plates; this style makes use of but 
one spring in pulling, and two springs in buffing. This case, as 
presented to us, does not show which design of the Miner Draft 
Gear is referred to, but I should infer that it refers to the 
old type of Miner draft rigging, such as I have just men- 
tioned. If my understanding is correct, it would appear to be 
a clear case of a car being delivered to its owner with missing 
material:— viz, that the spring and follower plates, which were 
a necessary part of the original design, were missing, in which 
case the M. C. B. Rules provide that a defect card should be 
issued as requested. On the other hand, if the present type 
of the Miner Draft Rigging is referred to, it is clearly evident 
that the spring was omitted by the party making repairs. The 
question of damaged draft timbers is not to be considered, in 
my judgment, in connecton with the missing followers and 
missing spring, except to magnify the possibility that the rear 
spring and follower were lost after repairs had been properly 

Pres. Grieb: If either parties interested in this case are 
present, it might be well to get a little more information on 
the condition and concerning what particular type of Miner 
Rigging is referred to in the question. 

Mr. Bates: I am sorry to say none' of the parties who are 
interested in this case are present this evening. This is a case 
that was sent here from So. St. Joseph, Mo., and as I under- 
stand the matter there was a third party concerned, and it was 
the third party who made the repairs, and left out the spring 
and followers. The case as presented states: "Car carried con- 
necting line M. C. B. repair card showing they made repairs 
and the missing parts were left out; using a common yoke in 
place." I would infer therefore that the Miner yoke was not 
used but that a common yoke was substituted, and if that is 
the case I certainly would not give a defeat card, if I were in 
B's position. Joint evidence is all that I would give, at least 
that is all I would give until the owner took the matter up 
with this third party and ascertained whether he actually did 
leave out these parts. If it was proved that the parts were not 
left out then I think B should furnish card for the missing 

Pres. Grieb: Here is a statement of the case which says 
"repair card showing they made repairs and the missing parts 
left out." Have you any information as to how this repair card 

March, 1902. 



read to indicate that the missing parts were left out? 

Mr. Bates: No, sir., 

Pres. Grieb: Can we further consider the question in view of 
the fact that we have not absolute necessary data, except from 
a hypothetical standpoint,— imagine we know what the case im- 
plies and still we do not. 

Mr. Morris: I believe the gentleman who presented this 
question has always taken a great deal of interest in this asso- 
ciation and I believe we should do all we possibly can to favor 
him with any points that we might have to offer on the ques- 
tion, and in view of this I would make the motion that the 
question be referred back to him for further information, and 
brought before the association afterwards and discussed. 

Pres. Grieb: Will Mr. Morris kindly indicate what informa- 
tion he will desre, and will Mr. Bates kindly correspond with 
the gentleman with a view of procuring it. 

Mr. Morris: I referred to the point brought up by Mr. Stim- 
son. I think it would be well, also, to get the repair card, or a 
copy of it, which would show what basis there is for the state- 
ment it showed that the missing parts were left out. 

Mr. Evans: It occurs to me that this subject has been very 
well stated from the fact that he says "using a common yoke 
in place." It is well known that both style of draft rigging 
yoke has a hole through the rear of the yoke. That being the 
case, I think this can be very well considered as being the 
common type of M. C. B. yoke without the hole for the bolt 
for the tandem spring, in which case it would appear to me 
to be conclusive evidence that the party who made out the 
repair card was responsible for the wrong repairs and the 
missing material and the only thing delivering road could do 
would be to give joint evidence. I can hardly see the necessity 
of referring this back to the gentleman, as no doubt it has 
been delayed already some time and the association can well 
go on record of disposing of it tonight. 

Mr. Stimson: No doubt the members present are as famil- 
iar with the construction of the different Miner Draw Gears 
as I am, but it seems very clear to me, that if the pocket re- 
ferred to had no hole in the rear end, the spring and followers 
were not applied, when repairs were made. On the other hand, 
if the necessary hole was in the rear end of the pocket, it would 
appear to be satisfactory evidence that they had been applied. 
I think it very important, whether or not the so called "Com- 
mon" pocket had a hole in the rear end permitting of the proper 
application of the Miner Draw Gear in accordance with the 
orgiinal construction. 

Mr. Sharp: As I read this case, as submitted in our pro- 
gram this evening, I cannot see the necessity of asking that 
question, and if it is referred .back to the party submitting 
ths subjeict for decision, I would suggest that the secretary 
send him a copy of the minutes of this evening, although they 
would not appear in our regular minutes, for the fact that 
he states here that the car carried connecting line M. C. B. 
repair card, showing they made repairs and the missing parts 
were left out. We have all this information before us and it 
seems to me we are in a position tonight to decide this case. 
It is very clear who is responsible. Further down it cites an 
arbitration case which, under the crcumstanices, I do not think 
has any bearing on the case whatsoever. Arbitration Case 394 
refers to a case of improper repairs where no M. C. B. repair 
card was applied, where in this case we have the repair card 
of the party making wrong repairs, and the gentlemen submit- 
ting the case states the evidence was they left the material out. 
I should say it is a case of improper repairs. 

Mr. Bates: I think the reason that he refers to Arbitration 
Case 394 is because the Arbitration Committee said "had there 
been a repair card on the car the delivering line would not have 
been responsible." I believe as Mr. .Sharp says, that we have 
all the information we need right here. He says their repair 
card shops those parts left out and a common yoke used in 
place and I do not see why we want to refer the case back 
for further information. 

Mr. Cardwell (A. C. C, O. Co.): The repair card showed that 
a common yoke was applied. With the present style of Miner 
draft rigging, in applying a common yoke in place of the Miner 
yoke it is necessary to leave out one spring and two followers 
and certainly it can be inferred fom the repair card that they 
left the parts out, as it states a common yoke was applied. 

Mr. Bates : I notice that it says "two follower plates miss- 
ing." The new design of the Miner draft rigging has four fol- 
lower plates and according to the reading of this case it must 

have been one of the late styles, and that makes the case all the 
clearer, it seems to me. 

Mr. Sharp: I would make the motion that it is the sense of 
this meeting that joint evidence card is all that B is required 
to furnish; that it is a case of wrong repairs. 

Mr. Stimson: I would like to amend that motion to read 
"That it is the sense of this meeting that the case cannot be 
decided upon the evidence that has been presented." Seconded. 

Mr. Stimson: In voting upon this amendment, I hope that 
the members will consider that there are two distinct types of 
Miner attachment: — the Miner attachment as applied with a 
common yoke, such as referred to here, and the present standard 
Miner attachment applied with the long yoke. I do not know 
whose case this is, but the company I represent have in their 
equipment cars equipped with both styles of Miner attachment. 
This case would be clear if we know which style of Miner at- 
tachment was referred to. 

Mr. Bates: I think the fact that there were two follower 
plates missing makes it very safe to assume that the new style 
of Miner draft rigging is referred to. 

Mr. Sharp: I do not fully understand what difference it 
makes which style of Miner draft gear it was. The case is 
as stated here, — "A car is delivered home to private line owner 
in the following condition: One Miner draft spring missing, two 
follower plates missing, one deadwood damaged, two draft tim- 
bers damaged, all B end. Car carried connecting line M. C. B. 
repair card showing they made repairs and the missing parts 
were left out; using a common yoke in place. A makes request 
on B for M. C. B. defect card on account of missing material. 
B declines to furnish card and argues that joint evidence 
card will cover, which car owner will not accept. B also argues 
that Arbitration Case 394 will apply, as in this case car carried 
repair card and according to the rules the owner should look to 
that line for redress." Now, then, it goes on and asks the 
question he wants us to decide here tonight, which is, — "Should 
defect card be issued against delivering line, or joint evidence 
card be accepted?" Now, as I understand the question at is- 
sue, what he wants us to decide is whether or not M. C. B. 
defect card should be issued by the delivering line. As I read 
this case there are three parties interested. First the car owner, 
A; second the delivering line, B; and third the party not men- 
tioned, who made improper repairs, and I assume it is acknowl- 
edged by both parties in the dispute that this third party made 
repairs, which he has acknowledged by placing his repair card 
on the car. The question, then, at the delivering point is 
whether or not B as the delivering line, should issue defect 
card or furnish joint evidence. If, however, the association feels 
that should have more information on this question I will be 
glad to withdraw my motion. 

Mr. Jones (B. & O.): I believe this case can be settled now. 
If the material was missing he should furnish defect card for it. 

Mr. Evans: Even though they used the regular Miner draft 
yoke it would appear to me it would be nessary for the owner 
to go back to the party who issued the repair card and have 
him state conclusively that he made proper repairs, then it 
would be necessary for the delivery company to issue defect card. 
The same condition can exist on any Miner draft rigging that 
is returned home with the second spring missing. It is possi- 
ble that is really the point that this party desires to have de- 
cided, but I think it would be necessary for the party making 
repairs to show conclusively that they made proper repairs 
before the delivering company would be justified in issuing defect 
card for missing material. 

Mr. Stimson: This is a very important matter and should not 
be decided by us without careful consideration of the conditions 
l'n connection with the different designs of this particular draft 
rigging. The company which I represent have a number of cars 
equipped in the same manner as I understand this case to rep- 
resent, and we have never yet been refused a defect card when 
one of those cars was delivered to us with missing spring and 
followers, whether there was a repair card on the car or not. 
If it was clear on its face that this material was omitted, as 
has been stated, there people would not submit this case for 
us for discussion. It is a question of whether this is missing 
material or improper repairs. If it is missing material we can- 
not go on record, that joint evdence card is all that is neces- 
sary. It is not proper or right for us to decide a case like this 
without having more evidence as to the condition of the car, 
when it was delivered home. Would it not be unreasonable to 
suppose that the owner would ask for defect card for missing 
material, if there was no hole in the rear end of the draw bar 



March, 1902. 

pocket, because it would be evident on the face of it that the 
missing parts were never applied. 

Pres. Grieb: Will you kindly let me know what you under- 
stand by the term "common yoke"? 

Mr. Stimson: The Master Car Builders' yoke, whether it had 
a hole in the rear end of it or not. You will find many people 
manufacturing M. C. B. yokes today who do not bend them 
until they have first punched a hole in the center to hold them 
central while bending, consequently by a "common" yoke I infer 
is meant a yoke 11 inches long with two holes to rivet it to 
the draw bar, and may not have a hole in the rear. 

Mr. Marsh: Iu reading this case over it says, — "One Miner 
draft spring missing; two follower plates missing." Then it 
goes on and says, — "Oar carried connecting line M. C. B. repair 
card showing they made repairs and the missing parts were left 
out; using a common yoke in place." By "common yoke" I 
take it that it refers to a single pocket. All Miner draft riggings 
have a double pocket. The hole that Mr. Stimson speaks of 
being in the rear of the pocket, as I understand, he means the 
hole in the center of the pocket where the thimble goes through. 
These people admit using a common yoke, viz., a single pocket. 
When they did that they must have left out two followers and 
one spring, therefore they made wrong repairs. They left out 
those parts because they did not use a double pocket, and 
acknowledge it by saying they used a common yoke in place. 
I believe, the party making repairs is responsible and a joint 
evidence is all that is required of B. 

Mr. Stimson: This is the point I wish to make clear. Mr. 
Marsh has taken it for granted that there is only one style of 
Miner Draft Gear. 

Mr. Bates: I do not agree with Mr. Stimson concerning the 
number of follower plates in the old style Miner draft rigging. 
The old style Miner draft rigging requires three follower plates 
while the back end of the pocket acts as a follower plate for 
buffing. In the case under discussion there were two follower 
plates missing, showing that it was one of the improved Miner 
draft rigging. 

Pres. Grieb: In view of the explanation made by Mr. Bates 
would not you consent to withdraw your amendment to that 

Mr. Stimson: No, sir. With all due respect I feel convinced 
that the position I have taken is correct. 

Mr. Harvey: The question is clearly stated here. We cannot 
go back of the way it is stated and it distinctly says these miss- 
ing parts were left out. The only way to dispose of it is to 
put the amendment and vote it down and then vote on the 

Mr. Stimson's amendment was put and lost. 

Mr. Sharp's motion was put and carried. 

Pres. Grieb: Item No. 3 on the program is intended as a 
"filler in," and as it is getting rather late I think we will pro- 
ceed directly to No. 4 — Report of committee appointed to for- 
mulate a list of questions for the examination of candidates for 
Car Inspectors. 

Report of the Committee Appoinnted by the Car Foremen's 
Association of Chicago to Prepare and Present for 
Adoption a Code of Rules for the Examination of Appli- 
cants for the Position of Car Inspector. 

To the President and Members of the Car Foremen's Associa- 
tion: — Your committee, appointed to prepare a code of rules for 
the examination of car inspectors, beg to report as follows: 

Circulars of inquiry were sent out and numerous replies were 
received. Your committee, at its final meeting, held Feb. 5th, 
considered each one of these suggestions, and while there were 
a number of them which would seem to be very important, yet 
it was the intention of your committee to frame a set of rules 
that would harmonize, in every respect, with the present Master 
Car Builders' Rules of Interchange. Some of the suggestions 
previously referred to, which pertain to the loading of long 
material, the loading of cars above their marked capacity, and 
others of equal importance, were considered by your committee, 
as being taken care of by the Master Car Builders' recommended 
practice, and by special rules in effect with each railroad com- 
pany. We also believe that this code of rules should be made 
brief, and have, therefore, limited our recommendations, which 
are as follows: 

All applicants for position as car inspector must be in good 
physical condition, possessing normal vision, perfect color sense, 
and hearing, and not over 45 years of age, and must be able to 
read and write a good plain hand. It would also be advisable 
to give preference to men who have had three or more years' 
experience as car repairers: 

1— What are the M. C. B. Rules? 

2^-What other rules, if any, govern the car inspector? 

3 — What attention should be given to foreign cars? 

4 — On what grounds can a car be refused at interchange points? 

5 — What defects condemn a wheel? 

6 — What wheel defects are chargeable to delivering Company? 

7 — Is there any difference in the amount of wear permissible? 
on the wheel flanges upon cars of different capacity. 

8— What is the maximum thickness of a wheel flange? 

9 — What defects condemn an axle? 

10 — What are the minimum sizes of axles and journals for dif- 
ferent capacity cars? 

11 — Under what condition are truck repairs chargeable to 

12 — Under what conditions are brake repairs chargeable to 
owners ? 

13 — How long should a car be permitted to run without clean- 
ing and oiling the triple valve and brake cylinder, and how 
should last cleaning be indicated? 

14 — Name some of the defects which would justify cutting out 
the air brakes. 

15 — Under what conditions are repairs to body of cars charge- 
able to owner? 

16 — What are the standard maximum and minimum height for 

17 — Is there any standard location and fastening for grab irons 
and ladders? 

18 — What class of wrong repairs are chargeable to delivering 
company, and under what conditions? 

19 — Do you know of any combination of defects which would 
indicate rough usage? 

20 — What distinction is there between railroad companies and 
switching line in regard to responsibility for damage? 

Signed: G. M. Bates, Chairman. W. B. Sharp, E. R. Camp- 
bell, M. P. Schmidt, H. LaRue, F. Baker. 

Mr. Cardwell: The report seems very complete, and I think it 
would be very wise to let it be printed and studied over before 
discussing it, because there may be other questions which may 
come up that we would like to have incorporated in the report. 

Mr. Morris: I move you that the report be held over and dis- 
cussed at our next meeting. Carried. 

Mr. Evans: In view of the fact that we have a committee ap- 
pointed to recommend changes in the M. 0. B. rules, I would 
consider it advisable to dispense with the discussion of Rules 1, 2 
and 3 this evening. It was also suggested that it would be very 
important that our recommendations in regard to the M. C. B. 
rules be formulated before the April meeting, and it has been 
suggested that the committee will present its report at the next 
meeting, and there would hardly be sufficient time and oppor- 
tunity to give their report a thorough discussion from the fact, 
principally, that we expect to take up all the time at the next 
meeting on the report of Repair Track Facilities and Appliances, 
and it was suggested that it would be well to have a special 
meeting -for the discussion and consideration of such changes as 
this association desires to make in the M. C. B. rules. My 
understanding is that we have the privilege of this room the 
second and fourth Wednesdays in the month; that would bring 
the meeting for the discussion of the report of the committee 
two weeks from the next meeting. 

Mr. Stimson: I move you that the report of the Committee on 
Revision of M. C. B. Rules be received at our next meeting, 
printed and distributed among the members, and be discussed at 
a special meeting two weeks following, unless it should be found 
that there will be ample time without the special meeting. 

President Grieb: It is not necessary to get these recommenda- 
tions in the hands of the M. C. B. Association until about the 
20th of April, and as our April meeting will come on the 9th I 
think it will give us ample time to discuss the report at the reg- 
ular meeting. Meeting adjourned. 

April, 1902. 



Established 1878. 


Bruce V. Crandall Company, Publishers 
William E-- Lewis, : : : : : : Manager 

Office of Publication, Rooms 501 and 502 The Plymouth Bldg., 
305 Dearborn Street. 

A Monthly Railway Journal. 

Devoted to the interests of railway motive power, car equip- 
ment, shops, machinery and supplies. 

Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are 

Subscription price $1.00 a year, to foreign countries $1.50, 
free of postage. Single copies 10 cents. Advertising rates 
given on application to the office, by mail or in person. 

In remitting make all checks payable to the Bruce V. Crandall 

growth and added interest on the part of railway men 
in various organizations of this character. The Rail- 
way Master Mechanic has for some years published 
the proceedings of the Car Foremen's Association of 
Chicago and has always maintained that such organi- 
zations work for better, more efficient, more success- 
ful, and more economical railway service. The Rail- 
way Master Mechanic recently became the official or- 
gan of the Master Car and Locomotive Painters' As- 
sociation, and a month later began the publication of 
the proceedings of the Cleveland Car Foremen's As- 
sociation. With this issue we take great pleasure in 
introducing to our readers a very recent organization, 
the Car Foremen's Association of Scranton, of which 
Mr. L. T. Canfield, master car builder of the Delaware, 
Lackawanna & Western Railroad, is president. The 
report of the proceedings of this association will here- 
after appear regularly in the Railway Master Me- 
chanic and we wish the Scranton Association all success 
in their new undertaking. 

•» » ♦• 

Vol. XXVI. 


No. 4. 

THAT "time is money" was certainly very clearly 
shown in a recent paper on the Value of Up-to- 
date Tools for Railroad Work fead before the Western 
Railway Club by Mr. M. K. Barnum, master me- 
chanic of the Union Pacific railroad. The paper, 
which we publish in full on another page of this issue, 
proves very clearly that a large amount of money may 
be very easily wasted by the lack of proper shop 
equipment. Perhaps this is an old story, but some old 
stories need to be often repeated in the new and force- 
ful way that Mr. Barnum's paper puts it. 

THE proper maintenance of air brake equipment 
has been so often referred to in these columns, 
and the importance of such matters emphasized, that 
our position in this regard is well understood. We 
would, however, call the attention of our readers to 
• the answer of the question as to whether the operating 
departments do their share in the maintenance of the 
brakes by requiring that all cars hauled with brakes 
cut off, or inoperative, be reported properly and 
promptly. The foregoing question is interestingly an- 
swered by Mr. J. B. Finley, master car repairer of the 
Southern Pacific Railway, in another part of this issue. 

<• ♦ » 


THE third annual convention of the American 
Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way 
Association was held at the Auditorium in Chicago, 
March 18, 19 and 20. The convention was well at- 
tended and great interest was shown in the papers 
presented, as was evidenced by the discussion follow- 
ing the various reports. The exhibits were most in- 
teresting and well displayed. While maintenance oi 
way is not in the field of the Railway Master Me- 
chanic, the growth and usefulness of this organization 
is noted with pleasure, and we wish them every suc- 
cess in their work. 


TO say that the American railroad has made re- 
markable progress in the last twenty years, is 
but to repeat what has been said a great many times. 
To the American railroad man, his perseverance, his 
ingenuity, his untiring energy, we owe our modern 
American railroad. The American railroads owe much 
to such organizations as the Railway Master Me- 
chanics' and Master Car Builders' associations, to the 
Maintenance of Way, to the Bridge and Building and 
to the Roadmasters' associations, and to the various 
railway clubs. The last few years have seen a larger 

THE question box of the Pacific Coast Railway 
Club brought before the recent meeting of the 
club a number of interesting answers to the questions 
as to whether train brakes are sufficiently maintained, 
or can be, to enable an engineer to stop his train with- 
in the range of vision afforded by the ordinary oil 
headlight. This question answered in the negative 
by one of the members probably coincides with the 
views held by most motive power officials. If the oil 
headlight does not meet the requirements of the mod- 
ern passenger service, the natural question is as to 
what does. An answer was given at the same meeting 
to a question regarding the relative merits of various 
kinds of headlights, oil, gas or electric. The answers 
as given are published in another portion of this issue. 

♦ » » 

THE following is a translation of an article which 
appeared in a Gothenburg newspaper of the 
nth instant; it may possibly prove of interest to 
American railroad men : A Swedish invention which 
ought to have a good. future is the system of oiling 
piston rods, cylinders, slide rods, and slide guides on 
locomotives, which has been invented by T. F. Malm- 
ros, of Gothenburg, locomotive engineer on the state 
railroads. ■ Formerly, cylinders and slide guides have, 

1 10 


April, 1902. 

at best, received necessary lubrication from the cen- 
tral steam-lubricating apparatus, but piston rods and 
slide rods with packings have been lubricated by 
means of old-fashioned oil-cups with wick feed, which 
method, for many reasons, has proved unsatisfactory 
— especially when metal packings are used. Mr. 
Malmros, by introducing the intermixed oil and steam, 
coming from the central steam-lubricating apparatus, 
through glander bushings expressly constructed for 
this purpose, has effected a good and economical lu- 
brication of packings and rods, as well as of the cylin- 
ders and slide guides. The system has for five years 
been well tested on one of 
the express engines of the 
state railroads — used for the 
fastest train in Sweden, with 
a speed considerably exceed- 
ing 60 kilometers (37 miles) 
per hour— and with such 
good results that all locomo- 
tives of the state railroads 
will be provided with the 
same. The state railroads 
have also applied the new 
lubricating system to a num- 
ber of old locomotives. Mr. 
Robert S. S. Bergh, consul 
at Gothenburg, Sweden, who 
sends the report, further 
says that he is informed that 
Mr. Malmros has recently 
made improvements in his 
system, which makes it 
worth mentioning even at 
this late date. 

ing to the stipulation, each is warranted to last six 
years or cover seventy-five thousand miles. All the 
wheels are numbered and a careful record kept. When 
they fail to do the work, they are returned to the 
manufacturer, who is compelled to make the loss 


<» » » 

THE Society of German 
Mechanical Engineers, 
influenced by the recent ex- 
periments in electrical rapid 
transit in Berlin, has offered 
first, second and third prizes 
of 5,000, 3,000 and 2,000 
marks respectively for the 
best design for a steam 
locomotive with a single 
car carrying 100 passengers 

THE subject of "Repair Track Facilities and Ap- 
pliances," as presented at the last meeting of 
the Car Foremen's Association of Chicago, was of 
more than passing interest. The investigations of the 
committee were confined to what is known as the re- 
pair tracks, as distin- 
guished from repair shops or 
coach yard facilities. It 
was shown by the com- 
mittee that until recently, 
repair tracks were not 
regarded as requiring any 
special facilities for the 
work to be done, and that 
usually a track originally in- 
tended for regular yard pur- 
poses was given up only 
when absolutely necessary 
for repairing cars. In con- 
nection with their report 
the committee submitted a 
sketch of the general plan of 
a repair yard which they 
would recommend. This 
plan we illustrate on another 
page in this issue. 

Mr. Arthur G. Yates. 


Mr. Yates was born December 18, 1843, at Waverly, 
N. Y. He entered railway service 1890 as president of the 
Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburg Railway, which position 
he now holds. 


writes from Liege, 
February 17, 1902, that the 
business outlook in that 
part of Belgium is much 
brighter, and that there is 
a fine opening for Ameri- 
can goods, especially labor- 
saving machinery. Belgian 
manufacturers are beginning 
to realize that in order 
to successfully meet the 

and their baggage, to run seventy-five miles an hour on a competition of the United States, up-to-date machin- 

straight and level track. The intention is to develop a 
system of frequent service between the large German 
cities at a rate of speed much above the one at present 

•» * » — 

ON the Burlington Railroad system of 8,000 miles, 
over 385,000 wheels are in service under the vari- 
ous passenger, freight and way cars, locomotives and 
other rolling stock. An average of 40,000 wheels are 
purchased each year and they are very carefully in- 
spected, as they are bought with a guarantee. Accord- 

ery is necessary, and in the opinion of the consul there 
is in that country a market for this class of our ex- 
ports. He says that he has recently had many calls 
for addresses of American firms engaged in various 
lines of manufacture, and that he is cognizant of an 
opportunity to furnish tools and machinery for an ex- 
tensive rubber plant, as well as an outfit for a man- 
ufactory of enameled ware, communications in regard 
to which may be addressed to John Gross, rue Che- 
vanfosse 13, Liege. 


Some Suggestions as to Stay Bolt Improvements 

By Mr. W. H. Graves 

WHEN the cold hand of experimental analysis re- "Heat as a mode of Motion." In analyzing the spec- 

duces preconceived theories to an absurd proposi- trum, as the thermo-electric pile advances from the red 

tion, and upsets all previous ideas in relation to to the violet, the temperature falls and as it advances 

practical results, then we must be eager to accept some- to the ultra violet, the needle in the galvometer falls 

thing that will answer problems not only satisfactorily to to zero. But in reversing the pile, as it approaches 

our minds, but also to the object to be attained. the red rays, the temperature rises, and as it advances 

A question of deep import, and one that must be into the ultra red, instead of falling, the temperature 

answered right, as it means much to the mechanical rises in a wonderful manner, proving that the invisible 

department of all railroads, is : "Why is it that fire calorific ray transmits an immense amount of heat and 

boxes that were put in some fourteen or fifteen years when these rays are concentrated and sifted of their 

ago give better service than those that have been ap- radiant rays, the arc is capable of fusing substances 

plied in recent years?" Has the material that enters of a high refractory nature, although on other sub- 

into their construction lost that high standard of ex- stances no power is observed, for when the rays are 

cellence that it formerly possessed, or is it that the passed through a bisulphate of carbon and iodine solu- 

workmanship is not as good as it was some years ago ? tion and brought to a dark focus, a strip of zinc burns 

Let us review the question and ascertain, if possible, with its peculiar purple light, but the eye placed in the 

the ultimate cause of fire box failures. same f °cus suffers no injury. 

When the writer was serving his apprenticeship, it Let us now apply the foregoing theory to our stay 

was customary, in building a fire box, to flange the bolt problem. The writer constructed an apparatus to 

flue and door sheet, bend the side sheets to fit, bolt the observe stay bolt motion under heat, and as it led 

mud ring up in place and, with a block and long him into a great many errors, I will give an idea of its 

punch, mark off the stay bolt holes in the side sheets, construction for the benefit of the student of boiler 

A rather crude way, we will admit, but it guaranteed designs to have as a crude model to improve upon, 
perfect stay bolt holes, fire box all riveted by hand, A 5-16-in. piece of fire box steel with an area cor- 

bolts carefully fitted, and then placed in position with responding to that which one stay bolt supports, was 

a six-inch wrench, bolts carefully driven, and rarely securely anchored to a base flanged from the same raa- 

a stay bolt leaked in a new fire box. It is now a com- terial and a stud placed in the center and also to one 

mon occurrence to see a whole set leaking, just out side of the center, a narrow slot sawed in the end of 

of shop. So much for difference in workmanship. the stud, and a piece of spring steel drawn to a sharp 

As it does not answer the question, it has only a point secured to the stud, and at a distance equal to 

bearing on it. The trouble all lies in the stay bolts that of the water space, a glass plate, blackened, 

themselves. With our more refined methods of laying placed in a vertical position, the sharp point of the 

out work, all holes are put in the fire box in the flat needle in contact with the blackened surface. A flame 

sheets, reducing the time expended in fire box con- from a Bunsen burner was played on the back ot the 

struction one-half, and if the man who is laying out plate, and the motion observed on the glass plate con- 

the fire box thoroughly understands the principles in- sisted of a serrated series of notches, giving the writer 

volved, the holes will all be as accurate as if he put the impression that the motion was one of ascending 

them up and marked them through, but, in a great series, due to the increased heat ; a wrong one, as will 

many cases, stay bolts follow all points of the com- be presently shown, as it did not answer, the stay bolt 

pass, all paths except the direct one, and it is not pos- crystalizing around the circumference and towards the 

sible to have a durable fire box under these conditions, center, usually leaving a space that when the bolt 

We have now investigated two points of view, but was broken down, exhibiting the barking phenomena 
the question is still unanswered. As it is a well known and not in layers, as the experiment would lead one 
fact, no matter how direct stay bolts are put in, they to believe. The writer came to the conclusion that the 
will crystallize in several localities in the same boiler, advance was caused by the difference in expansion of 
and we are troubled with broken stay bolts. The the two plates, the glass being pervious to the radient 
writer has watched this for the last ten years and, rays and not to the invisible ones, causing the steel 
from data collected and observations, has come to the plate to travel upwards and away from the rigid base, 
conclusion that a great many of our stay bolt theories and I believe, if a more refined instrument was con- 
are fallacies. We will investigate a novel theory, structed, so that the advance in both plates would be 
leading us into the deep canon of physics, but answer- graduated so that they would be similar, the impos- 
ing some of the more complex problems in stay bolts, sion would be one of curves, giving the correct rao- 
If permissible I will mention a few fundamental prin- tion of heat vibration in a mass of steel or iron under 
ciples in radiant heat, derived from Prof. Tyndall's tension, and, reasoning from an observed motion, al- 



April, 1902. 

though incorrect, leads one to surmise from analogy 
that it is this heat vibration in bolts under different 
tensions that causes them to crystallize quicker in 
some positions than others and different bolts under 
different tensions may act as our bisulphate and iodine 
solution, although impervious to radient rays, may be 
highly transparent to the slower but more intensely 
hot invisible ones, causing the molecules of the iron 
to respond in unison with them, and resulting in crys- 
talization in a short period, and in summing up we are 
led to the following conclusion : Anything that will re- 
tard that action of crystallization will prolong the life 
of the bolt, care being taken that bolts are perfectly 
in line and applied with the same tension in all parts 
of the box, and some form of bolt used that will be 
so constructed that it will render the fabric of the 
bolt whose period of recurrence would not synchron- 
ize with those of the heat rays passing through. That 

form of bolt would be, I should think, a jacketed one, 
and to close, the writer's only wish is that this article, 
although it may be wholly incorrect in reasoning and 
the conclusions may be fallacies, that it will lead the 
careful student to a correct solution of this difficult 

♦ » » 

Fast Run on the Pennsylvania 

LAST month a special train of an engine and two 
cars, carrying the president of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, was run over that road, from the Broad 
Street Station, Philadelphia, to the terminus at Jersey 
City, 89.76 miles, in one hour and 19 minutes which is 
at the rate of 68.17 miles an hour. This is the best 
time ever made over this line, though a similar run 
the day before was accomplished, in spite of a delay 
due to a hot box, in one hour and 20 minutes, but in 
this run no stops were made. 

•» * » 

New Passenger Locomotive for the Illinois Central Railroad 

THE Baldwin Locomotive Works has just com- 95,710 lbs. is on the driving wheels; it has cylinders 

pleted some locomotives for passenger service 20x28 ins. ; a wagon top type of boiler 66 ins. diam- 

on the Illinois Central railroad. The engraving pub- eter, with a working pressure of 200 lbs. ; a fire box 

lished herewith shows the general appearance of the 102 ins. long and J2 ins. wide; a heating surface 3191.7 

engine. The total weight, including the tender, is sq. ft., of which 3017 sq. ft. is tube, 174.7 sq. ft. fire 

about 318,000 lbs., of the engine 178,600 lbs., of which box surface; grate area of 51 sq. ft. 

Baldwin Locomotive for the Illtnots Central Railroad. 

April, 1902. 



Baldwin Locomotive for the Illinois Central Railroad. 

The Value of Up-to-date Tools for Railroad Work 

A Paper Presented at a Recent Meeting of the Western Railway Club 
By M. K. Barnum, M. M„ Union Pacific R. R, 

HE amount of money that is wasted every- 
day by the lack of "up-to-date" tools is ap- 
preciated by very few railroad officials. 
Even many superintendents of machinery 
and master mechanics do not fully realize 
the saving that can be effected by replacing 
worn out and obsolete machines with oth- 
ers which are strictly "up-to-date" and 
fitted with all the latest improvements. 
If an old machine can be replaced with a new one 
which will do enough more work or do the same work 
with enough less labor to represent a saving in money 
equal to 5 per cent per annum on the investment, it 
should be entitled to careful consideration, as this is 
the basis on which other railroad improvements are 
figured. How easy, then, ought it to be for mechani- 
cal men to obtain approval on a requisition for a ma- 
chine which will save from 10 per cent to over 100 
per cent per annum on the investment. 

A few actual examples of such savings may be 
needed to convince those who have not studied this 
question, or others who have not had the new ma- 
chines to compare with old ones. 

(1) In a railroad shop employing about 160 ma- 
chinists there were no horizontal boring machines for 
such work as boring driving box brasses, rod brasses, 
rocker boxes, air pump cylinders, etc., and all such 
work had to be done in lathes, milling machines or 
drill presses. 

After repeated conferences and much argument, ac- 
companied by estimates of savings that would result, 
permission was obtained to order a No. 2^ horizontal 
boring and drilling machine with 4-inch bar and latest 
attachments. It has been in use about 18 months and 
shows earnings by money saved as follows : 

Original cost of machine installed ready for 

work $1,696.00 

Average savings per year as compared with 

old manner of doing same work 900.00 

Interest on investment 53% 

It formerly required three hours to bore a driving 
box brass for a 9xi2-inch journal in a milling ma- 
chine and about four hours to do the same work in a 
lathe, whereas they are now bored in one hour in the 
horizontal boring machine. Rocker boxes, tumbling- 
shaft boxes, etc., are done in one-half the time for- 
merly used. 

In boring air pump cylinders it was formerly neces- 
sary to take the pump apart and set and bore each 
cylinder separately, requiring from two to three hours 
each. In the new machine it is possible to bore all 
four cylinders of a New York pump at one setting, 
without taking them apart, and requires but an aver- 
age of one hour for each cylinder. In addition to the 
saving in time, much greater accuracy is insured. It 
is very conservative to say that this machine does 
double the work of the old ones, thereby saving the 
wages of one machinist at $3.00 per day for 300 work- 
ing days, or $900.00 per year. 

(2) An old car wheel borer was replaced by a new, 
heavy 42-inch borer with hub-facing attachment, pow- 
er crane for handling wheels, etc., which cost in- 
stalled, $1,710.90. This wheel borer saves the wages 
of one helper three hours a day and does more than 
double the work of the old machine, making a total 
of $2.45 per day, or $735.00 a year, which amounts to 
42^ per cent on the investment. 

(3) A new heavy double head car-axle lathe, cost- 
ing $1,665.00 installed, turns out one-third more work 
than the old one on account of taking a heavier cut 
and heavier feed, thereby saving about $250.00 a year, 
or 15 per cent on the principal. 



April, LQ02. 

A long list of such examples could be given to show 
the increased earning power of machine tools which 
are strictly up-to-date. 

Tools are not up-to-date when there is something 
else on the market which will do more work or do it 
at less cost of labor. They need not necessarily be 
worn out to be wasteful by comparison. - ; 

Most engine lathes of modern design hay6 greater 
power, weight and strength to withstand heavier /cuts 
and coarser feeds than those built. 20 or 25, years ago* 
which enables the former to turn out from 20 to 30" 
per cent more work.' This, represents savings equal 
to from" '15 To" 35 per~ceri"f interest oh the investment" ' 
varying with the cost of the lathe and the class of the 
work for which it is used. 

Recent planers are built 30 to 50 per cent heavier 
than they were 20 years ago, with greater power and 
quicker return, the latter running as high as 72 to 80 
feet per minute as compared with 40 feet or less. for 
the older machines. They are also fitted with three 
or four tool heads, whereas the old planers had only 
one or two at most. This means an increase of 25 to 
50 per cent in the amount of work done, or earnings of 
IO to 25 per cent on the amount expended ior the 

The various types of turret lathes for making bolts, 
studs and pins from bar iron are well adapted to loco- 
motive work and will easily turn out twice or three 
times as much of this class of work as will an ordi- 
nary Old style engine Tathe. Such machines cost 
$1,600.00 to $1,800.00, and make a return of from 50 
to 60 percent in savings. 

The large automatic turret lathes for turning piston 
heads, cylinder packing, bull rings, balanced valve 
rings, etc., will do double the amount of this work 
that an engine lathe will, and the same may be said of 
the latest boring and turning mills. 

Many improvements have been made in drill presses, 
among which may be mentioned easier and quicker 
adjustments of both spindle and work, swiveling 
tables, tapping attachments, multiple spindle drills, va- 
riable speed countershafts, etc., all of which help to 
increase the output. 

Milling machines are great time savers on certain 
classes of work which used to be done : on slotters, 
shapers or planers and are especially economical where 
a large number of duplicate parts are to be made. 
Every tool room ought to have at least one universal 
milling machine and there are various jobs of locomo- 
tive work that can be done to great advantage on such 
machines. The percentage of saving to be obtained 
depends not only on the original cost and amount of 
additional work done, but also on the rate of pay and 
skill of the operator and the number of hours the ma- 
chine is run. 

As a rule, improved small tools will therefore earn 
a larger rate of interest on the investment than larger 
and more expensive ones. 

There are very few railroads to-day which have not 

more or less pneumatic drills, hammers, riveters, 
hoists, etc., and no argument should be necessary to 
demonstrate their earning capacity, but the value of 
air jacks for cars and locomotives is not so generally 
known- It formerly required about four hours for 
eight men- with screw jacks; to engine 
Weighing 132,000 lbs. -off its drivers, at #: cost of $5.14, 
and about one-half that time" for four men "to do the 
same work with hydraulic jacks, but. using four pneu- 
. matic ja,cks, it is now regularly done, by four men in 
one hqtir at a cost of 66 cents. However, to be strict- 
ly. up-to-date an electric crane should be used and the 
time reduced to ten minutes." 

A pneumatic ram was recently made at a cost of 
$168.55 f° r breaking staybolts to remove worn out 
fire boxes, which earns very large interest on the in- 
vestment. It formerly cost $45.60 to cut out the crown 
bolts and staybolts of a 10-wheel locomotive with 9- 
foot fire box, using three men, but with the pneumatic 
ram it is done by two men for $15.20, thereby saving 
$3046 on -each fire box. If only one fire box was re- 
moved each year this tool would earn 18 per cent on 
the investment-, but as. this shop applies 30 new. fire 
boxes a : year the saving amounts to $912.00, or 541 
per cent per annum on the amount invested. 

The improvements and radical departures during the 
past ten or fifteen years, from old practice in the man- 
ufacture of machine tools for metal working, have 
been much greater than in wood working machinery ; 
but recent designs of planers, tenoners, moulding and 
mortising machines are much heavier and more power- 
ful and will do from 25T0 50 per cent more work than 
old machines. 

The hollow chisel mortiser is an ingenious and very 
profitable tool for any shop, and the four and six 
spindle boring machines are great labor savers. 

Wood trimmers are most valuable additions to the 
equipment of cabinet or pattern shops, and the new 
pattern and corebox machines will easily earn ioo per 
cent on their cost if used one hour a day.' 

In figuring the earnings of the "up-to-date" tools in 
the above example, only average results have been 
taken and not special cases of unusual savings. No 
credit has been allowed for the scrap value of the old ma- 
chinery thrown out, nor have we considered the sav- 
ing in shop room due to the use of more efficient tools ; 
and last, but not of least importance in railroad work, 
is the reduction in the number of days locomotives 
must be held out of service for repairs, which will 
follow the use of up-to-date machinery. 

In a certain shop which makes general repairs to 
about 160 locomotives a year the average length of 
time required to put each engine through the shop 
was reduced from 34 days in 1898 to 30 days in 1900. 
This represents a saving of 640 days for one locomo- 
tive which, at a rental value of $10.00 a day, .gives 
$6,400.00. As this was done with the. addition of only 
a few new machines in a shop full of old and worn 
out tools, many of which had been in service from 25 

April, 1902. 



to 35 years, you can readily understand how much 
greater saving could be effected had .the shop been 
fully equipped with up-to-date machinery.: 

A New Flue Cutter 

WE show herewith drawings of a pipe or flue cutter 
on which Mr. R. J. O'Neill, of Peoria, 111., has 
been recently granted a patent. This tool has been de- 
signed to cut out tubes from a locomotive or stationary 
boiler, either inside of the boiler or outside. When flues 
are put in, the extra labor in getting the length of the 
flues and bringing them to a machine to cut them off 
the right length to fit the boiler may be saved, as it is 
claimed that by this tool flues may be cut off faster than 
by any tool now on the market. The tool has no friction 
whatever and binds on the flue only on the two cutting 
rollers, which turn on their axle, which is set in a car- 
riage for holding the same. It is expanded by a slotted 
grooved wedge which is operated by hand or by a small 
air motor, very little power being required. The mov- 
ing of a pin back and forth in the slot throws the tool in 
and out of gear. Two sizes of flues, or more, can be cut 

by applying a larger carriage, which can be done in a 
few seconds by pushing the wedge ahead of the carriage 
and placing the larger size in socket. An examination 
of the drawings show the good qualities claimed. It ; is 

strong and durable,- being- made of cast steel. The 
"wedge and carriage of tool steel and is always ready for 
use. The. weight is 14 pounds. It has cut No. 11 wire 
guage flues in six seconds,: with an ordinary air motor; 
one now in use having cut 8,000 flues shows but little 
wear. This flue cutter will be put on market by Mr ; R. 

J. O'Neill, who was formerly with the Monon Ry., and 
is now general foreman of the McAleenan Boiler Com- 
pany, Peoria, 111. 

The Air Brake and the Headliqht 

AT a recent meeting of the Pacific Coast Railway 
Club the question, "Are the train brakes suffi- 
ciently maintained, or can they be, to enable an engi- 
neer to stop his train within the range of vision af- 
forded by the ordinary oil headlight?" was answered 
by Mr. W. L. Kellog, traveling engineer, St. L., I. M. 
& S. Ry., as follows : 

"It. has been my experience under ordinary condi- 
tions that this can not be done. Of course, the speed 
of train and the length of train are to be taken into 
consideration. I think a passenger train of from eight 
to ten cars, running at a speed from fifteen to twenty 
miles an hour, could be stopped within the vision, of 
a good oil headlight. A freight train of thirty to forty 
cars could be stopped, running at a speed of from 
twenty to twenty-five miles an hour, under the same 
conditions, I should judge. 

"This is a very broad subject to consider in detail, as 



April, IQ02. 

there are so many points, such as grade, condition of 
rails, etc., to be considered. From the tone of the 
question, I should judge the main point is this: With 
the speed of our trains at the present time, under or- 
dinary conditions, is the headlight considered adjunct 
with the air brake as a safety device? From my view 
in this matter, I consider it is not, and I think the time 
is at hand, as a matter of safety, that our companies 
should adopt a headlight with more reflecting power 
than the out-of-date oil headlight As a matter of fact, 
we all know that the oil headlight possesses very lit- 
tle virtue as a safety device, and the efficiency of the 
air brake is sacrificed many a time by the engineer on 
dark, stormy nights, not being able to see the obstruc- 
tion, and many lives given up and a vast amount of 
property destroyed from this cause alone. 

"The air brake is useless if the brain that controls it 
is not warned of the danger. I have had a somewhat 
limited experience with the electric and acetylene-gas 
headlights, and, I must confess, I am very much im- 
pressed with these lights as safety devices, and I wish 
to state that I owe my life to the electric headlight. 
As a safety device alone I consider it next of import- 
ance to the air brake." 


The Maintenance of the Air Brake 

MR. J. B. FINLEY, M. C. R., of the Southern 
Pacific Company, in answering before the Pa- 
cific Coast Railway Club the following question : "As 
a rule, do the operating departments do their share in 
the maintenance of the brakes on our trains, by re- 
quiring that all cars hauled with brakes cut off, or in- 
operative, be reported properly and promptly? Is the 
failure to make such reports properly noted?" states 
that while it is generally conceded that subordinates 
in any department are less apt to comply strictly with 
all the details imposed upon or exacted of them than 
are the heads of departments, who feel the greater re- 
sponsibility, yet it is more often the fault of the heads 
of departments than with the subordinates, when the 
latter are found to have neglected to comply with de- 
tails to the extent of materially impairing the service. 
If there is any division on this system where trainmen 
are not properly and promptly reporting to car inspec- 
tors cars that have brakes cut out, or are inopera- 
tive, in trains handled by them, to the extent of injur- 
ing or impairing the service, I am of the opinion that 
the fault for such a condition should more properly 
be charged against the head of the car departtaent of 
that division than to the negligence or failure of any 
one connected with the operating departments. It has 
been my experience that our superintendents, when ap- 
pealed to, will enforce any reasonable requirement of 
.trainmen or others under their supervision. On divi- 

sions like the Tucson, where superintendents, train- 
men, and car inspectors are so frequently changed, it 
becomes necessary for us to renew our demands for 
an enforcement of instructions more frequently than 
would be otherwise necessary. Trainmen are in- 
structed to report upon a blank form furnished them 
for that purpose all defective air brakes; special in- 
structions have been issued to them on this division, 
requiring them to wire this information in case of pas- 
senger trains. Car inspectors are instructed to note 
upon the face of the report handed them by the con- 
ductor, and over their own signature, all cars having 
brakes cut out, or brakes that are found inoperative, 
and not covered by the conductor's report. If we al- 
low our inspectors to become neglectful of their duty 
in this respect, we become practically responsible for 
the condition complained of, if it is found to exist " 

<» *» 

National Association of Manufacturers 

Announcement is made by President Theodore C. 
Search that the seventh annual convention of the Na- 
tional Association of Manufacturers will be held in 
Indianapolis, April 15th, 16th and 17th. Local ar- 
rangements for the convention are being made by a 
committee of Indianapolis business men under the 
leadership of Mr. D. M. Parry, who has been for many 
years a member of the executive committee of the as- 
sociation, and a particularly hospitable welcome to 
visitors is assured. Members of the association are 
manifesting rather more than usual interest in this 
year's convention, and there is promise of an un- 
usually large attendance from all parts of the coun- 
try. President Search announced at Detroit last year, 
when he consented to accept the presidency for the 
sixth time, that he could not serve the association in 
that capacity beyond the expiration of the present 
year. Mr. Search has recently made known his ad- 
herence to this determination, and one of the most 
interesting problems which the Indianapolis conven- 
tion will have to consider will be the selection of a new 
president. This matter has been quietly discussed 
among the members for several months, but at present 
there is nothing to indicate upon whom the choice of 
the association will fall. During the six years of Mr. 
Search's presidency the membership of the association 
has increased from less than 200 to more than a thou- 
sand, and a vast amount of hard work has been done 
to promote the interests of the manufacturers of the 
United States in a broad-minded, public-spirited way. 
The National Association of Manufacturers was or- 
ganized in Cincinnati in 1895, and its annual conven- 
tions have been held in Chicago, Philadelphia, New 
York, Cincinnati, Boston and Detroit. 

April, 1902. 



New Box and Stock Cars, 
■A., T. & S. Fe Ry. 

THE accompanying illus- 
trations represent the 
latest design in box and stock 
cars for the Atchison, Tope- 
ka & Santa Fe Fy. The box 
car design is revised to meet 
the present practice of the 
road and shows some con- 
spicuous advances over the 
box cars of the road's 1901 
pattern. The box cars are of 
60,000 lbs. capacity, inside 
dimensions being as follows : 
Length 36 ft. J /g in. ; width 

8 ft. 6 T /i ins. ; height, from 
floor to underneath face of 
carline, 8 ft. The center and 
side sills and one pair of in- 
termediate sills are 5x9 and 
the other pair of intermediate 
sills are 4x9. There are four 
lyi-m. truss rods with the 
ends upset to iy 2 in. The 
needle beams are 10 ins. 
deep, the king posts are 11 
ins. deep, thus giving a good 
depth of truss. The ends of 
the cars are trussed each 
with two truss rods. The 
ends are also well secured by 
tie rods extending back to 
the first side post and also 
secured to the first angular 
braces. The inside sheath- 
ing on the ends extends 
from the floor to the plate, 
thus giving additional 
strength to the ends of the 
car. End loading doors are 
provided. There is a dou- 
ble belt rail extending 
around the car, thus adding 
considerable strength to the 
upper frame. The stock car 
is the road's design brought 
down to date of December, 
1901. The inside dimensions 
of the stock car are as fol- 
lows : Length 36 ft. ; width 
8 ft. 8 ins. ; height 7 ft. 1 in. 
Cars are of 60,000 lbs. capac- 
ity, and the framing and 
trussing is about the 
same as that for the box 
cars. The stock cars 
are provided with double 

60,000 - Pound Cap achy 
Stock Car, Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa tv. 



April, 1902. 

board roof instead of Chi- 
cago roof. The other spe- 
cialties for the stock car are 
the same as for the box car. 
There are provided, in addi- 
tion to the usual end doors 
above the belt rail, end doors 
below the belt rail as well, 
these doors extending the 
full width of the car and 
providing openings in the 
clear of 21 ins. above the 
floor. Both the box and 
stock cars are well designed 
and should prove serviceable 

♦ » » 

The Locomotive Headlight 

By T. W. Heintzelman. 

THE following is reprint- 
ed from the last issue of 
the proceedings of the Pa- 
cific Coast Railway Club: 
"What are the relative 
merits of the various kinds 
of headlights, oil, gas, and 
electric, all things consid- 
ered? Is the present loca- 
tion preferable to that in 
use in foreign countries, 
which is usually on the 
bumper timber?" 

"Oil headlights at their 
best do not give sufficient 
light to meet the require- 
ments, and we are all 
pleased to note that they 
are gradually becoming ob- 
solete. Acetylene-gas head- 
lights give much better re- 
sults, and have met with 
favor among all engine- 
men, from the fact that they 
are a much better factor of 
safety than the oil head- 

"Electric headlights are 
the most powerful, as well 
as the most expensive at 
first cost, and also to main- 
tain ; but these objections 
are gradually becoming 
overcome, and will no 
doubt be brought to a min- 
imum figure in due time; 
this, together with over- 
coming other complica- 
tions, will, when complete, 

60,000 - Pound Capacity 
Box Car, Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa Fe 

April, 1902. 



serve to commend them for more general use, espec- 
ially in passenger service. And from the fact that 
they are one of the best factors of safety that we have 
for our locomotive equipment, we should not too 
deeply consider the extra cost of applying them to 
our engines, when their value has been fully demon- 
strated, and also from the fact that many of our roads 
are to-day sparing no expense in equipping their first- 
class trains throughout with a system of electric light- 

"Relative values in lighting effect are approximately 
as follows: Coal oil, 100; acetylene gas, 800; electric 
light, 5000. Relative cost of lights for 16 hours' con- 
stant use, or 1000 locomotive miles, for all kinds of 
service: Coal oil, $.1650; acetylene gas, $.3616; electric 
headlight No. 1, $3.4340; electric headlight No. 2, 

"At this time I will refer to another electric head- 
light recently brought out, and which, I understand, 
is in service on several prominent lines, and which, no 
doubt, we will hear from in due time; this light is 
manufactured by the Edwards Railroad Electric Co."* 

"As to the best location for a headlight, will say 
that the present location is preferable to placing it on 
the bumper beams; from my experience, I consider 
that the best results are obtained by placing the cen- 
ter line of headlight about half the diameter of the re- 
flector below the center line of vision of enginemen 
in cab." 

*For a complete description of the Edwards Electric 
Headlight, see pages 90, 91 and 92 of the March issue 
of the Railway Master Mechanic. 

■» • » 

The Excelsior Car Roof 

HILE a large amount of attention is being 
|\/%/^ directed to the building of large capacity 
cars, and trucks, couplers and draft rigging 
are being greatly improved, the car roof, 
which is one of the important parts, should 
not be overlooked. An absolutely good 
car roof should be regarded as a necessity. 
The number of cars out of service on ac- 
count of bad roofs is at all times large, and 
the lo.>s. sustained by railroads from this cause is suf- 
ficient to warrant a much larger expenditure for a 
good roof than they have been called on to meet. An 
attempt is made to run a car a little longer by con- 
tinual patching, from day to day, until the repairs 
exceed first cost, not considering lost service, dam- 
ages to freight, damage to trains from sparks, and 
general deterioration of car body from leakages. 

We show in the accompanying illustration the Ex- 
celsior Car Roof, a patented roof of galvanized iron, 
which has proven to be a most excellent and durable 

there are hundreds of patents on different forms, the 
Excelsior Car Roof Company present in their roof 
something entirely new and entirely different from 
any other car roof now in use. They pay especial at- 
tention to the formation of the seam, which provides 
for contraction and expansion, and allows one edge of 

The Excelsior Car Roof. 

material when on the outside where the sulphur from 
the smoke can wash or blow off, and when supported 
by a strong back, so that the weaving of the roof- 
frame is not contributed to the sheets. 

While the standing seam iron roof is very old and 

The Excelsior Car Roof. 

sheet to be nailed to roofing boards, while the other 
edge is sufficiently free to take up any motion of frame 
work; also, to the malleable iron corner cap which is 
absolutely novel and effectually provides against leak- 
age and at the same time holds the running board se- 
cure to the car. The roof as laid is formed as fol- 
lows : A double bend with a nailing flange is made 
on one edge of sheet, and a single bend upward on 
opposite edge ; the nailing flange is covered by the ad- 
joining sheet coming close, against the double bend; 
this joint is covered by a seam cap of same material, 
thus forming a standing seam with two rivets — the 
malleable iron corner cap holding it at the ridge; the 
ends of the sheets, where they meet at ridge, are 



April, 1902. 

formed so that one covers the other, as shown in draw- 
ing. No nails are exposed to action of the weather. 
The malleable iron corner cap is integral (cap and 
stem in one piece), protects 
itself and overcomes the 
objection to bolts passing 
through ridge pole. It is 
shown in the illustration 
published herewith. The 
manner of nailing the sheets 
to the under course of 
boards, 'together with the 
fact that this roofing ad- 
mits of the boards run- 
ning lengthwise of the car, 
materially strengthens and 
ties the frame-work of 
the roof, and makes the 
purlins entirely unneces- 
sary. The under course 
of boards may be of a 
low grade, and even old 
lumber may be used. In case car is wrecked, only 
such sheets as are damaged need to be replaced; and 
this can be done with little trouble on the road, not 
requiring in all cases to be shopped. Further infor- 
mation will be gladly furnished by the Excelsior Car 
Roof Company, St. Louis, Mo. 

Wilson High Pressure Valve 

WE illustrate, herewith, the "J. T. Wilson High- 
pressure Valve," designed by Mr. J. T. Wil- 
son, President of the American Balance Slide 
Valve Company, of Jersey Shore, Penn., and which 
the makers guarantee to handle perfectly easy under 
pressure as high as 250 pounds. The imperfection in 
the balancing of the slide valve, as is well known, has 
been due to the fact that, at different points in its 
stroke, the pressure on its back varied. In this valve 
this has' been overcome by varying the balanced area 
to suit the changed condition of the valve at the dif- 
ferent points in its travel, thereby balancing the valve 
perfectly in its heaviest position, as well as in its 
lightest position, and thus maintaining a uniform fric- 
tional contact between the valve and its seats, which 
contact is just sufficient to form steam tight joints. 

It is evident that the designer of this valve, recog- 
nized, as absolutely essential, minimum frictional 
contact, positive action, durability of the parts, and 
automatic adjustment, and in securing these he has 
made it possible to introduce another feature of im- 
portance in the locomotive valve, that of double open- 
ing for exhaust, as well as double opening for admis- 
sion of steam. The valve, which is very light, is the 
only moving part, and as the seat is so proportioned 
that, at the shortest cut-off, the valve travels to the 
edge of the seat, the valve and the seats should wear 


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High Pressure Balanced Slide Valve. 

April, 1902. 



It is worthy of note that the packing forming the 
balance for the valve is stationary and is, therefore, 
indestructible and practically everlasting. 

High Pressure Balanced Slide Valve. 
The illustrations show the application of this valve 
to an engine with cylinders and valve seats designed 

for the ordinary slide valve with external admission, 
but for internal admission valves it is only necessary 
to change the arrangement of the balancing rings, and 
the valve itself may be changed to meet any desired 
or existing condition. 

Valves of the same design as shown in the illustra- 
tions are in heavy fast passenger service on the 
Lehigh Valley Railroad giving excellent satisfaction. 
It is now being applied by other large roads, and being 
applied to new power in several modified forms. It 
is claimed that this valve is the nearest to a perfect 
balance that has been obtained, while retaining an 
automatic adjustment for wear, which feature can be 
considered indispensable for economical and efficient 
valve service.- Further information can be obtained 
from The American Balance Valve Company, Jersey 
Sliore, Penn. 

■♦ »»- 

Caswell Level Floor Dump Car 

E show in the accompanying illustrations a 
new dump car designed and patented by Mr. 
W. A. Caswell, Monadnock Block, Chicago. 
The car is of gondola style, and while it is 
primarily a dumping car the floor is perfectly 
level and smooth, and the contents, of what- 
ever nature, may be removed by shovel or 
otherwise, as readily as if the dumping 
features were not present. The flat spaces 
around the sides and through the center of the car will 
hold back about five per cent of the load to be dumped, 
which can be easily scraped off, taking but a few moments, 
or the sides and center may be hoppered in a simple 
manner, so that every pound of the load will pass out. 
This hopper feature is portable, put in and taken out as 
required, and has proved a success for certain purposes 
and certain kinds of material. This is clearly shown in 
Fig. 1, showing the interior of the car. This 
illustration also calls attention to the fact that the doors 
are so arranged as to dump one-fourth of the car at a 
time, the operating rods extending only to the middle 
rather than to the end of the car to avoid torsion. 

The several doors are arranged as shown, level with 
the permanent part of the floor, and are hinged at one 
edge to one of the intermediate sills, and locked at the 
other edge by eccentric locks operated by a rod attached to 
one of the center sills. The arrangement may be readily 
reversed if for any reason it is desired that the direction 
of dumping shall be toward the sides rather than toward 
the middle of the car. A feature of especial importance 
in the dumping arrangement is the fact that no portion of 
the load is carried on chains, thus doing away with one 
of the most objectionable features of many dump cars. 
As stated, the doors are hinged to one of the sills and 
locked from another. The load is supported in such man- 

ner that the heavier it is the more firmly are the locks held 
in place, while the power required to dump the load is but 
little more than when the car is empty:- This is shown in 
Fig. 1 where four traps are down and a portion of the 
lock in position to support the trap when in place. The 
entire function of the chains is to lift the doors into place 
after the load has been dumped. This is accomplished by 

Fig. 1 — Interior View of Car. 



April, 1902. 

means of winding rods, four to the car, which project un- 
derneath the end sills and are worked by means of a re- 
movable crank handle attached to and a part of the car. 
These chains wind around a 2V2-inch worm over a 2V2- 

Fig. 2 — End View of Car. 

inch fulcrum pulley and are so protected that no part of 
the load will strike them in passing through the traps. 

The locks upon which the doors are supported when 
closed are of eccentric form, anti-friction in construction, 
with a throw of three inches fro mthe permanent bearing 
on the rest to the locking rod upon the sills. Each of 
these rods is operated by means of a lever (leverage 12 
to 1), shown at the end view of the car in Fig. 2, and 
which is provided with a gravity-operated support to re- 
tain it in its raised position until doors are again in posi- 
tion to be locked, when it is brought down and the doors 
locked. As an incidental advantage of the manner of 
supporting the doors it will be noticed that as they are 
directly supported by the sills they will rise and fall there- 
with and maintain their level with the floor whatever the 

camber given to the sills by the load upon them. On ac- 
count of the necessity for locating all parts of the brake 
rigging and cylinders out of the way of the dump open- 
ings, it has been assembled entirely along the middle of 

the car, occupying a space 
nineteen inches in width. 
The manner of placing and 
compounding the levers is 
also new, but has been shown 
by actual test to add to the 
general efficiency of the 
brakes, a matter of great im- 
portance when it is recalled 
that all cars will soon have 
to be equipped with air 
brakes. The rods connect- 
ing the air brake are pro- 
tected by guards in such 
manner that no part of the 
load will strike them in pass- 
ing through the traps. 

The especial advantages 
claimed for this car are that 
it is made possible to carry 
any kind of freight usually 
carried in gondola cars, while 
such freight as coal, ore, sand, 
gravel or broken stone may be handled either by dumping 
or shoveling, as the case may require. This car can also 
be used for ballast purposes by hanging the traps to the 
cross heads of the frame and by the use of an improved 
spreader attached to the car. The dumping features can 
also be applied to grain cars, for which a specially con- 
structed top and bottom is designed. The demonstrating 
cars are forty feet in length, 80,000 pounds capacity, with 
sixteen traps 24x36 inches. The number and size of the 
traps can be increased or diminished according to the 
dimensions of the car. The improvements can be applied 
to wooden or steel cars. The mechanical features of the 
car are simple, practical, durable, very easy to maintain 
and so easily operated that it is not necessary to employ 
skilled labor for this purpose. 


Cleveland Car Foremen's Association 

The March meeting of the Car Foremen's Associa- 
tion of Cleveland, O., 1902, was held at the Erie R. R. 
depot. The meeting opened at 8 P. M. by President 
Berg, among those present being the following: A. 
Berg, J. D. McAlpine, E. S. Mooney, Geo. Lynch, J. 
C. Dennerle, J. H. Acker, W. J. Frey, C. Schneider, J. 

The following made application for membership : 
J. E. Halleen, Clerk, L. S. & M. S. Ry., Ashta- 
bula, O. 

C. H. James, Car Fore., W. & L. E. Ry., Cleve- 
land, O. 

J. B. Durkin, Wreck. Master, L. S. & M. S. Ry., Col- 
linwood, O. 

R. Mooney, F. C. L, L. S. & M. S. Ry., Collin- 

wood, O. 

L. G. Pearse, Storekeeper, L. S. & M. S. Ry., Ashta- 
bula, O. 

John M. Peters, Car Insp., Big Four Ry., Cleve- 
land, O. 

Minutes of last meeting were read and approved. 

Subjects for discussion. 

"In removing a broken 9 in. x 10 in. inter, sill and 
substituting two sills, one 5 x 10 in. and one 4 x 10 in., 
so as to make proper size of sill removed, would it be 
wrong repairs under the present M. C. B. Rules"? 

It was the unanimous opinion that technically it 
should be considered wrong repairs, and the owners 

April, 1902. 



should have been asked for authority before replacing 
the 9 in. sill with two pieces, one 4 in. and the other 
5 ^. 

In case of a car having sills made of two pieces 5 
x 10 in. and car bears defect card covering one broken 
sill, both pieces are broken, could you charge for replacing 
the two pieces 5x10 inches or only one piece 5x10 inch, 
it being understood that that is the original construction 
of the car? 

After a general discussion it was decided that if the 
car was so constructed, and the card read "one sill," 
and both pieces were broken, a charge for replacing 
both would be proper. It was stated that it was nota 
hypothetical case, and the party carding tried to evade 
the bill. 

It was agreed that the card should have been more 
explicit, reading, "One 10 x 10 inch sill, or "Two 5 x 10 
inch sills." 

It was explained that the owners (a private line com- 
pany) issued the card on the claim that the car had been 
allowed to get in a dilapidated condition through neglect 
to keep it in proper repair. 

The question of whether the Rules were just in allow- 
ing an additional charge of two hours in cases where 
broken draft bolts are replaced in a loaded car, at both 
ends, was brought up and discussed, and it was decided 
that four hours additional for moving the load at each 
end was perfectly proper under the Rules, and was no 
more than just, as it involved considerable extra labor. 

The question of revision of the M. C. B. Rules for 
1902 was taken up, and the following changes recom- 
mended : 

Section 19, Rule 3. Cut out the words "not else- 
where provided for," and make the section read: "De- 
fective, missing, or worn out parts of trucks, except 
as provided for in sections 20 and 21, of Rule 3. 

Section 22, Rule 3. Cut out the words "not else- 
where provided for," and make the section read: "De- 
fective, missing, or worn out parts of brakes which 
have failed under fair usage, except as provided for 
in sections 24 and 25 of Rule 3, and missing material 
on cars offered in interchange." 

The changes above referred to are for the purpose 
of making the meaning clear and definite, as the 
words "not elsewhere provided for" leaves one in 
doubt as to just what and how much is referred to. 

Section 25, Rule 3. Add the defect "cut by strik- 
ing," making the section read: "Missing or torn air 
brake hose, air brake hose cut by striking or other- 
wise, missing or broken air brake fittings," etc. 

This in order to avoid correspondence and disputes 
as to whether the word "torn" includes "cut" by strik- 

A motion was made that the words "delivering com- 
pany," wherever they appear opposite the sections in 
Rule 3 be changed to read "Possessing company." 

In lieu of recommending that the words "delivering 

company" be changed to "possessing company" it was 
decided that the Arbitration Committee be asked to 
define more in detail the words "Delivering company," 
which appear opposite several sections of Rule 3, as 
some parties claim that a torn hose is chargeable to 
owners if the car is not in interchange. 
Meeting here adjourned. 

Railroading in Mexico 

IN many respects the average conditions existing on 
most railways in Mexico are similar to those which 
obtained on lines in the western part of the United 
States during the early days the old-timers love to dwell 
upon. That is, water is scarce and very bad on many 
divisions, there is a scarcity of men and consequently 
plenty of jobs. Men change constantly, with the inevit- 
able result of delayed trains, wrecks, etc. But beyond 
all this more or less "familiar story" the railroad man 
from the "States" on coming into Mexico finds he is 
up against the oddest proposition of his experience in 
dealing with the native. Whether a shop or road man 
his grief in this direction begins immediately and lasts 
through his entire stay in the country. The class of 
natives with which the railroad man has to do is a 
constantly novel, generally exasperating, occasionally 
amusing study. He is seldom able to read or write, 
never able to understand English entirely, without that 
Anglo-Saxon mechanical instinct, and above all, is utterly 
without ambition. He makes a fairly good machine hand, 
fireman or brakeman, these being lines of work wherein 
there is but a limited call for judgment. But on the 
erecting floor, the right hand side of an engine or in 
charge of a train — where emergencies arise, no amount 
of training can instill that knack of arising to emergen- 
cies that is latent in practically all Americans — the Mex- 
ican simply throws up both hands and waits for the 
American to come along and get things going again. 

While, as in other things, there are occasional excep- 
tions, these characteristics hold in all ranks of the native 
employe — but one cannot fully appreciate the difficul- 
ties these characteristics occasion until he is thrown 
into actual contact with the lower ranks, laborers, wood- 
men, helpers, new firemen and brakemen. If you are 
a shopman, imagine putting up a set of shoes and 
wedges with a couple of helpers who cannot understand 
a word you say, who have not the slightest conception 
of what you are trying to do, and who do not care — 
either to learn, to get the job done or to stop your pro- 
fanity Imagine also starting in to work in a shop where 
you have to learn the Spanish name for each tool, 
machine, part of the locomotive, in fact you are the same 
as a deaf and dumb man until you have picked up some 
of the language. 

If you are an engineer, imagine a fireman and head 
brakeman who not understand a word you say and who 
also do not give a — well, who would just as soon be 
discharged as not, for they know that their successors 
will in turn be too rich to work in a couple of months 



April, 1902. 

and hence there will be another opening for them after a 
little vacation. Or, imagine coming up to a wood sta- 
tion, short on time to make the next telegraph siding, 
and find the wood men positively refusing to work until 
it stops raining — in consequence you get stuck to flag 
out of a blind siding. And at the end of the trip you 
ask him his name to put on the trip slip. He cannot 
write and tells you his name is Evohanio Erenao. Next 
trip in, the master mechanic's clerk looks you up and 
after much running around you find out the name should 
have been spelled Eugenio Yrineo. This providing the 
slip has not gone in leaving you to explain on payday 
to Eugenio and the thirteen or eleven different firemen 
and twice as many wood passers you had during the 
month why their names are not on the pay roil. 

Of course one soon picks up enough Spanish to get 
along with and many difficulties then vanish. But even 
a fluent command of the language does not obviate 
the many troubles arising from the untrustworthy and 
hopelessly dull character of the average native employe. 
He cannot be implicitly trusted to perform the slightest 
duty — all must be watched to make sure of the proper 
performance of any detail. At the same time, however, 
more extended acquaintance with the native character, 
customers and point of view, tends to greatly alter the 
exasperation with which one at first is inclined to regard 
the native. His wage scale is comparatively very low 
and his opportunities for much promotion are limited 
through an entire lack of education. At the same time his 
wants are simple and his salary is princely to him — 
enough to not necessitate his working more than half 
the time. Having no ambition, there is nothing at 
stake, from his point of view, which compels him to 
submit to being driven. These people cannot be dis- 
ciplined and driven like Americans. They don't band 
together and strike, they simply walk off and will not 
work. If a man gets the name of being a hard man to 
work for, he soon finds it impossible to get men — there 
is no interference of any sort, but the purely passive 
boycott is none the less so effective that the heads of 
departments find it necessary, in order to have the work 
go on, to replace the hard man, the "malo hombre," 
with one who understands the native character better. 
After one is in Mexico awhile, he commences to rather 
admire this attitude in the native, and to think that after 
all, it would be better for all concerned if there were 
less ambition and more contentment, life would be lived 
far more satisfactorily — that the "strenuous life" is but 
a disease which is the cause of all the strife and bitter- 
ness and heartburnings back there in the States. Here- 
in lies the charm that infects all who dwell in Mexico 
for any length of time and makes the railroad man, 
once here, always come back again — even though he 
does not understand the cause of this longing. It is 
not the quaint picturesqueness of everything so much 
as the object lesson presented in the native's point of 
view of life — -his acceptance of the fact that ambition is 
not worth what its gratification entails. 

The Armstrong Planer Jack 

THESE planer jacks are designed to displace the 
haphazard devices and methods now generally 
in use for leveling work on machine tools, and a 
glance will show any mechanic their convenience and 
utility. A set of these jacks on a machine will greatly 
reduce the proportion of time required for preliminary 
arrangements, as compared with the actual machine 

time on the job, and will, moreover, by their perfect 
adjustability and solidity insure good, true-surfaced 
work. The base is substantially made of malleable 
iron, faced true on the bottom ; it is of strong design, 
an important feature being a split hub and screw (case 
hardened), providing a convenient means for locking 
jack screw in position and of compensating for wear 
of screw and socket. The tilting cap is of malleable 
iron, faced on the top, and is attached to head of screw 
by ball and socket arrangement which allows it io 
adapt itself to uneven, irregular or angular surfaces. 
The screw is made of steel with U. S. standard thread 
and has hexagon neck for wrench. The jacks are 
made in 4 sizes. They are manufactured by Arm- 
strong Bros. Tool Co., 617-621 Austin Ave., Chicago, 
U. S. A., who will gladly furnish on application a com- 
plete catalog of the Armstrong tool holders. 


Mr. W. J. McQueen has been appointed assistant 
master mechanic of the Hudson, Harlem and Putnam 
divisions of the New York Central & Hudson River 

Mr. Alex Struthers, master mechanic of the Rio 
Grande railroad shops at Grand Junction, Colo., has 
tendered his resignation, to take effect April 1. 

Mr. Ira C. Hubbell, president of the Locomotive 
Appliance Co. of Chicago, has been appointed pur- 
chasing agent of the Kansas City, Mexico & Orient, 
with headquarters at Chicago. 

Mr. W. M. McCampbell has been appointed master 
mechanic of the East Louisiana railroad, with office 
at Florenville, La. 

Mr. William C. Ennis has been appointed master 

April, 1902. 



mechanic of the Central New England, with offices at 
Hartford, succeeding A. B. Phillips, resigned. 

Mr. S. W. Crawford has been appointed master 
mechanic of the Chicago & Southeastern shops at 
Muncie, Ind. 

Mr. William Apps, master car builder of the Cana- 
dian Pacific, has resigned and will go to Florida. It 
is stated that Mr. Fowler, who is on his way home 
from California, will be his successor. 

Mr. C. Skinner has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Chicago & Alton at Slater, Mo. 

Mr. Milton Ployer has resigned his position as 
master mechanic of the eastern division of the Atchi- 
son, Topeka & Santa Fe at Topeka, Kan. 

Mr. John Forster, general foreman of the St. Louis 
& San Francisco at Kansas City, Mo., has been made 
master mechanic. 

Mr. Ernest Messnier, formerly with the Lake Erie 
& Western, has been appointed master mechanic of 
the Cincinnati, Richmond & Muncie, at Richmond, 

Mr. Thomas Anderson, master car builder of the 
Pittsburg & Western, has resigned. 

Mr. O. G. Cheatham has been appointed master 
mechanic of the Seaboard Air Line at Fernandina, 
Fla., succeeding Mr. E. Burton, deceased. 

Mr. W. J. Thomas has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Cairo division of>the Cleveland, Cincin- 
nati, Chicago & St. Louis at Mount Carmel, 111., vice 
Mr. H. G. Hudson, transferred. 

Mr. George Gregg has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Chicago & Alton, with offices at Bloom- 
ington, III, vice V. B. Lang, resigned. 

Mr. B. A. Orland has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Mobile division of the Mobile & Ohio 
at Whistler, Ala., vice N. Kirby, resigned. 

Mr. C. B. Young, chief draughtsman of the Chi- 
cago, Burlington & Quincy, has been appointed me- 
chanical engineer, succeeding Mr. F. H. Clark, pro- 

Mr. J. R. Donnelley has been appointed superin- 
tendent of motive power and car department of the 
Cape Breton Railway, with headquarters at Port 
Hawkesbury, Nova Scotia. 

It is stated that Mr. G. Y. Smith has not resigned 
as master mechanic of the coast lines of the Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa Fe at San Bernardino, Cal., as re- 
cently reported. 

Mr. James McDonough, traveling engineer of the 
Gulf Colorado & Santa Fe, has been appointed master 
mechanic at Cleburne, Tex., in place of Mr. Thomas 
Paxton, resigned. 

Mr. W. C. A. Henry has been appointed assistant 
engineer of the motive power department of the Pitts- 
burg, Fort Wayne & Chicago railroad. 

Mr. J. D. Murphy has resigned as shop foreman of 
the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe at Newton, Kas., 
to accept a position as foreman of the Missouri Pacific 
at Fort Scott. 

Mr. Charles Hufschmidt has been appointed assist- 
ant road foreman of the St. Louis & San Francisco 
railroad, looking after equipment between Springfield 
and St. Louis. 

Mr. R. J. Turnbull, master mechanic of the Albue- 
querque division of the Gulf Colorado & Santa Fe, has 
resigned, and will be succeeded by Mr. J. P. Burns. 

Mr. H. G. Hudson has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Michigan division of the Cleveland, Cin- 
cinnati, Chicago & St. Louis railroad at Wabash, Ind., 
vice Mr. G. Wirt. 

Mr. J. O. Bradeen has been appointed master me- 
chanic at East Buffalo, N. Y., succeeding Mr. Charles 

Mr. W. J. McQueen has been appointed assistant 
master mechanic of the Hudson, Harlem and Putnam 
divisions of the New York Central, with headquarters 
at Mott Haven, N. Y. 

Mr. J. A. Graham, master mechanic of the Balti- 
more & Ohio at Lorain, O., has been given charge of 
all matters pertaining to the car department between 
Cleveland and Wheeling and Cleveland and Lester. 

Mr. G. W. Tompkins has been appointed superin- 
tendent of motive power and car department of the 
Nevada-California-Oregon railroad at Reno, Nev., vice 
Mr. E. J. Valley, resigned. 
■ Mr. V. D. Lang, master mechanic of the Chicago 
& Alton at Bloomington, 111., has been appointed 
master mechanic of the Cincinnati, New Orleans & 
Texas Pacific. Mr. George Gregg will succeed Mr. 

Mr. W. L. Kittredge, master car builder for the 
Northwestern division of the Chicago, Milwaukee & 
St. Paul, recently died at Milwaukee, Wis. 

Mr. Felix Fayette has been appointed locomotive 
foreman for the Grand Trunk at Point St. Charles, 
succeeding J. R. Donnelly, who recently resigned to 
accept a position on the Cape Breton railroad at Syd- 

Mr. G. Wirt has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Cincinnati-Sandusky division of the Cleveland, 
Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis railroad at Delaware, 
O., vice Mr. M. Pickert, resigned. 

Mr. Chas. H. Hogan has been appointed master 
mechanic of the West Shore railroad at New Durham, 
N. Y. 

Mr. N. Kirby, master mechanic of the Mobile divis- 
ion of the Mobile & Ohio, at Whistler, Ala., has re- 

Mr. N. J. Eichborn has been appointed general fore- 
man of the Mobile & Ohio at Meridian, Miss., vice 
Mr. R. E. Lewis, acting foreman. 

Mr. J. D. Gurgams, superintendent of car equip- 
ment of the Mobile & Ohio, at Whistler, Ala., has had 
his title changed to assistant superintendent of car 

Mr. W. M. Paul, general foreman of the Wabash 
shops at Fort Wayne, Ind., has been appointed mas- 
ter mechanic of the Galveston, Houston & Henderson 



April, 1902. 

at Galveston, Tex., Mr.- Paul is succeeded by Mr. W. 
F. Yergens, general foreman of the Grand Trunk at 
Battle Creek, Mich. 

Mr. H. F. Ball, mechanical engineer of the Lake 
Shore & Michigan Southern, has been appointed su- 
perintendent of motive power, with headquarters at 
Cleveland, O., succeeding Mr. W. H. Marshall, pro- 

After April 1 Mr. T. B. Purvis, Jr., superintendent 
of motive power and rolling equipment of the Boston 
& Albany, will have his headquarters at Boston, in- 
stead of Springfield, Mass. 

Mr. David Patterson has been appointed division 
master mechanic of the Gulf Colorado & Santa Fe at 
Raton, N. M., succeeding Mr. C. M. Laylor, promoted. 

Mr. F. A. Louey, master mechanic of the Ottumwa 
division of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, has 
been appointed master mechanic of the Creston divis- 
ion, with offices at Creston, la., vice Mr. E. Jones, 
resigned. Mr. I. N. Funk has succeeded Mr. Louey 
at Ottumwa, la., as acting master mechanic. 

Mr. R. H. Briggs, master mechanic of the St. Louis 
& San Francisco, has recently had his territory ex- 
tended to include the line to Thayer, Mo. 

Mr. A. C. Hone has been appointed master me- 

chanic of the Cumberland Valley division of the 
Louisville & Nashville, and assistant master mechanic 
of the Louisville shops, with headquarters at Louis- 

Mr. F. A. Torrey has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Creston division of the Chicago, Burling- 
ton & Quincy, vice E. Jones, resigned, with headquar- 
ters at Creston. Mr. I. N. Funk has been appointed 
acting master mechanic of the Ottumwa division, with 
headquarters at Ottumawa, vice Mr. Torrey. 

Mr. S. W. Crawford has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the C. & E. at Muncie, Ind. 

Mr. W. M. McCampbell has been appointed master 
mechanic of the East Louisiana at Florenville, La. 

Mr. William C. Ennis has been appointed master 
mechanic of the Central New England at Hartford, 
Conn., succeeding Mr. A. B. Phillips, resigned. 

Elias Hedrick, for eleven years superintendent car 
department of the Live Poultry Transportation Com- 
pany, and for the past two years assistant superin- 
tendent of the Armour Car Lines, Chicago, resigned 
his position the first of the year to go west on account 
of his wife's health. He has accepted a position as 
general foreman with the Southern Pacific at Tuscon, 


Notes of the Month 

Mr. C. H. Vannier, of the Griffin Wheel Company, 
Chicago, delivered an address before the engineering 
students of Purdue University upon "Cast-Iron Car 
Wheels," on Wednesday, the 5th. 

The B. M. Jones & Co., sole representatives in the 
United States of Samuel Osborn & Co., Sheffield, Eng- 
land, and Taylor Brothers & Co., Leeds, England, 
have removed their Boston offices to 159 Devonshire 
street, rooms 51, 53 and 55, Boston Mass. 

the Armstrong gang planer tool, at the request of 
Mr. Karl Olsen, superintendent of the. works. The 
subject of the test was a large cast-iron plate used in 
connection with pulp mill machinery, and Superin- 
tendent Olsen announced their regular time on this job 
as seven hours. Mr. Johnson and the gang planer tool 
finished it in just 1^4 hours. Numerous large orders 
for Armstrong tools and self-hardening steel sent in 
subsequently by C. S. Christensen testify to the prac- 
tical and convincing nature of Mr. Johnson's work 
and the merits of the tools he introduced. 

Armstrong Bros. Tool Co., of Chicago, report a 
marked increase recently in the export demand for 
their tool holders. They have recently established 
agencies in Australia and New Zealand which give 
every promise of developing into important markets 
for the company's product. Some time ago the com- 
pany sent Mr. Nestor Johnson into Norway, Sweden 
and Denmark to investigate that market and to intro- 
duce the Armstrong tools. Mr. Johnson, who is a 
native of Norway, and a practical mechanic of wide 
experience, met with the most gratifying success. He 
has recently returned to Chicago after placing the 
Armstrong agency for the countries of Norway, Swe- 
den and Denmark with the firm of C. S. Christensen, 
of Christiania, Norway. Mr. Johnson relates many 
interesting experiences which he had while traveling 
in the company of one of C. S. Christensen's engineers, 
visiting the largest machine shops in the countries 
above named. One of the most interesting of these 
occurred at the plant of the Moss Mechanical Works 
at Moss, Norway, while making a demonstration of 

The Sargent Company of Chicago, heretofore 
operating an open hearth steel plant at Fifty-ninth 
street for the manufacture of draw bars, knuckles, 
coupler parts for repairs, and a plant at Chicago 
Heights, 111., for the manufacture of Tropenas steel 
castings and steel and iron brake shoes, have trans- 
ferred the plant at Chicago Heights, together with the 
classes of business done there, to the American Brake 
Shoe and Foundry Company, which company will 
hereafter conduct the business of this department 
from its offices at Chicago Heights. The Sargent 
Company will continue the operation of the open 
hearth steel plant at Fifty-ninth street, where its 
general offices will be located. The Sargent Com- 
pany, manufacturers of draw bars, knuckles and 
coupler parts, located at Fifty-ninth and Wallace 
streets, Chicago, are having plans drawn and specifica- 
tions prepared for an extension to give them approxi- 
mately three times the capacity of their present plant. 

April, 1902. 



^ Railroad Paint Shop >? 

A Department Devoted to the Interest of Raster Car and Locomotive Painters 
Edited by CHAS. B. COPP, General Foreman Painter, Car Department, Boston & Maine Railroad, Lawrence, Mass. 

Official Organ 0/ the Master Car and Locomotive Painters Association 

Advisory Committee Meeting 

Official Notice. 

ON February 226. the Advisory Committee of the 
Master Car and Locomotive Painters' Associa- 
tion met at the Hotel Lincoln, Pittsburg, Pa., at 9:30 
a. m. The meeting was called to order by the chair- 
man, D. A. Little, the following members of the com- 
mittee being present: 

D. A. Little (Chairman), Penn. R. R., Altoona, Pa.; 
F. J. Rodabaugh, P., Ft. W. & C. Ry., Ft. Wayne, 
Ind. ; J. Lanfersiek, P., C, C. & St. L. Ry., Columbus, 
Ohio; J. H. Kahler, Erie R. R., Meadville, Pa.; Rob- 
ert McKeon, Kent, Ohio. 

The visiting members present were : J. A. Gohen, 
C, C, C. & St. L. Ry, Indianapolis, Ind. ; W. O. Quest, 
Pittsburg & Lake Erie R. R., McKee's Rocks, Pa.; 
B. F. Seisler, Pittsburg & Western Ry., Allegheny, 
Pa. ; J. D. Wright, Baltimore & Ohio Ry., Baltimore, 
Md.; J. P. Stroud, Allegheny Valley R. R., Verona, 
Pa. ; A. R. Lynch, P., C, C. & St. Louis Ry., Dennison, 
Ohio; D. W. Smith, P., Ft. W. & C. Ry., Allegheny, 
Pa. ; J. F. Gearhart, Penn. R. R., Altoona, Pa. 

A letter from Mr. C. E. Copp, who was not able to 
attend the meeting, was read, after which the matter 
of selecting subjects for the next annual convention, 
to be held at Boston, Mass., Sept. 9th, was taken up, 
and the following list was adopted: 

1. Is it good practice to use the same priming on 
burnt off parts as on the renewed parts of passenger 
equipment cars? 

2. Coal tar is the best protective paint that can be 
adopted for use on steel cars, where the color is not 
an objection. 

3. Suggestions on practical scaffolding in the rail- 
way paint shop, with sketches or prints. Note: All 
members having modern scaffolding are requested to 
furnish sketches or prints. 

4. Paper — Some of the relations of chemistry to 

5. What are the best methods and materials to be 
used in making the silvered gothic glass of the modern 
passenger coach? 

6. What causes putty to bulge from the nail holes 
of some passenger equipment cars, soon after they 
leave the shops, when we should expect it to shrink? 
How can it be avoided? 

7. The difficulties encountered in locomotive paint- 

8. Essay — Why a Railway Master Car and Loco- 

motive Painter should meet with his fellows in con- 

9. Car roofs from the painter's standpoint — what 
is the most economical and durable roof to maintain? 
What is the best color to use? 


1. What is the best material to use on the tubs at 
water stations? 

2. Do varnish removers give good results ? 

3. What shop material combination makes the best 
joint packing for locomotive front-ends, etc. ? 

4. The best car glass cleaning methods and ma- 

5. Should compound gothic glass be bedded in 

6. What is the best material for stencils? 

Robert McKeon, 


•» * » 

About Sponges 

ONE of the big show windows of the R. H. White 
Co. on Washington street, Boston, is given over 
to a display of sponges. Here is shown in wax a most 
lifelike figure of the man who risks his life for this in- 
dispensable article of the toilet and of the paint shop. 
The sponge is shown in its various stages of prepara- 
tion for the market, and in the center of the whole dis- 
play is the figure of the sponge diver holding the big- 
gest sponge ever imported into the country. This 
great sponge, 30 inches in diameter, is attracting 
crowds daily. 

Metaphorically speaking there are bigger sponges 
than this who take to themselves everything they come 
in contact with and never give out anything to benefit 
others, unless pressed to. 

Figures aside, the sponge market seems pretty well 
run down hereabouts, judging by what is supplied to 
the railroads. It is well nigh impossible to get these 
indispensable articles to the car paint shop that are fit 
to use, and they come in scanty driblets at that. If 
ordered in bales a few pounds come in an open basket, 
covered only with burlap. They are hard and non- 
absorbent, or rotten and ragged. The situation is alto- 
gether different from former times. Is it altogether 
the result of a depleted market, or the result of a mis- 
taken policy of the supply department? 

A poor sponge is a poor thing indeed. It is twisted 
to pieces and thrown on the floor for the sweeper to 



April, 1902. 

take care of. A good sponge about takes care of itself. 
It finds itself in the washer's locker noon and night, 
and if perchance it should be abducted there will be a 
search instituted of the Cudahy pattern at once. It 
does not take a fellow with half an eye to see that it 
pays to give good money for a good sponge. As for 
poor sponges the man who buys them fools himself 
and the company who pays for them, but he doesn't 
fool those who use them. 

It is best to supply shops sponges by the small bale 
and then they can sort them out big and little, coarse 
and fine, to suit their varying needs, instead of sending 
them those that have been culled over in supply rooms 
and sampled to a shortage on the way in baggage 

this mixture to stand for a short time and prior to 
using to be thinned with one quart of raw linseed oil 
and half of japan — this will make one gallon of paint. 
Only such quantities as are necessary for immediate 
use shall be mixed. In no case shall a red lead paint 
made from a paste red lead be used. Lamp black to 
the extent of five ounces to the gallon of paint to be 
added to the above formula to assist in modifying the 
rapid action of the lead on the oil and to aid in holding 
up the lead, but in no case may any larger quantity or 
any other pigment be incorporated. 

On top of this first coat, after it is thoroughly dry, 
shall be two coats of C. & O. Ry. standard black 
freight car paint. 

All surfaces of the body and parts, such as angles, 



Borders by Mr. Warner Bailey. 

The Painting of Steel Cars 

THE subject at the New York Railroad Club's 
February meeting was "The Maintenance of All 
Steel Cars," from which we call out that relating to 
the painting, which is so important that we think it 
ought to be served up to our readers who will not see 
this club report. 

Mr. W. S. Morris, S. M. P. of the C. & O., who read 
a valuable paper covering the entire subject, said re- 
garding the painting: 

It is presumed that those handling steel cars have 
by this time come to the realization that protection of 
metal cars from weather and acid attacks is necessary ; 
while it is true the comparative greater tonnage, car- 
ried with a lesser percentage of tare, enhances the 
worth of the steel car, its life may be prolonged in 
preventing oxidation by thorough painting at proper 
intervals. The better body the covering has and the 
better affinity established between the metal and the 
covering or paint, the more effective and lasting the 
protection. The sepcifications of the Chesapeake & 
Ohio are simple and thus far have proved equal to the 
requirements ; they are as follows for its metal cars : 

Body. — Car body to have a priming or first coat 
made according to the following formula : 
22 lbs. red lead, dry, 
2 quarts of pure linseed oil, raw : 

etc., coming together shall receive a coat of red paint 
as per formula before being riveted together. 

Frames. — Before riveting up the frames all surfaces 
coming together shall be painted with red lead paint 
of above formula, and after frames are riveted together 
they shall receive one coat of red lead paint made ac- 
cording to above formula. The frames to receive on 
top of the red lead coat, after it is dry, two coats of C. 
& O. Ry. standard black frieght car paint. 

Trucks. — All pressed steel work of the trucks to 
have a first coat of red lead according to above formula 
and requirement for frames, then all surfaces exposed 
to view to have two coats of C. & O. Ry. standard 
black freight car paint — each coat to be dry before the 
next one is applied. 

Specifications for Coal Car Black. 

This paint to be bought in semi-paste form. 

The proportion of liquid and pigment, by weight, 
must be as nearly as possible 35 per cent pigment and 
65 per cent liquid. 

The pigment should be composed, by weight, as fol- 
lows : 

Carbon, 15 per cent. 

Inert material, 80 per cent. 

Carbonate of lime, 5 per cent. 

The paint must be so finely ground that when a sam- 
ple of it is thinned for use there will be no separation 


of the oil and pigment when a drop is placed on a Third day, stenciling and lettering, then ready for 

piece of glass and kept in a vertical position for thirty service. 

minutes, the temperature of the room being about 70 ° Now, it is absolutely impossible to paint these cars 

Fahrenheit. well and durably in that time, even allowing for 24- 

The liquid must be so prepared that when equal vol- hour shifts. It is just as essential to have a covered, 

umes of paint and raw linseed oil are mixed and thinly enclosed and steam-heated paint shed for these cars as 

spread upon a piece of dry glass, the film will dry, free it is to have such facilities for passenger cars. The tem- 

from dust, in eight hours at a temperature of 70 ° perature at which steel cars are to be painted should 

Fahrenheit. be never less than about 80 to 85 degrees Fahrenheit, 

Shipments will not be accepted which — and 12 hours at least should elapse between the appli- 

1. Contain less than 33 per cent or more than 37 per cation of successive coats — taking it, of course, for 
cent of pigment. granted that the sheets are free from scale when the 

2. Contain any naphtha, rosin or petroleum painting is begun. 

products of any kind. Comments of Mr. Wm. Mcintosh, S. M. P., N. J. 

3. Contain less than 15 per cent of carbon, or less Central on above: 

than 2 per cent or more than 5 per cent of carbonate ^ . ,. , , . , , , • , T c , . . , 

v J ,\ . Fainting steel cars, as pointed out by Mr. Streicher, 

of lime, or have present any aniline colors or organic , . ,, r ■. 

' l \ fe involves more conveniences in the way of space and 

coloring- matter or any caustic substances. , , ,, , , , • , , ^ • 

& J temperature than have yet been provided. During 

4. Weigh less than 10 pounds per U. S. standard ,, _ ,' . ,. _ , 

i- & f t- the summer season some very good painting can be 

§ ' done provided a reasonable time is allowed betw r een 

J- y • coats for the paint to dry without forcing it by adding 

J ' ■? ° drving ingredients that destroy the elasticity of the 

7. Are not ground sufficiently fine. ..' , . n t 1 1 *. +1 v :„ 
' te J ■ -.. oil and paint generally, in cold or wet weather it is 

8. Are "a liver," or so stiff when received that they ,, t - u , . • , , , , 

' J utterly impossible to paint steel cars under an open 

will not mix for spreading. shed afld ^ ^ fate of frQm 5o tQ ?$ per day ^but 

Fainting Motes. "doctoring" up the paint in a manner that will render 

Lead paint, per gallon $1.92 it worthless, as is evidenced by the appearance of 

Black paint, per gallon 74 many steel cars that have been in service but a short 

Area. period. The problem of repainting these cars is really 

Sq. Feet a more serious one than doing the work in the first 

Body outside 1,200 place, owing to some of the original paint adhering to 

Body inside 1,200 the metal in patches that are difficult to remove. Some 

Trucks 250 recommend cleaning up the car by a sand-blast, and 

others with wire brushes. The sand-blast would, no 

Total 2 )45° doubt, make the most complete job if the necessary 

Cost of Painting Car, New. time is taken to allow it to do its work; but from in- 
First coat lead paint at 6 mills per sq. ft., 2,450 ^.$14.70 formation at hand this is a slow process and hardly 
Second coat black paint at 2.4 mills per sq. ft., applicable to cleaning off hundreds and thousands of 
2 4=;o ft < 88 cars. The wire brush is effective in removing the 
Third coat black paint at 2.4 mills per sq. ft., loose P aint > and {t is a question if it is necessary to do 
1 200 ft 2 88 more than this, except in the way of improving the 

appearance of the cars, for paint resisting the wire 

Total <t 2 ., 46 brush must necessarily be securely enough fastened to 

A 1 n • ,.- the metal to remain there. A proposition is being- 
Annual Paintings. . . . 
q , . , - og considered of using a revolving wire brush suspended 

rp , £ j. in a manner to be controlled by a counter weight, so 

T7 , • ' '- > -\/r r-u c, • , , ,r- as to be easily moved over the surface of the car, the 

Fxtract from Mr. Chas. • Stretcher s paper (Gen. J ' 

Foreman Car Dept, N. J. Central) : sidesand ends being usually the parts in greatest need 

A . , , , ,. .,., , 1 of this treatment. Another suggestion worth consid- 

A very important matter in connection with steel ... 

• ,1 • ■ , • -p, , 1 , , enng is to give the steel car one coat of paint yearly, 

cars is their painting. I he steel car people make a . & , . . r . j j > 

„ , • , 1 A • , ■ ,. ,, , ,, n r using the wire brush on any spots that had loosened 

great mistake in not appreciating that the first coats of . & . . J v 

„„•„+ r a u +u ^ -ii 4-1 1 i a. 4. m the meantime. It is calculated this method would 
paint applied by them will greatly help to prevent or 

/„ u„„4- Q ~ ~ • 4-u 4. -a ■ a 4. 1 De l ess expensive and more effective than the more 

to hasten corrosion on the outside. As steel cars are l 

built now at the Pressed Steel Car shops, in Allegheny elaborat e P^n of applying two coats at longer inter- 

and McKees Rocks, is takes about three days to turn va ^ s - 

a car out from start to finish, ready for service— From the remarks of Mr. R. L. Gordon, of the Pressed 

First day, fitting and riveting up ; Steel Car Company : 

Second day, erecting and painting, and Leaving out of consideration, injury from wrecks, 



the prevention of corrosion by the careful application Reasoning from analogy, steel cars are subjected to 

of paint of good quality whenever necessary is the much less severe service than locomotive tenders, and 

most important operation in the maintenance of steel no one hesitates about the material for coal spaces in 

cars. We all know that steel will not corrode if it is tenders. The general conclusions are that steel cars 

properly painted, so that in order to have a steel car should not be used for the storage of soft coal for any 

body last indefinitely all that is necessary to preserve length of time, and should be painted thoroughly and 

the car is to paint it at proper intervals. The cost of often. 

maintenance of the steel car as compared with the From paper of Mr. H. S. Hayward of the Pennsyl- 

wooden car is so much less, that the cost of painting vania R. R. : 

the steel car, say, twice as often as the wooden car Undoubtedly the life of steel cars can be very 

would cut so small a figure in the cost of maintenance materially prolonged by keeping them thoroughly 

that it is hardly worth consideration. The steel car painted, especially around all the seams and under- 

presents the further advantage of being practically framing of the car; but we believe there is very little 

watertight, thereby protecting the underframe, trucks benefit derived from the painting of the inside of the 

and. brake gear from water dripping through the cars as we found some time ago by examining a num- 

cracks, a condition to be found in the wooden car, so ber of them which had been recently painted and had 

that it is a question whether there would be as much only made one or two trips, that the paint had been 

damage by corrosion to the steel car, as a whole, as entirely removed from the interior of the car body by 

there would be in any car having a wooden body, the lading when loading and dumping. We made a 

which will also rot and wear out. careful examination of a number of steel cars recently 

The time for painting should be determined by in- and found that the greatest corrosion takes place at 
spection and the interval of time elapsing from one the seams and laps on the inside, in the vicinity of the 
painting to another will vary with cohditipns such as hopper sheets, and at the connection of the center sill, 
class of car, service in which it is used, climate, etc. hoods and edges of drop doors. All of the laps being 
There are differences of opinion concerning the best on the inside of the car and turned up, the sulphur 
methods of applying paint and local conditions may water from coal, which naturally works to the bottom 
make different methods advisable at various places, of the hopper, rests on the projections formed by 
but probably hand painting of car bodies and pneu- these laps and finally eats its way through to the cen- 
matic painting of trucks will prove to be the most sat- ter and side sills. In several cases we found an open- 
isfactory methods. Although pneumatic painting has ing between the floor and side sheets of 1-16 of an 
many advocates, because by this method the paint is inch, which was found to be filled with fine coal, being 
forced into the crevices, it will probably be found that kept moist enough to cause corrosion to be constantly 
the paint may be made to adhere more firmly by the taking place. In regard to the method of painting, we 
use of a brush as for some reason the adhesion is less have experimented with applying paint by the pneu- 
perfect in pneumatic painting and therefore the paint matic method, but with not altogether satisfactory re- 
is more likely to peel off. As car bodies generally suits — that is, it is very objectionable to the men, and 
present large, flat areas there is not so much difficulty has therefore been abandoned on that account. We 
in painting them by hand as there is in painting the believe that by flooding the joints or laps with a brush 
trucks which present a large number of broken and just as beneficial results can be obtained. It is an 
irregular surfaces to be covered. Therefore, for trucks, open question as to the best paints to use for the pres- 
pneumatic painting seems to be cheaper and sufficient- ervation of iron under present traffic conditions, and 
ly thorough. To insure perfect painting, the parts to I have no doubt we all have a great deal to learn on 
be painted should be thoroughly cleaned and if the this subject, which can only be obtained after some 
part to be painted has any scale it should be removed years of practical experience, 
either by use of sand-blast or wire brushes, as we the discussion. 
know that if the work is done over the old scale it is Prof. Hibbard— I asked the question of Mr. Morris 
merely time and money thrown away. regarding the cleaning of the surface before the paint 

In connection with this subject, the following arti- is applied and what the paint was, because it seems to 

cle, taken from the American Engineer and Railroad me that those are two of the most important points in 

Journal of December, 1900, on the corrosion of steel connection with the maintenance of steel cars. The 

cars, may be read with interest : ideal surface is a surface that is absolutely bright steel, 

In France, Mr. Tolmer in 1896 found that steel perfectly bright and clean steel on which to put the 

frame cars showed the following proportion of losses paint, no beginning of rust pitting having been al- 

in section from corrosion : lowed and the rolling-mill scale completely removed. 

Cars Loss, The worst paint is probably red oxide of iron (Fe 2 O s ). 

built in Life. per cent. He spoke about the use of red lead paint. It may not 

1869 27 years 6.0 be generally known that red lead paint swells in the 

1874 22 years 4.0 presence of sulphur, and in swelling it increases in 

1875 • 21 years 3.18 volume about one-third, thus tending to peel off, and it 

April, 1902. 



seems to me that the parts of a steel car exposed to a certain great shipyard the plates are first pickled 
smoke, ought to be painted with something else than in dilute muriatic acid, then passed between rapidly 
red lead, for instance, with graphite and purest linseed revolving wire brushes to remove all scale and dirt, 
oil, the inert graphite tending to protect the steel, then thoroughly washed with pure water, rubbed per- 
perhaps on account of the minute flakes lapping over fectly dry and immediately painted, 
one another like the shingles on the roof of a house. So far as I know the best, most comprehensive, 

The chemical theory governing the protection of steel exact, scientific and at the same time practical treatise 
by red lead paint is believed to be the formation of on paints for steel is to be found in the Transactions 
black magnetic oxide (Fe 3 4 ) on the steel due to the of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers 
chemical action of the oxygen through the medium of under the authorship of Mr. M. P. Wood, of this city, 
the red lead paint, and that it is the black magnetic oxide See his series of papers, as follows : 
underneath the red lead paint that protects the steel. The 
Bower-Barff oven and hot steam process of forming black 
magnetic oxide on small steel parts is probably the 
most perfect protection of steel. The black magnetic 
oxide will last for centuries without any action upon 
it, perfectly protecting the steel. 

It seems to me that the 
fault of the paint coming 
off goes right straight 
back home to the manu- 
facturers of the steel cars 
in not having the plates 
perfectly bright and clean 
and dry and not cold 
when they are painted, 
and then they should be 
painted with red lead, 
if you please, if there is 
a part not to be exposed 
to sulphur; graphite and 
linseed oil, probably, where 
they are to be exposed 
to sulphur, the 
oil being pure 
oil. We have 
twenty vegetable 
oils on 
seed oil is 

— and about all of those 
are cheaper than lin- 
seed oil, hence it is a great temptation to the dealer 
in linseed oil to doctor up his linseed oil with a little 
of these other oils, trusting he will not be found out. 
If in addition to those twenty drying oils that can be 
used to adulterate linseed oil we mention the 293 
vegetable oils that are not drying and the eighty fish 
oils and animal oils, then it behooves us to look out 

the market — lin- 
a drying oil 

Vol. 22, page 757, (1901), the best. 
" 18, " 251, 
" 16, " 663, 
" 16, " 350, 
" 15, " 998. 
Users and builders of steel cars can ill afford to re- 
main unacquainted with 
Mr. Wood's researches and 
conclusions to be found as 

Mr. Canfield — I did not 
know this was going 
to develop into a dis- 
cussion on the painting 
of steel cars. I have made 
a few notes of ques- 
would like 

Morris and 
If I kept 
Morris' fig- 

tions that I 
to ask Mr. 
Mr. Gordon, 
track of Mr. 
ures correctly, I think it 
cost him about $20.00 
per car to paint a car 
with three coats. I would 
like to ask Mr. Gor- 
don if three coats applied 
at his works would cost 
$20.00 per car ? 

Mr. Gordon — In answer to 
Mr. Canfield about paint, 
our practice is to paint the cars with two good coats, 
while Mr. Morris figured on three coats. Speaking 
off-hand, I think if we were to paint a car as does the 
C. & O. with three coats, the cost would figure about 
the same as that given by Mr. Morris. 

Prof. H. Wade Hibbard— I would like to have Mr. 
Morris tell us in particular detail, just how the steel 
that we get the real pure linseed oil. It is said that a rough should be cleaned and just what the paint is that is 
test of linseed oil paint is that it will greatly increase put on. 

in weight as it dries. 

The cleaning of steel from shop grease should not 
be done with benzine, because the benzine in evaporat- 
ing leaves a thin, imperceptible paraffine wax which 
prevents the paint from adhering directly to the clean 

Mr. Morris — I think I shall have to refer to my 
paper again, as I cannot remember the details of the 
paint. The first coat work, that is referred to in my 
paper, comes from our own specifications which our 
chemist has prepared, and I presume that is what the 

steel. A good way to clean off the grease is with car- gentleman would like to know about ; or is it the ap- 

bonate or sal-soda water, then washing it off with plication of this paint? 

clean water, wiping it dry, and then immediately Prof. Hibbard— Cleaning the steel first and then 

painting it before it has a chance to. rust at all. In what paints? 



April, 1902. 

Mr. Morris— For the first coat application we simply 
clean with the brush, an ordinary painter's brush — 
the annual painting we have not gotten to but we 
expect to clean the metal as has been suggested by 
Mr. Mcintosh, with a steel brush the same as you 
would clean a casting and then brush it off with an 
ordinary painter's duster and paint it with first or 
second coat as the surface requires. 

Mr. West — I would like to ask Mr. Morris whether 
they use a mineral oil or a flax-seed oil? 

Mr. Morris — Lead of course is a mineral. We use 
a dry red lead and linseed oil for the first coating, next 
to the metal. 

Mr. West — I had reference to the oil. 

Mr. Morris — Linseed oil and dry red lead for the 
first coating. That is the protector. The other paint 
is more for decoration or coloring and is a cheaper 

Mr. Mcintosh — I would like to ask Mr. Morris if 
these cars were painted in summer or winter. 

Mr. Morris — A great many of our cars were first 

painted in the winter time, but they were painted 

under cover. We have not attempted to paint any 

through the winter months although, as you all know, 

we have special advantages in our location and can 

paint in the winter months if we so desire. We do 

not think it necessary to commence painting until the 

first of April and then our cars, 600 of them I think, 

will be in service something over a year, going on 

two years. 

■» ♦ » 

Notes and Comments 

The Eureka Solvent Company is the latest candidate for 
honors in the line of varnish removers. Their new Peerless 
Varnish Remover is free from the -objectionable odor that is 
attached to the majority of varnish removers, and if they 
can sustain their claims as to its rapid work, no discoloraton 
of the wood, and is perfectly harmless to the hands, they 
are entitled to the success that their energy deserves. This 
company is. located at 1437 Monadnock Block, Chicago,, 111., 
and would be glad to send samples free, express charges 
paid, to anyoue desiring to become acquainted with this 

readily removed with knives and scrub brushes without in- 
jury to the wood. 

The Boston & Maine has recently equipped Ave coaches with 
Pintsch gas to inn jointly with the Central Vermont between 
Boston and Montreal; also some mail cars for the E. Div., 
Boston to Bangor, Me. With 41 vestibule cars and 50 other 
coaches, something like 100 cars are now equipped with 
Pintsch gas, with prospects of more, as the gas plant at E. 
Cambridge is to be enlarged and the purchase of oil lamps 
for cars has been curtailed. Changing four-lamp cars to five- 
fixture gas makes a good bit of work on deck headlining^ for 
the paint shops. 

"Phenoid," manufactured by Ellis, Chalmers & Meafs, Ded- 
Iiam, Mass., is a new varnish remover lately on the market 
that, devoid of. the objetcionable features of some articles 
for this purpose (notably the odor), bids fair to become a 
success in interior car renovation. It is in a paste form, like 
vaseline, and , may be applied to vertical work without its 
running off; and one heavy coat allowed to stand on long- 
enough will cut through the most alligatorish finish and be 

We have just been informed of the death, last November, 
of Mr. John Josenhans, formerly Foreman Painter for many 
years of the P., F. W. & C. Ry. shops at Allegheny, Pa. Mr. 
Josenhans was one of the old veteran car painters, having 
followed the business for more than fifty years. He retired 
a few years ago when the pension system of the Pennsyl- 
vania R. R. was inaugurated. We met him and formed his 
acquaintance Avhile visiting his shop in January, 1897. He 
was one of the early members of our association, but for 
several years had not met with us, presumably on account 
of advancing years. 

A Correction: By opening up one of the forms, to get in 
the closing item, entitled "Sad News," in our department last 
month, a mix-up was made and Mr. Marshall's letter, an- 
nouncing the death of our associate Jacob Hoesly's daughter, 
was inadvertently left out, we regret to say. The following 
matter is inserted in this issue as it should have appealed. 

Though the following is delayed it is none the less news 
to us, and seemed peculiarly sad as Mr. Marshall's letter was 
delivered to us in church (Feb. 23) by our daughter, who had 
called at the post office on the way for a letter for herself. 
Miss Hoesly, daughter of our esteemed fellow-member, Jacob 
Hoesly, Foreman Painter of the Meadow shops of the P. R. 
R., near Newark, N. J., was married to Mr. A. Duncan Mel- 
ville, Nov. 1, 1900, and was always a familiar figure at our 
conventions and enjoyable company to all who had the pleas- 
ure of her acquaintance. She will be mour.ned by a large 
circle of friends and Mr. and Mrs. Hoesly will have the heart- 
felt sympathy of all our Association family in this deep af- 

Friend Copp: 

I have just returned from an extended trip west and when 
I saw the February "Master Mechanic" felt condemned that 
I had not written you to inform yon of the death of our mu- 
tual friend Hoesly's daughter, Mrs. Duncan Melville. 

It occurred on Christmas night. Mr. and Mrs. Hoesly had 
dined w r ith their daughter and her husband. Had a very de- 
lightful time, and Mr. Hoesly, about seven, went home, say- 
ing he wanted to look after the house and might not return. 
Within a half hour a message came for him to hurry back, 
as "Maysie" was very sick; and before he did so she was 

It was an affection of the heart, not "fatty degeneration," 
but fat growth around the heart that stopped its action. Of 
course Ave were all greatly shocked. A large number of Mr. 
Hoesly's P. R. R. friends attended the funeral. A baby daugh- 
ter was about a month old, but both mother and child were 
doing well at the time, and the baby is now well. 

Yours truly, 

Wm Marshall. 

Mr. R. W. Scott has severed his connection with the N. Y., 
P. & N., at Cape Charles, and is representing the Thompson 
Wood Finishing Co., of Philadelphia, Paint and Varnish Spe- 
cialties, 115 No. Fourth St.; also Nelms & Co., Brushes, 30 
No. Fourth St. It will be the earnest wish of "Bob's" many 
friends in our association that he may succeed in his new 
sphere. His address is 114 No. Fourth St., Phila., Pa. 

The Boston Sunday Globe, Mar. 2, says that there was 10 
ft. of water in the cellar of the Hotel Lincoln, Pittsburg, 
as a result of the great l'resliet in that vicinity; also that 
Allegheny was "a Modern Venice." If "our boys" of the Ad- 
visory Committee could only have forseen this and held 
their meeting a week later they need not have gone thirsty 
and might have had lots of boat rides around town. 

April, 1902. 



6>6c Car Foremen's Association 

of Scranton 

A Department Devoted 
to the 
Interests of the Car Department jgp j^ jg> j^ jf^ j^ 

Official Organ 
of t K e Association 

March Meeting 

On Saturday night, March 8th, at 8:00 o'clock, the above 

association held their third meeting in the R. R. Dept. Y. M. 

C. A. Hall, President L. T. Canfield presiding. 
The following is a list of new members acted upon and 

accepted : 

Acker, Charles, clerk, J)., L. & 

Bell, 0. R., clerk, D. s L. & W. 

Brown, R. E., machine shop 
foreman, D., L. & W. 

Broadwell, S. A., cabinet mak- 
er, D., L. & W. 

Banker, J. H., joint car inspr., 
D., L. & W. and G. R. R. of 
N. J. 

Burns. J. J., foreman, D., L. 
& W. 

Carpenter, H. A., chief clerk, 

d., l. & w; 

Cleary, Frank, clerk, D., L. & 

Davis, H. A., car inspector, 

Dippre, P. W., foreman, D., L. 

& W. 
Eagle, C. I., foreman, D., L. & 

Harvey, Douglas, blacksmith 

foreman, D., L. & W. 
Heinrich, II., carpenter, D.. L. 

& W. 
Kissam, Geo. F., Murphy Gar- 
nish Co. 
Martin, (,'. W., Consolidated 

Car Heating Co. 
MaGinley, James, foreman, D. 

& H. Co. 
Neuls, Peter P., foreman, D., 

L. & W. 
Shaw, Geo., inspector, D., L. & 

Smith, H. P., general foreman, 

D., L. & W. 
Wright, Harry, clerk, D., L. & 

Alter, Wm., foreman, C. R. R. 

of N". J. 
Mr. Canfield: We could not 
get the minutes of our last 
meeting to the Railway Master 
Mechanic in time to get them 
printed, so we had memeograph 

Mr. L. T. Canfield, 




Mr. Canfield, who has been elected the first president 
of the Scranton Car Foremen's Association, was born De- 
cember 3, 1861, and educated at Elizabethtown. He en- 
tered railway service in 1879 with the Indianapolis, Cin- 
cinnati & LaFayette Railroad as shopman, and was subse- 
quently for a number of years connected with the car de- 
partment of the Cincinnati, Indianapolis, St. Louis & 
Chicago Railway at Cincinnati, O., (the latter road having 
absorbed the Indianapolis, Cincinnati & Lafayette Rd.) as 
locomotive foreman, car inspector and foreman. From 
1889 to April 1898 he was with the Chicago, Rock Island & 
Pacific Railway as foreman and division master car build- 
er; from April, 1898, to April 15, 1899, with the Standard 
Railway Supply Co., at Chicago, and from April 15, 1899, 
to the present time he has held the position of master 
car builder with the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western 

to make delivery; however, we expect to mail a copy to each 
member before our next meeting. I regret that we are un- 
able to furnish them at this meeting. 
Mr. Canfield: The next order of business, I presume, is the 

discussion of our first subject, 
the hot box question, and I 
will call on Mr. Slreicher to 
open the discussion. 

Mr. Streicher: Hot boxes on 
any railroad system will be re- 
duced to a minimum when all 
or nearly all of the following 
conditions exist: (1) Proper 
kind of lubricants for different 
seasons, which means timely 
change from winter to summer 
oil, or vice versa. (2) Prop- 
er kind and proper preparation 
of waste, also proper method 
of packing same into journal 
I-oxes, which, of course, includes 
suitable facilities and tools; 
(3) Brasses of good composition 
properly lead-lined and cor- 
responding with M. C. B. di- 
mensions; (4) Brass wedges, M. 
C. B. dimensions, free from 
lumps or flask seams on top or 
bottom; (5) Journals and fil- 
lets free from imperfections, 
turned smooth, straight and 
true,also rolled finish ; (6) Jour- 
nal box, M. C. B. standard, free 
from lumps or flask seams 
where resting on wedge back- 
box preferably made in one 
piece instead of being parted 
in longitudinal center; (7) Rea- 
sonable tight journal box lid; 
(8) Square trucks, plumb pedes- 
tal jaws and plenty of freedom 
for up and down motion of 
journal boxes; (9) Equalizers 
stiff and strong enough to re- 
sist and perpendicular or side- 
bend, also square planed bear- 
ing on equalizer lip and top of 
box. Plenty of clearance be- 
tween inside top corner of box 
and corner of equalizer so 
box can shift and tilt free when 
making stops or airbrake ap- 

copies sent to all members; 

but we have copies of the above paper to pass to each of yov 
to-night, and after tonight our proceedings will be printed in 
this journal. The first order of business is the reading of the 
minutes, and as they have been mailed to you, if there arp 
no objections, they will stand approved as printed. Not hear- 
ing any objections it is so ordered. The next order of busi- 
ness is the reports of officers. Have any of the officers or 
committees anything to report? 

Mr. Miller: Your committee on Constitution and By-Laws 
beg leave to report that the printers had promised to get the 
matter out in time for distribution at this meeting, but failed 

under conditions 8 and 
senger car equipment.) 

plications. (What I mention 
9 refers particularly to pas- 
(10) Prevention of hub fric- 
tion between wheel hub and back end of box by 
having wheels equidistant, and such with sharp flanges re- 
moved; (11) Good, saving, intelligent men to look after the 
business; (12) Well-posted, careful and impartial superiors, 
capable of giving and imparting information and possessing 
the gift of getting at the "why" of troubles. Referring to 
experiments and tests made by Prof. Denton on Friction ana 
Lubrication, at the request of the Standard Oil Co., and pub- 
lished in M. C. B. proceedings, 1895, he brought out the fob 



April, 1902. 

lowing facts: That a 4 1 / 4x8-in. new brass has 24.48 sq. ins. 
bearing surface on a new 4%x8-in. axle; that by taking 11,000 
lbs. as the load on one journal the pressure per sq. inch is 
449 lbs.; that when the same journal is worn down to M. C. 
B. limits, 3%x8-in., the bearing surface between brass and 
journal is 20.68 sq. ins. only and the pressure under same 
load is 553 lbs. per sq in.; that when, however, a new 414x8- 
in. brass is placed on a journal worn down to its limit, 3%x8- 
in., the bearing surface between new. brass and worn journal 
is 8.59 sq. ins. only, and the pressure under same conditions 
is 1280 lbs. per sq. in. 

Mr. Bundy: I believe the first point in connection with this 
subject is the condition of the journal. If we have axles 
turned out of our shops as they should be, with smooth jour- 
nals of the proper size and with proper fillets, I believe we 
would have considerably less trouble. The next thing is the 
proper fitting of the brass to the journal. I believe that a 
good many of our hot boxes are due to defective dust guards, 
and lids on oil boxes, that permit dust, grit and cinders to 
get into the box causing them to heat. Another important 
thing is the condition of the waste. I believe that waste 
should be soaked 48 hours at least, put right down under the 
oil, then taken out. You do not want to get it too dry nor 
too wet. Again, we do not want to pack the boxes too tight. 
It is equally bad to have it too tight as to have it not tight 
enough. Another cause of hot boxes is the trucks getting 
out of square. You all know that when .trucks have run for 
some time they get so that the bearing is heavier on the 
back end of the brass 1 and the result is hot boxes. In ex- 
tremely cold weather we have more hot boxes than we do in 
moderately warm weather, on account of the waste getting 
stiff and hard, which rolls up, pushing out to the end of the 
journal. As a result, the journals commence to heat at the 
back end. I also think it is poor policy to leave waste in the 
boxes too long. I think it should be pulled out and picked 
apart and loosened up and the boxes repacked occasionally. 
If you leave waste in the boxes too long it glazes over, and 
it is impossible for the oil to work through the waste and 
lubricate the journal as it should. As a result we have bot 

Mr. Canfield: I see Mr. Taylor, of the Galena Oil Co., is 
here to-night. I would like to hear his views on the sub- 

Mr. Taylor: I should have taken no offence if permitted to 
remain seated and unobserved. However, this is a matter of 
interest to a Galena representative, although I would prefer 
that you do not consider me as such, but rather as a layman 
seeking light. I am desirous of information; what I have is 
from practical experience and associations with practical 
men. In reviewing the remarks made, I think Mr. Streicher 
has covered the ground quite thoroughly, and Mr. Bundy 
has added important points. In enumerating the essentials 
for reducing hot boxes to a minimum, I should not class a 
proper lubricant as the most important, because it matters 
not how good the lubricant may be, if the mechanical condi- 
tions are not what they should be. satisfactory results will 
not be obtained. A good lubricant will assist. I agree with 
Mr. Streicher that to get the best results, a journal should 
be rolled, with liberal bearing surfaces, boxes square in the 
jaws not too rigid, and proper methods of preparing pack- 
ing and attending to boxes. I presume you are all familiar 
with the methods endorsed by the company I represent, and 
I believe that experience has demonstrated that these methods 
are good. The results warrant that assertion. I find in my 
experience that there are some who do not pay proper atten- 
tion to the preparation of packing. Some pouring the oil on 
the waste to be saturated as it works through. I do not 
think that best results can be obtained in that way. It is 
better practice to immerse the waste in a sufficient quantity 
of oil, keeping data of amount of oil and waste used and af> 
ter a saturation of 48 hours drain the surplus oil leaving 
the proper proportion of oil (5 pints— some use iy 2 pints), 
to each pound of waste. In some instances this is attempted 
in a cold room, but with poor results. The saturation will not 

be effective when the temperature is much less than 70 de- 
grees. We can get at the very essence of this thing, having 
considered the mechanical relations (and that, of course, 
covers a wide field) in the personality of the men who are 
doing the work,— the car inspectors and car oilers. It means 
close attention. With the trainmen the knowledge of a hot 
box often depends on the sense of smelling or seeing; a hot 
box is discovered, examined and found dry. He reports to 
his superior officer "Hot box on account of dry packing." This 
is referred to the chief car inspector and he in turn to the lo- 
cal inspectors, and it comes to the question of lubrication. 
Now, to my mind, a large percentage of hot boxes is due to 
mechanical conditions, rather than to improper lubrication. 
Brasses get thin, journals tapering and many other kindred 
ills, but the cause is directly attributed to insufficient lubri- 
cation. My recommendations on that point would be "Look 
for the Cause." It is not enough to repack the box; doing this 
simply means passing it along to the next man, and another 
report to answer for. I know of some roads where the re- 
ports of hot boxes as they come from the Transportation De- 
partment with causes given are not accepted without further 
investigation, and I must say that they get excellent results 
by tracing the cause and remedying it. 

Mr. Canfield: Both you and Mr. Streicher have mentioned 
the fact that it was a good idea to roll the journals. I would 
like to ask what is the idea of rolling journals? 

Mr. Taylor: My understanding is that it presents a smooth 
surface to the brass and tends to close the pores. Now I 
speak more from a familiarity with results obtained with 
rolled journals than from a theoretical point of view. 

Mr. Canfield: My reason for asking the question is that I 
was in a western country some four or five years ago when 
the roller craze first started, and I understood from state- 
ments made by men who used the roller that it was intended 
to roll down any little fibres that might be left standing af- 
ter the lathe tool passed over them. That looks to me to 
be a very good scheme if you can keep your journal work- 
ing in the same direction all the time and you can work 
the fibres down so that they won't come up again in a re- 
verse motion. But, when you turn your car the other way 
is there not a tendency to raise the fibres and make them 
worse than before? I had an experience some four months 
ago where we were having considerable trouble with some 
hot boxes on cars that were received from a manufacturing 
plant on our line, and I sent my General Car Inspector there 
to see if he could locate the cause. He knew my ideas pretty 
well in regard to the roller question, and he found the roller 
in use. He asked them if they would not stop it, and they 
wanted to know what was the next best thing to do. We fol- 
lowed the practice of cutting these fibres off entirely and 
smoothing the journal with an emery cloth. They agreed to 
do that and our hot boxes ceased. They might have done 
something else, but we did not have any more trouble with 
the cars. 

Mr. Taylor: It is undoubtedly true that a journal in serv- 
ice, when placed under a powerful glass, would show a se- 
ries of elevations and depressions. The lubricant serves 
as a separator between the metals, and the smoother the sur- 
face the better opportunity the separator has to do its work. 

Mr. Canfield: In regard to your remarks, Mr. Taylor, I 
want to say for the railroad men that they have innumerable 
subjects to treat on, while you have one particular line to 
perfect yourself in and are better able perhaps to learn the 
best methods of handling that line of work better than rail- 
road men, who must drop lubricants to take up the question 
of draft timbers, lay new floors, look out for steam heat, or, 
in fact, any subject that might come up on a car. We are 
glad to have you with us. 

Mr. Fritts: I hardly know what to say more than has al- 
ready been said in regard to reducing the number of hot 
boxes. However, it is my opinion that the first thing on this 
subject is, we should have our pedestals and trucks in line. 
I think we should have a journal of the proper size to carry 
the weight of the car, use the proper kind of waste, properly 

April, 1902. 



prepared, and good men; then we won't have much trouble 
with hot boxes. Mr. Taylor says that a very large number 
of our hot boxes is due to mechanical defects. I hardly think 
so myself. I had that proven to me very thoroughly lately. 
We had some little trouble with hot boxes and there was a 
remedy found, viz: a different method of packing, and they 
stopped at once, as it were. That proves to me very clearly 
that not even 50 per cent of the hot boxes are caused by 
mechanical defects. Not long ago we changed time tables on 
our road and we were all very anxious to have no trouble, 
but it happened to be my luck to have a box run hot on this 
very day. I felt quite bad about it, and I examined the car 
thoroughly when it came back. I found that the pedestals 
were out of line and brasses wearing tapering. Car was sent 
to shop and put in good condition. From that day to this the 
car has not had a hot box. In this case it was undoubtedly 
a mechanical defect, but that is not always so. As Mr. Bundy 
said, the waste should be soaked in oil at least 48 hours, and 
then drained, not too dry nor to wet. I would advocate the 
practice of changing dust guards every time we change a 
wheel. By this practice you will have less trouble with dust 
and grit getting into the box. In regard to packing boxes, I 
would suggest making a rope, as it were, of the first piece 
you put in the box,— a piece 8 ins. or 10 ins. long, and pack 
that up tight around the journal. That will also prevent dirt 
from getting in or oil leaking out. I find this is almost a sure 
preventative of dust getting into the box and also at the same 
time the oil will not run out of the box. I would like to lay 
particular stress upon the manner of packing boxes and pre- 
paring waste, also taking care of the waste after putting it 
in the box. I believe that is the seat of our trouble generally. 
I believe we have little trouble with mechanical defects, and 
from my own observation I believe most of our trouble comes 
from the manner in which the waste is applied to the box 
and the manner in which it is taken care of after it is ap- 
plied. I think the waste should not be packed too tight, al- 
though it should be packed tight enough at all times to feed 
oil to the journal, but should not be packed above the center 
line of the journal. If you do, you run the chance of getting 
the waste up between the journal and brass. Again, if the 
waste is not properly watched it will begin to glaze and cake 
around the journal. You should have proper packing irons 
and hooks for your oilers. I find in cold weather we have 
a great deal more trouble than in warm weather. . The waste 
will freeze up in the box and become hard, there being no 
elasticity in it and it is impossible to get oil through the same. 
The oil will lay on top of the waste and if you put any more 
on it will run off. We have had very good results this last 
three weeks during this heavy snow by pulling all the waste 
from the side of the journal and taking a small piece of new 
waste about 8 ins. or 9 ins. long and about V/ 2 ins. in diam- 
eter, and putting this on the end of the packing iron and run- 
ning it along on each side of the journal. In regard to the 
matter of rolling the journals, I have not had much expe- 
rience in that line, but I do not think it is good practice. 

Mr. Taylor: I assumed before I made that asertion in re- 
gard to mechanical conditions, that the packing was proper- 
ly prepared and that proper methods were in vogue. I also 
assumed that you were all familiar with these methods and 
did not wish to dwell upon that feature of the subject, as I 
was quite sure it would be brought out in the discussion. I 
believe yet that my assertion will hold good when proper 
methods' are resorted to in the preparation of packing and 
care of boxes that hot boxes can primarily be traced to me- 
chanical defects. For instance, an imperfect dust guard (I 

do not believe we have a perfect dust guard yet), a brass 
improperly moulded, or metals mixed from a poor formula. 
Mr. Fritts has brought out the very points desired and I 
am satisfied that he understands the proper care of boxes. 

Mr. Miller: My experience as regards hot boxes has been 
about the same as that of Mr. Fritts. We obtain good results 
by applying new dust guards every time we change wheels. 
We make it a practice to cut the duts guards off short about 

one inch below the top line of box, and then fit a piece of 
wood crosswise into the slot of box above the dust guard 
to exclude the dust and dirt. The most trouble on account 
of hot boxes at this time, of the year, I think, is caused by 
packing getting more or less saturated with water and freez- 
ing solid in the boxes, preventing proper lubrication of jour- 
nals. We also find some hot boxes caused by rough or im- 
properly finished collars; in new equipment especially we are 
apt to find the latter, some being as rough as a rasp. Collars 
in this condition are inclined to pick up waste and twist it 
out of position; thus laying the journal bare and causing hot 
box. Hot boxes are also caused by improperly manufactured 
or unfinished brasses. Brasses should be properly milled or 
bored out and all sand thoroughly removed, especially at the 
ends where they come in contact with the fillets on journals. 
If sand is allowed to remain on any part of the journal bear- 
ing where same is liable to come in contact with any part of 
the journal after the babbitt or lead lining of brass has be- 
come worn through we are very apt to have trouble with hot 
boxes. I think Mr. Fritts' practice of using a twist of well 
saturated waste on each side of journal instead of repacking 
a whole box is all right, especially at this time of the year 
when the packing is frozen in the boxes and we find it very 
difficult to remove it. For a matter of information I would 
like to ask the members present as to what their experience 
has been in regard to the different kinds of packing that are 
in use; what kind of packing sems to furnish most of the 
trouble on account of hot boxes; is it the long fibre wool 
waste or the short, fuzzy waste, that gives best results? 

Mr. Bundy: Replying to Mr. Miller's question, I prefer the 
long fibre wool waste. I think it is preferable to the cotton 
waste front the fact that there is more elasticity in it and 
the cotton waste will settle down hard in the box, while 
the wool waste holds up around the journal better. 

Mr. Canfield: The question has been brought up that we 
have some trouble with waste getting between the journal 
and the journal bearing. We have one of our foremen here 
to-night who has followed that question very closely and we 
would be glad to hear from Mr. Dyer. 

Mr. Dyer: The ground has been pretty well covered and 
any suggestion that I could have made has already been given 
voice to, and the details have been expressed better than I 
could do so. My opinion as to the better kind of waste is 
that the long fibre wool waste gives better service. 

Mr. Canfield: In following the hot box question it has been 
my observation that a large number of men will drop on to 
some one cause, and that is my reason for calling on Mr. 
Dyer. He has dropped on to the hobby of waste being caught 
between the brass and journal. Now, someone else here might 
have dropped on to something other than Mr. Dyer's hobby. 
By doing this we get all of the causes of our hot boxes. 

Mr. Dyer: I think the waste getting between the journal 
and bearing is one of the chief causes of hot boxes, especial- 
ly is such the case on a road that has considerable curves 
and heavy grades to contend with. From personal experience 
I am positive that at least 90 per cent of the hot boxes on 
passenger trains at Scranton is due to packing getting be- 
tween brass and journal. This condition is aided also by poor 
mechanical condition of truck in addition to track conditions. 
It has been said that the electro-plated spots so often found 
on journal bearings in cases of hot boxes are induced by 
copper spots caused by improper mixing of metals. Now, I 
have always thought that by far the larger proportion of 
these so-called copper spots have been caused by packing 
getting between the journal and bearing. A very good reason 
for this opinion is that oftentimes I have seen bearings re- 
moved from hot hoxes which have 1-16-in. lining in first-class 
condition except at a spot at center of the bearing, where the 
lining has melted away which has been electroplated. After 
the lining has melted from this spot the journal no longer 
comes in contact with the bearing at that point. What, then, 
caused the bearing to be electroplated, uless it was conse- 
quent on the packing which having gotten under the brass 
and after melting off the lining on part in contact was the 



April, 1902. 

cause of the electroplating. In a great many such cases the 
packing adheres to the brass and plainly shows the cause. 

Mr. Davis: I think we ought to consider the conditions as 
we have them. I think it is a matter of attention as much as 
anything else. I do not think there is any question but what 
any good inspector knows how to pack a box. I think the 
question is, do they do it, and do they do it at the right time. 
I think there are only two elements that enter into the mat- 
ter, and these are the dust guard and lid. When I speak of 
attention I have one car in mind that I gave personal attention 
to, with an ordinary dust guard in the back running over a 
coal, dirt ballasted road. We ran that car nearly 49,000 miles 
with one oiling. This result was due to attention and was 
done partly during the winter months. I think it is not a 
question of misundertsanding how to do it, but doing it and 
doing it at the right time. I think we all know that we have 
more hot boxes in winter than summer. This, I think, to a 
certain extent, is due to the time when the change is made 
from summer to winter oil. No doubt you all feci the effects 
of it; we do, at least. During the cold snap we have had 
within the past few weeks, we have had considerable trouble 
with hot boxes due to the freezing of waste, and I think Mr. 
Fritts' method of handling this matter is a very good one. 
I have had a great many boxes emptied of frozen waste 
where it came out in a lump. So far as the question of waste 
is concerned, I think the long fibre wool waste is the proper 
material to use. 

Mr. Streicher: In regard to the matter of rolling: When 
you remove a brass from a car that has given good service 
we find the journal is smooth, shiny and perfect in every re- 
spect; it has a gloss on it due to wear and the pressure placed 
on it. The idea of rolling journals, so far as I know, orig- 
inated down South, and at the time was received as a ready 
remedy for hot boxes on new equipment. There are, how- 
ever, two ways of doing work. A man applying a roller to a 
journal can spoil it if he puts too much pressure on it. He 
can wear the metal almost right out of the journal. That de- 
pends upon whether he understands his business or not; the 
same as the man using the finishing tool. He can make a 
good job or he can spoil it. Before commencing to roll a 
journal we should leave it, say 1-100 part of an inch larger 
than the actual size desired. When applying the roller, if 
we push it in too far we will injure the fibre of the metal, 
but if we do not push it in too far we will get a journal that 
is equally as good as if it ran a thousand miles or more. That 
is the reason, I think, that a rolled journal has given such 
good satisfaction. 

Mr. Bundy: In support of the rolled journal, I want to 
say that some two years ago I had charge of a shop for one 
of the largest packing houses in the country, and we were 
turning out new trucks at the rate of probably three or four 
cars per day. We sent those cars out in some of the fastest 
freight trains over all the railroads in the country, and it 
was seldom we heard of a hot box on them, and we rolled all 
of the journals. 

Mr. Ganfield: Mr. Streicher admits that there are two ways 
of doing almost any kind of work. It is our practce to use 
emery cloth in our shops, and I would like to call upon Mr. 
Baumgardner to give his views on the subject. 

Mr. Baumgardner: In regard to turning journals I wish to 
say that when you turn a journal and run a finishing cut over 
same you find a tool mark left on the journal. To get rid of 
this tool mark, I take a mill saw file and file the journal; then 
I apply emery cloth to polish the journal. If there is any de- 
fect on the journal it opens up . If you apply a roller to a 
journal it will cover up this tool mark and defects, and there- 
fore I would not advocate the use of the roller. 

Mr. Muray: In support of what Mr. Baumgardner has 
stated I notice if you take a lot of wheels where the journals 
have been rolled and you look at them closely they are ap- 
parently smooth, but if you stand back 8 or 10 ft. where 
the light shines on them directly, you can see the thread 

marks left by the tool. This roller has been supported to- 
night in case of new equipment. As we all know, nearly all 
of the work at manufacturing establishments is done by 
piece work, and the man who does this work knows the more 
work he turns out the more money he will naturally make. 
Therefore, he will do all the work he possibly can with the 
roller, covering up the rough work of the cutting tool. 

Mr. Brown: For a point of information; Mr. Baumgardner 
states that after turning a journal with a water cut, it leaves 
a ridge that follows the tool and he takes a le and files the 
journal to take this ridge away. On an ordinary axle lathe 
how would you get the required speed to file this journal? 
You take an ordinary axle lathe, it does not run fast enough 
and as I have always been taught, the faster you run when 
filing the better results you will have. Whenever you put 
a file on a job, in a lathe, you can never file it round, because 
when you make a stroke with your file it has got to stop 
somewhere. With the experience I have had working on 
journals I do not think a roller does any good to a journal. 
If you do not finish up your journal properly at first, the 
roller will do no good. The roller simply puts a polish on 
it, which I think is easily worn off. When I was in the 
South a year ago, we had some trouble with a hot crank 
pin, which has been finished up with a roller. We took 
the pin out and finished it up with emery, but still it ran 
hot. We sand-papered the pin and took the brass out, tinned 
it with babbitt and rebored it to fit the pin, and we had good 
results. The conclusion I came to by doing this, in using 
emery on the job was that the fine emery will work into the 
pores of the iron or steel and set there. If you use sand 
paper, the sand will drop off. By rolling the journal you can 
spoil it just as well as by any other way. If the roller does 
not set properly on the journal it will spoil it every time, but 
if you have a large roller and a perfect flat surface you 
can get good results; however, as I said before, it only puts 
a gloss on that can be easily worn off. 

Mr. Ganfield: T have listened to the discussion with a great 
deal of interest. I note in Mr. Streicher's remarks he brings 
out some very good points. To start with, I think we should 
have as nearly as possible mechanical perfection. I think 
when we cover that point properly, we have overcome most 
all of our trouble in regard to hot boxes. Car and engine 
builders of the country have figured out proper sizes for 
journals to carry certain loads. They have figured out bear- 
ings suitable to journals allowing for lateral motion and with 
suitable radius for fitting the bearing, The wedge comes in 
for its share of dimensions. I think we should start right 
in around the shop where our boxes are fitted up, to know 
that they leave our shops according to the dimensions given. 
I think next the brass should be gone over very carefully. 
I think the foundry should watch very carefully the ques- 
tion of brasses. We make it a practice to break one out 
of every 50 to see what kind of metal we have, to see if the 
metal is properly pored and unless the bearing gives a 
good clean fracture we reject the brasses. We had an epi- 
demic of hot boxes on our line in passenger service about 
12 months ago. They were keeping me up nights and I guess 
a few others were kept up nights, for I was after them 
pretty severely and I sent my general car inspector to see 
if he could locate the trouble. He came back and reported 
that the boxes were not packed properly. Well, I told him 
_ to have them packed right. I also sent a foreman, but I 
do not know just what cause he found, anyhow, he said he 
found something which caused the trouble. They corrected 
it according to his ideas, but sill we had trouble. So it kept 
going from bad to worse until I took a trip down to Hoboken 
to see if I could locate the trouble, and went to the scrap brass 
pile. Mr. Fritts had a large number of brasses laid out for 
examination, and the first thing I noticed was the electro- 
plate or copper spots. We had some brasses broken and I 
immediately telephoned for the manufacturer. Every brass 

April, 1902. 



we broke showed a very dirty fracture. The minute the man- 
ufacturer saw these brasses he said, "you send these back 
and we will replace every one of them." We did, and it 
took us some two weeks to get all of these bad brasses out 
of service and get better ones. That settled that trouble. 
At that particular time it was due to bad brasses. Commenc- 
ing at that time we demanded that the manufacturer break 
two brasses out of 50 and we also adopted the practice of 
breaking one out of every 50 after they came to us, so that 
now we are getting pretty good brasses. Mr. Streicher brings 
out another point. The reduction in diameter of the journal 
bearing reduces the number of square inches for carrying 
the load. It is a very important point and while on that 
subject I wish to say that the Pullman Company have now 
in service four different sizes of journals, 3%, 4, 4% and 4% 
in. They thought they were carrying too many different 
brasses in stock and adopted 4%-in. brass for all service. 
Shortly after that time we had a car assigned to our lines 
from Hoboken to St. Louis via the Wabash, if I remember 
correctly, it was the Calgary. It started in to give trouble and 
it came to us hot at Buffalo. We worked with it all the 
way down to Hoboken, putting in new brasses, and every 
day we wired the Wabash people if they did not correct 
the trouble we would have to cut the car out at Buffalo. 
After a time Mr. Fritts notified me that this car had a 4-in. 
journal with a 4%-in. brass. I immediately wired him to hold 
the car out of service until he could fit their journal bearing 
by hand, which he did. He fitted their journal bearing by 
hand, giving it a suitable radius and we had no more trouble 
with the car. I simply mentoned this fact to bear out Mr. 
Streicher in his remarks relative to getting brasses of suit- 
able radius. I have been thinking seriously of fitting up 
our mandrills so as to line a brass 3%, 3%, 4, 4% ins. and 
so on, placing them in the hands of such stations as Hoboken 
and Buffalo, only not scattering them broadcast, but put 
them in the hands of men where we had one or two men 
whose duty it was to do nothing else, so that they could 
caliper- the brasses to the proper radii. Mr. Dyer, as I said, 
attributes a large number of his hot boxes to the fact of waste 
getting between the bearing and the journal. I think he is 
right. I believe the prnciple cause of that on our line is 
due to the track conditions. Coming into Scranton from the 
east, we come down a mountain 22 miles long with very bad 
curves, and the centrifugal force of the train coming around 
the curves must lift one side of the truck from its load, 
and at that time it is very easy for the journal to pick up 
a little waste and carry it over the top. The question of 
keeping your pedestals plumb and your equalizers plumb is 
one that should receive a great deal of attention. In caring 
for passenger cars, I think it good practice to set your ped- 
estals so that when the truck is light they will stand at 
least 1-16 n. out of plumb, or will throw your truck % in. 
narrow. When you let the weight of the ear on your truck 
the bearing is in so far from the wheel piece that the ten- 
dency is for the transom to go down. This downward motion 
of the transom forces the pedestals back to the plumb line. 
The Pullman Company, about six years ago adopted the prac- 
tice of setting their equalizer springs out of line. They went 
so far as to set the equalzer spring % in. of of line with the 
center line of the equalizing bar to prevent the equalizer 
from springing out. That was thought to be a good prac- 
tice, but it is not followed very closely. The question of 
planing the equalizers so as to give the box a chance to move 
when the brakes are applied is one that I think should re- 
ceive attention. The matter of parting patterns I think 
should also receive attention. I think the pattern should 
be parted transversely rather than vertically. In that way 
you avoid any unevenness that might come from imperfect 
fitting of flask. The wedge is a very important factor. When 
I first came east we hauled a great many new cars over 
our line from the American Car & Foundry Company, and at 
one time we began to have trouble. The first thing we found 

was that the rapping plate on the wedge had been allowed 
to get loose and every wedge had a high spot where that 
rapping plate was. We had the pattern repaired and cor- 
rected the trouble. As Mr. Taylor has said, I think the next 
thing after we have gotten the mechanical conditions as 
nearly perfect as we can is to get men who understand the 
business. One fault with a great men who care for hot 
boxes is that they do not report to their superiors any defects 
that may show up or any cause they may locate. They 
do not go that deep into the subject. We are able to run 
passenger cars 317,000 miles per one hot box. We should 
do better than that. We have demonstrated that we can 
run them cool by running them that distance. The fact 
that we do not make that number of miles per one hot box in- 
dicates that our mechanical conditions are almost perfect. 
The next thing that comes to my mind is that the men are 
not giving this matter the attention they should. The boxes 
are not properly packed and not properly lubricated. One 
of the gentlemen here tonight spoke about changing dust 
guards. I think this is a good idea. We have on our line 
an arbitrary rule that every time a box is removed from jour- 
nal, we must apply a new dust guard, regardless of the con- 
dition of the old one. We follow out the practice sug- 
gested by Mr. Miller. We cut the dust guards short. It is 
my experience that just as a train stops the wheel will have 
collected a large amount of dust, and it is there in motion. 
The centrifugal force of the wheel holds it in motion, and 
as the wheel stops it settles down on the box.' It is good 
practice to have the box lids fitting perfectly tight. In re- 
gard to the use of the roller, it is my opinion that by the 
use of the roller we simply roll down the fibres and there 
is a chance of their coming up if the motion of the journal 
is reversed, and in preference to taking that chance, I would 
rather have emery cloth cut them off. We do know that we 
get a highly polished journal with emery cloth. There is 
one thing that has not been brought up tonight and I think 
Mr. Taylor would be able to give us some information on 
the subject, and that is what it costs to run a car per 1,000 
miles for lubrication. I do not know what other people 
are doing, and I do not know whether we are doing well 
or bad. On freight our cost will run from 4% to 6% cents 
per car per 1,000 miles, and our passenger cars will vary from 
11 to 14 cents. There was a time when we went as high 
as 30 and 35 cents. We had one month some tnree vears 
ago, when we went up to 42 cents. As I said a few moments 
ago, our passenger service cars are running so that we only 
have one hot box to 317,000 miles run. We run our freight 
cars from 12,000 to 17,000 miles per one hot box. We make 
up this statement monthly. I will admit that some two or 
three months ago I let it get away from me and did not give 
it my attention and the hot boxes went very high. I got 
after it vigorously and we had beneficial results at once. 
Now our service is very good on hot boxes. 

Mr. Taylor: In regard to the cost of lubrication, referring 
to freight service: this depends in a measure on the total 
mileage made, from 4 cents to 8 cents per 1,000 miles are fair 
averages. While on the floor, I wish to lay emphasis on the 
fact that the keynote to the whole situation is "eternal 
vigilance", constant attention. Such facts as Mr. Canfield 
presents, the number of mileage per hot box, is an evidence 
that mechanical conditions are good and getting better each 
year; close attention is being paid, and such records are testi- 
monials to the faithfulness of the men who do the laborious 
work, often under disheartening conditions. 

The matter of passing cars at interchange points on record 
was taken up and dscussed thoroughly, the majority of mem- 
bers being in favor of same. After a lively problematical 
discussion the meeting adjourned to meet in the same hall, 
the second Saturday night in April, at 8:00 o'clock p. m. 

R. W. Burnett, 



April, 1902. 

15he Car Foremen's Association 

A Department Devoted 

to the 

Interests of the Car Department 

of C Hie ago 

JZ? JZ? £? jZ? jZ? j& 

Official Organ 

of the Association 

March Meeting 

The regular meeting of the Car Foremen's Association of 
Chicago was held in Room 209 Masonic Temple, Wednesday, 
March 12th. Among those present were the following: 

Briden, J. Kline, Aaron, Ryding, A. 

Blohm, Theo. Keller, B. A. Stimson, 0. M. 

Callahan, J. P. Kroes, D. Scott, J. B. 

Cuthbert, J. N. Kroff, F. C. Schreck, D. W. 

Chambers, Frank, La Rue, H. Swinson, N. 

Cook, W. C. Lutz, Jos. Schultz, F. C. 

Downing, I. S. Miner, Max H. Stewart, H. A. 

Dunley, W. T. O'Neill, Jas. Vansickle, M. B. 

Evans, W. H. Peterson, A. F. Wirtschoreck, E. H. 

Earle, Ralph, Phipps, D. L. Willcoxson, W. G. 

Godfrey, J. Parish, LeGrand, Wentsel, Geo. 

Grieb, J. C. Perry, A. R. Wessell, W. W. 

Jones, R. R. Parke, P. 

Kuhlman, H. V. Powell, C. R. 

Pres. Grieb: It rather looks from present appearances as 
though we would have an attendance this evening very much 
out of the ordinary for the Chicago Car Foremen's Association. 
The weather is not in our favor and we have a little side 
attraction in the way of a fire on State St., and with these 
things competing with us our attendance is iikel3' to be small. 

Unless there are some objections the minutes of the previous 
meeting as printed in the Railway Master Mechanic will be 

Secretary Kline: The following have made application for 

H. A. Anderson, Car Inspector, B. & 0., Walkerton, Ind. 
Geo. W. Beebe, Wheel Inspector, C, B. & Q., Aurora, 111. 
J. R. Buckley, Foreman, Des Moines Union, Des Moines, la. 

F. R. Brown, Chief Clerk, C, B. & Q., Chicago. 
David B. Carse, Pres. Carse Bros. Co., Chicago. 

A. B. Cassidy, Car Foreman, Soo Line, Gladstone, 'Mich. 

B. F. Dudley, Car Foreman, K. C, St. J. & C. B., St. Joe, Mo. 

G. N. Dow, Master Car Builder, L. S. & M. S., Cleveland, 0. 
Geo. H. Frazier, Asst. Foreman, P., C, C. & St. L., Dennison, 0. 
Frank B. Harrison, General Manager, Harrison Dust Guard 

Co., Toledo. 
J. M. Hopkins, Gen. Manager, National Ry. Specialty Co., 

G. E. Herrick, Foreman, B. & M. R., Lincoln, Neb. 
Edwin M. Herr, General Manager, Westinghouse Air Brake Co. 
E. E. Hull, Car Inspector, C, B. & Q., Aurora, 111. 
II. D. Holmes, Asst. Foreman, C, B & Q., Aurora, 111. 
Jno. R. Jamiesou, Car Inspector, W. & M. V., Waukegan, 111. 
Henry Kilian, Car Inspector, E., J. & E., Barrington, 111. 
J. A. Lindberger, Foreman, P., C, C. & St. L., Dennison, 0. 
B. Morrison, Mchst. Helper, L. S. & M. S., Chicago. 
E. Machin, Foreman, P., C, C. & St. L., Dennison, 0. 
Thos. E. McGown, Machinist, L. S. & M. S., Chicago. 
P. H. O'Connor, Train Desp., C, M. & St. P., Perry, la. 
Albert Propper, Clerk, C, B. & Q., Chicago. 
E. D. Payne, Car Clerk, C. G. W. St. Paul, Minn. 
0. G. Patterson, Gang Foreman, P., C, C. & St. L., Dennison, 0. 
Edwin Rogerson, Foreman, C. & N. W., Waukegan, 111. 
Adolph Ryding, Air Brake Man, L. S. & M. S., Chicago. 
H. J. Speck, General Foreman, P., C, C. & St. L., Dennison, 0. 

Carl W. Sperry, Machinist, C, B. & Q., Aurora, 111. 

J. W. Skelsey, C, B. & Q., Storekeeper, Aurora, 111. 

A. Uhlich, General Foreman, B. & M. R., Lincoln, Neb. 

L. C. Vincent, Foreman, P., C, C. & St. L., Dennison, 0. 

R. L. Whitton, Salesman, Berry Bros., Detroit, Mich. 

E. W. Wheaton, Gang Foreman, P., C, C. & St. L., Dennison, 0. 

Pres. Grieb: "Xou have heard the applications from those 
desiring admission as members in the Car Foremen's Associa- 
tion, and they will be handled in the usual manner by the 
executive committee and the names enrolled as members. 
You will note that there are 34. We still continue our good 
work of rolling in new members. Thus far we have some- 
thing over 300 admitted during the present fiscal year, and 
comparing the month of March this year against March last 
year we have 34 vs. 12. Now for the ensuing six months 
in order to do a little better than last year, we simply have 
to bring in more than five new members each month, that 
is there was an average of five new members admitted dur- 
ing the six corresponding months of last year. As you know, 
our aim is to double our membership this year and with the 
results so far accomplished it ought to be an easy matter 
to accomplish what we have set out to do. 

This brings us to the regular program of the evening, the 
first number of which is the discussion of the report of the 
committee appointed to formulate a list of questions for the 
examination of -candidates for car inspectors. This report 
was presented at our last meeting and was printed in the 
Railway Master Mechanic for March. I presume all present 
are familiar with it and I would like to hear any remarks 
the members desire to make. 

Mr. Stimson (S. R. L.) : Since there are no members of this 
committee present this evening I move you that the subject 
be laid over for discussion at some future meeting. Carried. 
Pres. Grieb: Subject No. 2 is the report of the committee 
on Repair Track Appliances and Facilities, of which Mr. 
Evans is chairman. 

Report of Committee on Repaie Track Facilities and Appli- 
To the President and Members of The Car Foremen's Asso- 
ciation of Chicago: 

Your committee, appointed to consider the subject of Re- 
pair Track Facilities and Appliances, and report at this meet- 
ing, would respectfully submit the following: 

In considering this subject, we were of the opinion that it 
was the intention in appointing this committee to confine 
our investigations as applies to what is known as the repair 
tracks, as distinguishing them from repair shops or coach 
yard facilities. We are all aware that it is only in recent 
-years that the repair tracks were regarded as requiring any 
special facilities for the work done, and was usually a track 
originally intended for regular yard purposes, and which 
was only given up when the absolute necessity for repairing 
cars required. However, with the increasing amount of work 
to be done and the importance of keeping cars in service, the 
repair track has become to be accepted as a very important 
matter, and well worthy of being thoroughly equipped and 
arranged to facilitate the repairs of cars in the shortest pos- 
sible time and with correspondingly less" expense. 

April, 1902. 



Kepair tracks should be located convenient to the larger 
switching yards, and where circumstances will permit, should 
also form a part of the repair shop plant, in order to facilitate 
the machine work, and the handling of material and supplies. 
They should form an entirely separate track arrangement, 
especially designed for the purpose, and so far as possible, 
have the lead tracks for same, separate and distinct from 
the regular switching yard, to reduce to a minimum, the 
liability of a cut of cars being dropped in on the repair tracks, 
on account of a switch being set wrong. 

Considerable advantage is gained in having a storage track, 
or yard, where cars can be placed as switched out from the 
switching yard, and later placed on the repair tracks, usually 
at night or at times when the force is not working. This 
also affords an opportunity for the foreman to designate 
what cars he desires placed on certain tracks, to facilitate 
their repairs. 

Tracks that will hold from 20 to 25 cars, when, proper ly 
separated, allowing about 50 ft. for each car, are found to 
be most suitable length, and should, where the arrangement 
will permit, have double end leads, where the repaired cars 
can be taken out from the opposite end from which they 
are received. This is also quite convenient in placing ma- 
terial, gathering scrap and exchanging trucks, etc. 

By arranging the tracks in pairs, with centers of about 14 
ft. and a wide space betwen the pairs, with centers of 20 
ft. where standard gage material or supply tracks can be 
put in, extending the full length of the repair tracks, con- 
siderable economy in space can be effected, as well as provid- 
ing the best arrangement for distributing wheels, material, 
etc. This track being standard gage, mounted wheels or 
trucks can be run out very easily, and the ordinary standard 
gage truck cars can be used, thus avoiding any special equip- 
ment for the material tracks. A track should be laid crossing 
the yard at about the center, and where this intersects the 
material tracks, turn-table or air lift jacks should be placed, 
thus permitting a loaded material car or a car truck, to be 
quickly handled to any portion of the yards. Wheels can 
be removed from the side next to the material tracks and 
placed on the rails and run to the end of the yard, or shops, 
where wheels are usually kept, and should be so arranged 
that the wheels mounted first are used first; that is, the 
track for wheels being supplied at one end and taken off 
at the other. 

Lengthwise through the center of the yard, a space 35 ft. 
wide should be reserved upon which to locate the necessary 
building for sorting material and scrap, the convenience of 
the men, and for locating such machinery as the importance 
of the yard and the circumstances of the location will re- 
quire. These should contain a small engine and boiler, suffi- 
cient power to drive such machinery as a drill-press, bolt 
cutter, bolt shears, air compressor and blast for at least one 
blacksmith fire, as well as furnish sufficient steam for the 
heating of the building properly. 

In this connection it was considered advisable by the com- 
mittee to submit a sketch of a general plan of a repair yard, 
which would embody their idea, as set forth in this report, 
and the same is herewith submitted showing the track ar- 
rangement and the locations of the buildings, as recom- 

The switching crews should be required to separate all 
loaded cars a sufficient distance to remove the trucks, and 
also all the empty cars requiring heavy repairs; and they 
should be careful to leave all crossings clear. This is facili- 
tated by having stakes set to indicate the end of each car. 
All switching should be done after working hours; with the 
exception of fast freight loads, requiring light repairs or 
exchange of wheels, which should be placed on a track set 
aside for that purpose, and then, only after the track fore- 
man has been notified. No cars should be placed on the re- 

pair track except for immediate repairs. 
Where the business will justify it, ele- 
vated tracks, or a drop pit will be found 
a great advantage in removing wheels 
from loaded cars, especially cars double- 
loaded with long material. The main 
lead switch leading to the repair yards 
should be locked and the key in charge 
of the track foreman, during the work- 
ing hours, thus making it impossible for 
an engine or runaway cars to strike 
any cars being repaired. While this 
would seem to avoid the necessity of 
any danger signals or blue flags, we are 
not sure but that strict compliance with 
the laAV would require them to be used. 

Lever ratchet jacks, similar to the 
Barrett or Mosher patterns, are found 
to be the most desirable for all around 
repair track work, as they are easily 
handled, operate quickly and are least 
liable to get out of order. We would 
recommend, however, that every repair 
yard of any consequence, be supplied 
with at least two 40-ton hydraulic jacks 
for extra heavy work. The smaller 
tools usually supplied repairmen should 
all be marked with the man's check 
number and a suitable box provided to 
carry them around in, and also a locker 
where each man's outfit can be stored, 
when not in use. The larger tools, such 
as sledges, pinch bars, claw bars, car 
trucks, etc., are to be under the charge 
of the track foreman, and should be 
gathered up and stored each evening 
before the men quit work. A truck 
car loaded with emergency blocking of 
suitable size will be found to be very 
handy. For exchanging wheels under 
the larger capacity cars, some arrange- 
ment should be made to avoid the extra 
heavy work of handling wheels in the 
ordinary way. A light plank extending 
across the track to the material track, 
with a small trolley car to carry a pair 
of wheels, will be found very handy. 
For this purpose, a light repair yard 
derrick car can also be used to advan- 
tage, as well as for many other pur- 
poses. Where the business will justify 
it. an overhead traveling crane of at 
least 30 tons capacity, will be found 
useful in adjusting or transferring 
heavy loads, or replacing a broken 
down car. This can be so located as to 
be available for unloading heavy ship- 

Facilities for the repairs of steel 
freight cars, in the way of rivet heat- 
ing, driving tools and machinery, also 
for heating and straightening bent met- 
al end sills, sprung side and end sheets, 
without removing from the' car, such as 
gasoline torches or oil burners, etc.. 
should be provided. 

All character of materials for the re- 
pair tracks should be stored as nearly 
as possible to the center of the yard,, 
and a separate bin, or shelf, pro-, 
vided for each different article. 



April, 1902. 

and the name and weight, or price marked on suitable cards. 
Intelligent laborers should be employed to distribute the ma- 
terial to each workman, and in returning gather up the 
scrap or broken parts. Such men soon become thoroughly 
acquainted with the stock of material and a great saving can 
be made in this line. The complete separation of material, 
as indicated above, will also save time ;md labor and assist 
the foreman in keeping the run of his stock of material on 
hand. This has been very commonly neglected in most repair 
yards. Scrap material should be collected as fast as made, 
assorted and placed in separate bins, or taken to the shops 
to be worked over again and made ready for use. Here also is 
a chance for a great improvement over the usual practice. 
It is also important that repairmen be acquainted with and 
appreciate the money value of material used, as well as scrap 
removed, which will prompt them to greater interest in the 
conomical use and care of same. 

All cars requiring repairs should bear a bad order card, 
placed on it by the inspector in the switching yard, indicat- 
ing the repairs required, and also bearing the initial and 
number of the car. The repair yard inspector should also 
inspect the car, and attach a work card, indicating in de- 
tail all the work required, also giving the initial and num- 
ber of the car. It is very necessary that this work be done 
previous to the time the regular force begin work. The fore- 
man then distributes his men to best suit the repairs re- 
quired. When the repairs are completed the work is again 
inspected and the material used placed on the work card, 
and the work marked 0. K. From these two cards, the re- 
pair cards or defect cards are made out by the repair yard 
clerk, who checks the repairs for bills or defect cards, and 
also for the correct numbers and initals. It is well known 
that only by having a frequent check, mistakes in the initals 
and numbers of foreign cars can be avoided. A good prac- 
tice is to give the name of the roads in full, in place of the 

The increasing amount of clerical work connected with 
the repair track require that the work be systematized as 
far as possible, and that records be arranged in cipher, and 
filed under regular headings, to facilitate ready reference to 
records of cars repaired or inspected. The use of rubber 
stamps is recommended for dates, location and initials and 
numbers of repair or defect cards, and in fact wherever 
any saving in time or improvement in legibility can be 
effected. Signatures, however, should be written with a 
pen. Properly printed stationery and suitable blanks will 
also effect a large saving in time and labor, all of which 
means considerable money, when applied to car repairs. The 
office work of the foreman should be reduced as far as pos- 
sible, in order to enable him to be out among his men and 
material. He should also be encouraged to visit the repair 
yards and shops at other points, both on his own line and 
at those of other roads to observe the different methods 
of repairing cars and interchange ideas for improvement. 

Your committee would further recommend that he be re- 
quired to regularly attend and actively participate in the 
meeting of the Car Foremen's Association. 

The selection of men for the repair track depends to a 
large extent on the conditions existing in the locality, as well 
as the wages allowed for the work. While regular mechanics 
are not required for the greater portion of the work, a good 
repairman, must be one handy with tools and not afraid of 
hard work, and one accustomed to working in the open air. 
He should be able to speak, read and write the English 
language, and should be sufficiently intelligent to accept in- 
struction readily and act promptly. In this connection is 
recommended that maps of the roads, showing the territory 
covered, charts or blue prints, showing the standard or special 
equipment, directing particular attention to improvements in 
draft or running gears, charts of the Westinghouse or New 
York air brakes, or of the different makes of automatic coup- 

lers, or any other matter bearing on the repairs of cars, 
should be displayed in the buildings used by the car repairers. 

While on this line we would call the attention to the mat- 
ter of suitable and comfortable buildings, equipped with 
lockers for clothing and lunches, and drinking and washing 
water, with plenty of light and good air, where men can 
enjoy their lunch hour. This would be appreciated, and re- 
sult in an improvement of the general character of the men, 
and an increase of interest in the work. Convenient water 
closets and urinals should also be provided. 

It is also recommended that buildings where material, such 
as castings and duplicate forgings are kept, be heated during 
the severe weather, as the material being warm is much 
easer and quickly applied, and the saving will consider- 
ably more than offset the expense of the heat. 

Usually men who have been in the service and gradually 
advanced make the best men for car repairers, inspectors, 
car machinemen, carpenters, car foremen or general fore- 
men, and it is of great importance to interest the men in 
the business of the company employing them, and to have 
them understand that merit will be appreciated and deserved 
promotions will surely follow. 

Acknowledgment is herewith made of suggestions received 
from the members and the large percentage replying to our 
requests for information indicate a lively interest in the sub- 
ject, all of which is appreciated by, Your committee, W. H. 
Evans, Chairman; B. A. Keeler, P. Parke, F. C. Kroff, M. M. 

Pres. Grieb: We have had the pleasure of listening to a 
very complete and satisfactory report from your committee 
on Repair Track Appliances and Facilities. They evidently 
have put in a good deal of labor and considerable thought 
in formulating their ideas as presented by Mr. Evans. The 
track arrangement proposed, which is shown on the blue 
print, is of course an ideal arrangement, subject to change 
as local conditions demand. It is rather strange that such an 
important factor as proper repair track room and facilities is 
so sadly neglected, but like a good many other things it has 
finally come to the foreground and is receiving some atten- 
tion. I think the work of this committee will enhance its 
value and after it has been discussed will result in increased 
economy in a line which represents one of the greatest av- 
enues of expenditures in car maintenance. 

Mr. Stimson: I move you that the report be accepted and 
the thanks of the association be extended to the committee 
for the very able report they have given, and that it be placed 
before the association for discussion at an early meeting, 
after which disposition of the committee shall be determined. 

Pres. Grieb: This brings us to subject No. 3 on our program, 
Discussion of M. C. B. Rules 1, 2 and 3. I do not think it is 
the intention to read every rule and section thereof, but al- 
low the members to bring up such matters as they would like 
to hear discussed and the association will kindly proceed 
on that basis. 

Mr. Evans (B. & 0.): Rule 3, Sec. 15. Determination of 
flat spots, worn flanges and chipped treads shall be made 
by a gage as shown in Fig. 1. The determination of thick 
flanges shall be made by a gage as shown applied to M. C. B. 
standard wheel tread and flange in Fig. 2. I would like to 
direct attention to the fact that it is necessary, under the 
present M. C. B. Rules, to have a gage for flange wear for 
' wheels under cars of over 80,000 lbs. capacity and possibly 
some members have suggestions to make as to how a gage 
can be constructed or possibly the old one adapted for the 
new rules. 

Pres. Grieb: This point has been considered by the com- 
mittee appointed by the Western Railway Club to recommend 
changes in the M. C. B. Rules and they present a modified 
gage that provides for wheels under cars of 60,000 lbs. ca- 
pacity and less, having the same gage as illustrated on pages 

April, 1902. 



8 and 9, and also for wheels of cars with a capacity of 80,000 
lbs. and over. 

Mr. "Parish (L. S. & M. S.) : We had that point under con- 
sideration but there has been nothing done as yet. I saw 
an advance' copy tonight, of the report of the committee on 
Revision of Rules of the Western Railway Club, and that 
has been taken care of by them. 

Secretary Kline: I would like to ask if it is the general 
understanding that an M. C. B. defect card covering broken 
draft timbers, end sill, or similar parts, is sufficient author- 
ity to charge for any bolts that it may be necessary to use 
In making repairs. 

Mr. Stimson: My understanding of the rules is that a de- 
fect card covers the replacement of a draft timber, and if 
it requires any new bolts they are to be included in the charge 
for the timbers. 

Mr. Kroff (P., F. W. & C.) : I would like to hear from some 
of the members on Rule 3, Sec. 17, in regard to axles for 
refrigerator cars; whether that limit is all right. 

Mr. Powell (I. C): Why should there be any question in 
regard to these axles? 

Mr. Kroff: The reason I asked that question is that re- 
frigerator cars are built heavy in themselves; they weigh 
from 12,000 lbs. up heavier than the ordinary car and in ad- 
dition to the ice, etc. I think it makes a greater capacity 
on the car and therefore I think the axles ought to be in- 
creased accordingly. 

Mr. Stimson: Mr. Kroff will doubtless re-call that this 
particular subject was discussed by this association some 
few months ago, and if my recollection is correct, it was 
decided that the lesser load for the refrigerator car more 
than compensated for its additional- weight. I think that Mr. 
Sharp of the Armour Car Lines showed the association very 
clearly that the average weight of a refrigerator car loaded 
was considerably less than the average weight of a loaded 
box car. As it was shown that although the capacity of re- 
frigerator cars was from 40,000 to 60,000 lbs., they were sel- 
dom loaded with more than 30,000 lbs. If that information is 
correct the difference between the load and the capacity of 
the car would more than compensate for the weight of ice 
and heavier the car body, my recollection is that it was so 
decided by the Association. The impression prevails in the 
minds of some inspectors and car men that because of the 
corrosion of axles that takes place under refrigerator cars 
that the axle is weakened, but such is not the case, that is 
to say, no more than to the extent of the corrosion, and I be- 
lieve that axles under refrigerator cars are made large on 
this account. I might add for the benefit of the members that 
recent tests have demonstrated that there is no perceptible 
diffierence in the strength of the axles of the same size re- 
moved from under box cars and those removed from under 
refrigerator cars, both having been in service the same time. 

Mr. Kroff: I do not understand how it is when you put 
a limit on such a thing you are going to allow excess weight 
on the other thing. Now a refrigerator is a great deal heavier 
than a common ordinary car and the M. C. B. Rules lay 
down laws showing what is the limit of a certain capacity. 
I am under the impression that those things have been over- 
looked; they have been forgotten the same as a good many 
more things have been forgotten. I believe that refrigerators 
are loaded to their full capacity a good many times, especially 
with boxed meat and more so when the car is rented out to 
some private concern. They will load all they can get in the 
car and I am of the opinion that the axle is too weak as 
laid down in these rules for refrigerator cars, although my 
opinion may be wrong. 

Mr. Stimson: Mr. Kroff seems to think that the light 
weight of the car is the basis of figuring the strength of the 
axle. Such is not the case however. I remember of read- 
ing with some interest the problems that were worked out 

in determining the size of the axle required for an 80,000 
and 100,000 lbs. capacity car, which were very thorough and 
extensive, but the light weight of the car cut very little 
figure in any of the problems or calculations, and so it was 
with the smaller sizes of axles when they were designed. 
It was figured that they would be expected to carry a certain 
load. The factor of safety for the journal of a 60,000 lb. axle 
is sufficiently high under an ordinary box car with a load 
of 60,000 lbs. It should therefore be entirely safe under a 
refrigerator car, which is seldom ever loaded with more than 
30,000 lbs. 

Mr. Parish (L. S. & M. S.): The only question in connec- 
tion with that would bo, I believe, the weight per square 
inch on the brass. There is :ao doubt in my mind but the 
factor of safety is great enough if there is a proper fillet 
at the back shoulder of the journal. The most trouble we 
have had from broken axles has been where the fillet was 
worn out. 

Mr. Schultz (C, B. & Q.): The idea seems to prevail that 
refrigerator cars are overloaded. A very small percen- 
tage of these cars are loaded to 30,000 lbs. In looking over 
the billing I find that they are loaded to 20,000 and 22,000, but 
very seldom to 24,000 lbs. by the packing companies. Those 
loaded by private firms, such as dairy products, etc., are some- 
times loaded to 30,000 lbs. but very seldom more, although 
the cars are 60,000 lbs. capacity. 

Mr. Powell: Rule 3, Sec. 7. Tread worn hollow; if the 
tread is worn sufficiently hollow to render the flange or rim 
liable to breakage. It seems to me that section allows the 
inspector to be the sole judge as to what amount of wear 
will render the flange or rim liable to breakage. We had 
a case the other day wherein we were asked to pass a bill 
where the tread was worn hollow % in. deep. That left it 
to the inspector to say whether the wheel was liable to 
damage. I would like the opinion as to whether any limit 
should be allowed in determining wear of tread or whether 
each inspector will determine a limit of his own. 

Mr. Blohm (C, M. & St. P.) : We have no set limit that we 
work by. We simply use our own judgment. 

Mr. Kroff: The rules say that the receiving road is to be 
the judge of what is safe to run and you willhave to go 
by the condition that you find the wheel in. A wheel cannot 
be worn very hollow and still be bad enough to condemn 
it. It may be worn through the chill, and if the wheel is 
worn hollow very bad it is liable to force the other wheel 
close to the flange and liable to breakage of the rim, and I 
do not see how there could be any rule laid down to govern 
worn hollow wheels. I think that it will have to be left 
entirely to the judgment of the inspectors or foreman re- 
moving the wheels. 

Mr. La Rue (C. R. I. & P.) : I do not think there should be 
any limit placed on that, for this reason, that the inspector 
should be the judge under the circumstances. There are dif- 
ferent makes of wheels and different weights of wheels. 
There are times when the lighter weight wheels get under the 
heavy car and for that reason I think the inspector should 
take into consideration where the wheel is and the load that 
it has to carry. Also I think there are certain other times 
when the wheel is worn through the chill. To a man that 
is used to handling wheels I think you will notice a wheel 
that is worn through chill you will find that certain dis- 
tances around the wheel where the wheel is worn on the 
other side. That was always evidence to me that it had gone 
through the chill and for that reason I would call the wheel 
worn hollow. 

Mr. Kroff: You will find a worn flange on one side and as 
a rule you will find the ma'te wheel worn hollow more or 
less, either from flange or next to flange. I do not know as 
there could be any line drawn there. You frequently apply 
two new wheels on one axle and on those removed you will 



April, 1902. 

find one wheel worn out and the mate wheel you have got 
to take for what it is worth. It may be a good wheel and 
run for quite a few more months and it may not run two 
weeks and I do not see how a limit could be drawn on the 
wheels in that respect. 

Mr. Powell: As the rules stand now each individual in- 
spector is to be the judge as to the limit allowed. The reason 
I raised this question was that a bill was presented to the 
Illinois Central R. R. where a party had designated the wheel 
as removed account worn hollow % in. If he had said worn 
hollow there would have been no question, but he said % in. 
deep which raised the question in my mind as to the right to 
say that a wheel worn % in. hollow was properly chargeable 
to the owner or not: whether that was sufficient depth to 
permit the wheel being removed for that cause. 

Mr. La Rue: That was the idea that I wanted to convey, 
that the different weights of wheels and difference in thick- 
ness of the treads when the wheel is worn % in. hollow and 
should it be a light capacity wheel, 550 lbs., and should get 
under a heavy 60,000 lb. capacity car, that wheel would have 
to be removed. 

Pres. Grieb: That is a prerogative which the rules give 
to the receiving line to be the judge of the safety of any 
portion of a car they accept for movement over its line. It 
is generally conceded that this matter should be left to the 
judgment of the individual inspector who is to pass upon 
the condition of the wheels, etc., based upon the leading of 
the car, its destination, etc., all of which have some bearing 
on making the decision. 

Mr. Kroff : I would like to ask the gentleman whether the 
mate wheel was condemned or whether the one wheel was 
simply removed account of worn hollow. 

Mr. Powell: Both wheels were condemned. 

Mr. Kroff: Then I think the man was justified in condemn- 
ing the worn hollow wheel, because if he condemned one 
wheel and found the other worn hollow it would not be 
policy for him to give full credit for second hand wheel 
and then could not get rid of it. 

Mr. Evans: In that case I think, since this section comes 
under that part of the defects for which the owner is re- 
sponsible, I do not think it is very good policy for the owner 
to object to a wheel taken out on account of worn hollow, 
as I think that defect generally develops from the fact that 
the wheels were originally mis-mated to a very great extent. 
You will find that a wheel worn hollow is 011 account of the 
other wheel being a little bit larger or smaller and wearing 
one wheel on the tread and the other at the flange. In that 
respect I do not think, at least in the past, that railroad 
companies have been sufficiently accurate in mounting up 
wheels. In my experience in inspecting wheels at the wheel 
foundries I find that that very important part was very often 
assigned to a boy or an irresponsible person, simply from 
the fact that it was a very simple thing of itself to do, to 
tape and mark a wheel and then after the wheel left the 
foundry the wheelpressman or man fitting up the wheels 
depended on the tape marks rather than taping the wheels 
himself. I think that is a very frequent cause of wheels 
wearing out in the way indicated and is a considerable more 
fruitful source of trouble in car trucks than has been given 
credit for. 

Mr. Stimson: I would like to ask for a little information, 
and that is to get an expression from the members, if they 
care to give one, as to what extent the practice is being fol- 
lowed of billing repairs for two-thirds of a combination 
indicating unfair usage, and leaving out the balance of it. 
I refer to instances where the combination has been broken, 
and the party who has broker, the combination has repaired 
the car but billed for only such part as prevent a combina- 
tion (in the bill) from being broken, whereas if they had 
been honest they should have repaired the car and attached 

their repair card without making auy bill. I would like to 
know to what extent that is encountered by the parties pass- 
ing bills and instances where they have caught up with the 
other fellow. 

Mr. Powell: For the benefit of the Illinois Central R. R. 
1 think I can give the gentleman a little information. It is 
my duty to pass on all charges made by the Illinois Central, 
of a doubtful nature. Whenever I find a case where there is 
a conflict on repair stubs you get no bill from the Illinois 
Central. In the case of draft timbers and couplers, (which 
is about the only kind of a conflict wherein a doubt exists), 
we try to trace. If coupler and the draft timbers are broken, 
we mark the stub "no bill." However, if the coupler is 
missing and the draft timbers are broken, we investigate 
and ascertain whether coupler was broken and caused the 
draft timbers to be broken after the coupler was taken out, 
or whether the draft timbers broke allowing the coupler to 
come out and become lost in the yard, for which we have 
our superintendents and master mechanics locate coupler and 
advise if there is any other damage that would cause a con- 
flict. If so, we mark the stub "no bill." However, if there 
is damage indicating rough usage, we do not hesitate in 
sending the repair stub to the owner. We try to make it 
our particular business to ascertain each conflict of that 
nature and properly protect the car owner and do not hesi- 
tate in cancelling any bill when our attention is called to 

Mr. Stimson : This is brought to my attention at the 
present time by a case we have under consideration now. 
One of our cars was cut out and held in a railroad shop for 
some time. We investigated (through the traffic officials) to 
find out why the car was held. After some considerable cor- 
respondence the general freight agent said the car was being- 
held because of broken deadwood, broken continuous draft 
rods, broken draft timbers, timber bolts and broken coupler. 
Several weeks afterwards we received a bill for repairs to 
the deadwood and the continuous draft rod, bolts, etc., 
necessary to make the repairs. When the car arrived homo, 
having this information in our possession, we instructed our 
inspector to make a careful examination of the car which 
had the repair card attached, and he discovered that the 
draft timber was broken, and the coupler had received re- 
cent repairs. We went back to the railroad company, not 
telling them that we had information that these defects ex- 
isted, when the car was in their shop, and they denied posi- 
tively that the car has a broken draft timber and continu- 
ous rod bolts, etc., and coupler. We have since called their 
attention to the fact that we had evidence that a combina- 
tion existed, and they acknowledged it and canceled the bill. 
That is one instance of many where we have caught im- 
proper billing in the same manner. 

Mr. Schultz: I believe the M. C. B. rules were intended for 
honest parties only. I do not think we will ever be able to 
make rules that can be used in any other service. 

Mr. Powell: For the benefit of Mr. Stimson I might say in 
my desk I have at least a dozen cases similar to the one he 
has referred to. Our trouble seems to be mostly with the 
southern lines wherein very heavy repairs are made and 
there is a conflict, but only part of the repairs made, we 
do not receive either bill or repair card stub for them, con- 
sequently cannot locate who made the repairs, but we can 
trace over each foreign road that the car moved and ask the 
parties if they made repairs. If they say "no" we are sim- 
ply stuck. I had two cases where the center sills and draft 
timbers were broken. We got joint evidence card showing 
other additional defects on the car had been repaired namely 
end sill but no repair card, and the car had moved over six 
or eight foreign roads. It is quite a difficult matter to get 
anybody to acknowledge that they made any repairs and if 
simply means that the Illinois Central railroad has got to re- 

April, 1902. 



pair the additional defects at their own expense, whereas 
some road had the ear in an accident. 

Pres. Grieb: In tracing the movement of these cars over 
foreign roads did you get a full tracer showing delays at 

Mr. Powell: We simply asked the head of the motive 
power department to trace the car over his line and ascer- 
tain what repairs were made. 

Pres. Grieb: I think Mr. Powell exhibits a larger amount 
of good nature than is credited to some other roads. On 
the Milwaukee road, in cases of that kind, we got the full 
movement of the car over the line in question and then 
asked them what repairs were made. We usually located 
the guilty party. 

Mr. Kroff : We do not experience so much trouble in that 
respect. There are a good many old cars out of kilter all 
the time and if you move them two blocks they have got to 
be repaired again. It might be on some cars of that nature 
that the trouble is found. We have not experienced such a 
great deal of trouble that I know of. 

Mr. Parish: We check our cases very similar to the way 
the Illinois Central does,— endeavor to locate the coupler and 
ascertain its condition. We do not receive the bills any 
more, for check at our shops, and have not for three or four 
years and I am not familiar with what those conditions are 
at present. 

Mr. Cook (S. R. L.) : We recently had a case where one 
of our cars arrived home bearing a new air brake hose ap- 
plied by a certain company, bearing their road initials and 
also carried repair card issued by the same company 
showing that they had applied this new hose on account of 
the old hose being burst. The hose at the opposite end of 
the car was one of our own hose bearing our own initials 
so that there could be no question that there was only one 
hose applied to the car. Our inspectors, on examining the 
car, discovered what the other man had not found and that 
was a defect card that had been placed on there covering 
one torn air hose, issued at an interchange point and the 
new hose had been applied at the same interchange point. 
It was simply a case of the receiving inspector receiving a 
car with defective air hose and not only overlooking the 
defect card on there but violating the rules in taking that car 
with defective hose and billing against the car owner. We 
had received a bill in the meantime, covering the application 
of this hose and returned the bill with the defect card and 
they very nicely cut the charge out of the bill and said they 
would render bill on the defect card, and it was only after 
we had gone back after them the third or fourth time that 
we finally received an acknoweldgment that the matter had 
been handled out of the ordinary. 

Mr. Evans: On this same subject I would like to ask,— 
page 15 says, "Combination of defects that denote unfair 
usage if caused at one and the same time and at the same 
end of car." I would like to have the benefit of the associa- 
tion as .regards that part "caused at one and the same time." 
I think that that could be just as well left out because it 
is impossible to determine whether the defects have occurred 
at the same time, particularly if they have run for some 

Pres. Grieb: I think it is generally accepted that if the 
combination is found that is sufficient evidence of responsi- 

Mr. Evans: I would like to ask, in regard to Rule 3, Sec. 
27, page 13, Owners responsible "if the car has air-signal 
pipes or air-brake pipes.but no air brakes, the hose and 
couplings on the car are at owner's risk, unless the car is 
stencilled that it is so equipped." I do not recall that there 
is anything in the rules under which we are working, except 
the capacity of the car being stencilled on the car, that says 

anything about stenciling the car with what is standard to 
the car. I think some car owners take advantage of that 
by stenciling the car that a certain kind of equipment is 
standard to the car. I would like to know whether the rules 
give them that privilege. 

Mr. Grieb: That same idea of stenciling refers to metal 
brake beams and wood beams. You will notice Mr. Evans 
brings forward the point of responsibility of the delivering 
line for parts that are missing or receive repairs if not spe- 
cially stencilled. Whether it is the intention under the M. C. 
B. rules to restrict this responsibility of the delivering line 
to the matter of brake beams, wood against metal and the 
air pipe and hose. Would it apply to any other items that 
are not specially mentioned here? 

Mr. La Rue: If I understand what he is getting at, he 
wants to know whether it is in accordance with the M. C. B. 
Rules to stencil on the side of the car to maintain a certain 
kind of draft rigging, for instance. 

Pres. Grieb: That would be one of the restrictions. 

Mr. Evans: Suppose you stencil the car "Equipped with 
Universal car bearings." Does that give the owner the privi- 
lege of requiring everybody to carry a stock of Universal car 

Pres. Grieb: I do not think that is the intention nor is it 
in accordance with the rules. 

Mr. Powell: I would like to call attention to Sec. 29, Rule 
3, "Car not within the limits of standard height for couplers 
3ly 2 inches to 34% inches for standard gauge cars." I un- 
derstand the proceedings of the Master Car Builders state 
how a car shall be raised, but I think it proper to have some 
information of that nature included in the rules because we 
find frequently that roads are charging us for raising ear to 
standard height, whereas practically all they do is place a 
shim under the coupler. That is not proper repairs, although 
from the appearance of the stub it would show the coupler 
raised iy 2 or 2 ins., as the case may be, and for all you can 
tell, without joint evidence card, it is all right and yau pay 
the bill. We are unable to say whether repairs were made 
properly or not, and I think the information should be em- 
bodied in the rules that the car should be raised on the bol- 

Pres. Grieb: Do I understand that the Illinois Central 
would pay for a coupler being raised to proper height if it 
is done by putting a shim under the coupler? 

Mr. Powell: Not exactly, because we have had a few cars 
with a shim put under the coupler and when the car settled 
those shims were supposed to be taken out and allow the 
coupler to remain at standard height, and under those cir- 
cumstances of course we would not pay the regular charge 
for raising car to standard height. The ordinary charge is 
one dollar for raising a coupler and the same should be raised 
to standard height on the bolster, according to M. C. B. pro- 
cedure. But if it is raised under the coupler it is temporary 
repairs and not chargeable to the owner of the car. 

Mr. Parish: I would like to ask Mr. Powell if very many 
roads bill against them for raising a coupler in the manner 
he has described? 

Mr. Powell: We have instances wherein bill was presented 
for raising car to standard height, as before stated. 

Mr. Jones (B. & 0.) : I would like to ask if the Illinois Cen- 
tral accepted the bill? 

Mr. Powell: Not intentionally. 

Mr. Jones: It is a case of temporary repairs and no bill 
should be made. 

Mr. Powell: Suppose you are in the office and a repair 
card stub comes to you reading "Car raised to standard 
height." You have no other information before you. what 
are you going to do. Pay the bill or object to it. 

Pres. Grieb: Do you get your repair cards back? 



April, 1902. 

Mr. Powell: I do not believe that the Illinois Central gets 
25 per cent of repair cards back. 

Mr. La Rue: I think if my memory serves me right the 
Illinois Central is the road that stated here that the repair 
cards were taken off by the goats. 

Mr. Blohm: We raise the cars under the bolsters. We 
would not render a bill for raising a coupler in the way the 
gentleman has stated. That is only temporary repairs for 
our own benefit so we will not have to go to so much work 
to raise the car under the bolster. If we have a loaded car 
and the coupler is too low we will stick a plate under the 
coupler and make no charge. 

Mr. Kroff: There are several ways of raising cars, as Mr. 
Blohm says. The Milwaukee cars have gibs on the truck 
bolsters to raise them up and a man might put a shim un- 
der the truck springs and raise them up or he might shorten 
the truck hangers. As Mr. Powell says that somebody has 
been putting a shim under, I do not think any one would 
bill on that. That would just simply be to get the car with- 
in the limits. I would like to ask Mr. Powell how he knew 
the man put a shim under the coupler to get it within the 
standard height. 

Mr. Powell: I do not remember how the case came up. 
Of course I do not intend to infer that any road would make 
this bill intentionally, but I know - if we should get a case 
of that kind in our office we would presume that repairs were 
properly made, whereas as a matter of fact there was merely 
a shim put under the coupler to raise it to standard height. 
The question was not raised as to whether a road would in- 
tentionally bill for such repairs, but merely how would you 
determine it from the information in your office as to whether 
the repairs were proper. Also as to specifying in the rules 
proper method of raising car? 

Mr. Kroff: I notice quite a lot of little kicks coming from 
the office about wrong repairs and I will admit that the men 
do not know much about repairs sitting in the office. He 
has got to get on the outside and see what is done. There 
are lots of times repair men work under peculiar conditions. 
The clerk gets the stub and looks it over and they do not 
understand about this; how about that, and the poor ear 
inspector has got to write a big song as to how it was, all 
this and that, and then they are making lots of trouble for 
the inspector that inspects the car. He is the man to say 
whether the repairs are wrong and if he accepts the car I 

think the owner ought to be thoroughly well satisfied to pay 
the bill. 

Mr. Downing (L. S. & M. S.): We have had a good many 
cases where we raise the cars by putting a shim under the 
coupler to raise them to the proper height and consider that 
the owner ought to pay for putting these shims under to level 
up the coupler. In regard to Illinois Central cars we find them 
too high when loaded,although they are all right when empty. 
They come down in the center and the ends raise up and we 
have to shim the carrying iron down. 

Meeting adjourned. 

The following report will be presented for discussion at the 
April meeting: 

Chicago, March 18, 1902. 
Car Foremen's Association of Chicago: 

Your committee, in considering the revision of rules of 
interchange, find that there is a general feeling that the rules 
should be allowed to remain unchanged. If they are not 
changed, the benefits derived will be considerable on account 
of the fact that there would be no disturbance of the gen- 
eral good results being obtained under the present rules. Very 
few cases have been referred to the Arbitration Committee 
during the past year, and it is believed that the number would 
be even less if the rules are not disturbed. The Car Fore- 
men's and Inspectors' Associations of this country have ac- 
complished a great deal toward arriving at a uniform inter- 
pretation of the rules. This is evidenced by the decided re- 
duction in correspondence relative to bills, and a great re- 
duction in the number of cars delayed at interchange points. 
The rules in their present form are perfectly satisfactory, 
we believe, to railroad and private car companies, and partic- 
ularly so to inspectors who handle the detail work of car 
interchange. Any radical change in the rules has the effect 
of disturbing these conditions for at least four months each 
year. It is desirable to avoid this condition of affairs, not 
only from the point of view of the inspector, but also from 
that of the Traffic Department. 

Therefore, we would recommend that the Arbitration Com- 
mittee of the M. C. B. Association be advised that it is the 
opinion of this Association that the rules governing inter- 
change and inspection should be allowed to stand as they 

Le Grand Parish, Chairman; Hugh Marsh, H. H. Harvey, F. 
C. Kroff, T. R. Morris. 

May, 1902. 



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Vol. XXVI. 

CHICAGO, MAY, 1902. 

No. 5- 

THE Pennsylvania Railroad Company is going to use 
the high-speed brake on all of its passenger equip- 
ment on all lines, east and west of Pittsburg. The cost 
involved in making the necessary-changes will amount to 
approximately $130,000. It is claimed for this brake 
that it is 25 per cent more efficient than the present brake, 
and in its operation the entire power of the brake is put 
upon the wheels immediately upon applying the air to the 
cylinder, and is gradually released as the momentum of 
the train decreases. This is effected by modifications of 
the triple valve. The general introduction of the high- 
speed brake was not determined upon until after a full 
and thorough trial on the part of the company. We un- 
derstand that the Lehigh Valley railroad and Grand 
Trunk railway have also decided to use the high-speed 
brake for all passenger equipment. 

■» » » 

between Eckley and Wray, Colo., was made. The train. 

consisting of an engine and nine cars, made the distance 

of 14.8 miles in just 9 minutes, which is at the rate of 

98.66 miles per hour. The train left Denver for Chicago 

ten minutes late, having to wait for a through California 

car from the D. & R. G. Ry. A heavy wind prevailed to 

Akron, 112 miles from Denver, causing them to leave 

Akron 30 minutes late. A distance of 39 miles from 

Akron to Eckley was covered at the rate of 67 miles per 

hour, and 14 miles between Eckley and Wray was made 

in 9^2 minutes. For this stretch of 15 miles a speed of 

more than 90 miles an hour was attained and maintained 

for the entire distance. 


ONE of the locomotives recently equipped for burn- 
ing oil on the Fitchburg division of the Boston & 
Maine road, and which is used as a helper in the Hoosac 
Tunnel, recently caught fire at Williamstown, Mass., due 
to a torch coming in contact with the oil in the tender 
tank. The locomotive was standing on a side track near 
a car of oil in the yard and the flames spread from the 
engine to the car, causing so large a blaze that the fire 
department was called out. The engineman backed the 
engine under a water crane and extinguished the flames 
with a great volume of water. The car was then moved 
under the standpipe and the second fire drowned. A de- 
scription of this design of locomotive was published in 
the December, 1901, issue of the Railway Master Me- 

<» » » 

THE last month has witnessed some unusually fast 
running time on two of our western roads, the 
Continental Limited, on the Wabash railroad, making a 
record from Tilton to Granite City, running 180 miles in 
180 minutes This was with five stops— three station 
stops, one to change engines, and one to take on coal. 
The actual running time was 158 minutes. The run from 
Danville to Decatur, 71.6 miles, was made in 70 minutes, 
including stops at Tolono and Bement. The run from 
Decatur to Granite City, 105 miles, was made in 10 1 
minutes. A five-minute stop was made at Litchfield, 
making the actual running time 96 minutes, an average 
of 65.4 miles for the whole distance. The best previous 
time was 98 minutes. From Staunton to Carpenter, 10.2 
miles, the time was seven minutes, or at the rate of 87.42 
miles an hour. The 47 miles from Boody to Honey Bend 
was made in 40 minutes — 70.5 miles an hour. On the 
Burlington a record-breaking run of an east-bound train 

THE bill providing for the adoption by the United 
States of the metric system of weights and meas- 
ures, which was ordered to be favorably reported to the 
house by the committee on coinage, weights and meas- 
ures some weeks ago, contains an amendment providing 
as follows: "That on and after Jan v 1, 1904, all the de- 
partments of the government of the United States, in the 
transaction of all business requiring the use of weights 
and measures, except in completing the survey of public 
lands, shall employ and use only the weights and measures 
of the metric system; and on and after Jan. 1, 1907, the 
weights and measures of the metric system shall be legal 
standard weights and measures in the United States." 
It is said that the ordnance bureau of the war department, 
in which it is conceded the greatest inconvenience will be 
suffered by the transition, is favorably disposed toward 
the change. The bureau of steam engineering is not so 
strongly inclined, the principal objection being the co* 1 - 
of making the change. It is not proposed to make tnc- 
installation at once, but to have it take place under such 
regulations as shall be prescribed by the heads of the de- 
partments, in accordance with the practical requirements. 


AVERY elaborate and interesting account of the 
railways in Turkey is given through the consular 
reports by Mr. Thomas H. Norton, who is our consul at 
Harput. He writes that the contract between the Otto- 
man government and the Anatolian Railway Companv 



May, Ig0o 

for the construction of the railroad from Konieh to Bag- Church, Kerr & Co., including complete generating; 
dad and the Persian Gulf has been concluded. This in- plants as well as motor equipments. This apparatus will 
sures through rail communication from the Bosphorus be installed in the new shops of the Union Pacific R. R. 

and the Mediterranean to the Indian Oceon. As is well 
known, the prolonged delay in reaching the agreement 
hinged upon the amount of the imperial subsidy to be ac- 
corded the new road and the security offered for the 
same. The road is a continuation of the railway extend- 

at Omaha, and the Oregon Short Line R. R. at Pocatello. 
Idaho, and will consist of Westinghouse machines 
throughout — engines, generators and motors. It is pro- 
posed to adopt direct-driven tools wherever possible. 
The equipment for the Union Pacific shops at Omaha 

ing from the Bosphorus to Konieh, and the company will contain two compound engines directly connected to 

which built and owns the latter has received the conces- 250-k. w. 250-volt engine type generators and one com- 

sion for the new route. For economic reasons, it is evi- pound engine directly connected with a 75-k. w. 250-volt 

dently desirable that this company should construct and generator. These engines are to run non-condensing 

operate the prolongation. 
Before the close of the nego- 
tiations, it is reported that 
American capitalists offered 
to construct and operate the 
road without requiring a 
state subsidy. 

Recent propositions from 
the same quarter to construct 
a line along the eastern lit- 
toral of the Red Sea indicate 
that American capital is be- 
ginning to consider seriously 
the possibility of investment 
in the Orient. There is a 
strong probability that con- 
cessions could be obtained 
by American capitalists in 
the Ottoman Empire . with 
greater ease than by Euro- 
peans, on account of the to- 
tal absence of political en- 
tanglements. Of interest in 
this connection is a letter in 
the Chicago Record-Herald 
by Mr. William E. Curtis, 
now traveling in Turkey, 
who states that Damascus, 
Jerusalem and Tarsus can 
already be reached by rail, 
and that is will soon be pos- 
sible to go by train to Mount 
Ararat. Since 1896 the 
Russians have beene build- 

Mr. J. E. Childs. 



Mr. Childs entered railway service in 1865 as assistant 
engineer of the New York and Oswego Midland Railroad. 
Prom there he has risen through the Engineering Depart- 
ment to his present position, having been connected with 
several leading railroads during that time. 

under a boiler pressure of 
150-lbs. The contract also 
covers 21 shop motors of 
various sizes from 5 to 25 
horse power. The generat- 
ing sets are to be of regular 
engine type construction 
with bedplates. The Oregon 
Short Line contract covers 
two Standard engine type 
outfits for direct connection 
to 150-k. w. 250-volt gener- 
ator, the engines to be of the 
regular Westinghouse con- 
struction with bedplates. 
The contract also covers 12 
shop motors . of various 
sizes. These engines will 
operate non-condensing un- 
der a boiler pressure of 100 
lbs. Under both of these 
contracts Westinghouse mo- 
tors will be used for all indi- 
vidual direct-driven tools. 
There will be 21 motors for 
Omaha, ranging from 5 h. 
p. to 25 h. p. and 12 motors 
for Pocatello ranging from 
5 h. p. to 25 h. p. 

■+* » 


N unusual shipment of 
machinery parts was 
recently made from the 
works of the Allis-Chalmers 

Kara, a strongly fortified city on the Turkish frontier. Company, at Milwaukee, Wis. It consisted of a steel 

ing a line south from Tiflis, and have already reached shaft 30 ins. in diameter and 34 ft. long, with its fittings. 

Kara is near the foot of Mount Ararat, 5,689 ft. above The shaft is hollow forged, with a 10-in. hole, and was 

the sea level. The railroad is chiefly important for finished and fitted for use in one of the plants of the 

strategic purposes, but the people in the interior raise a American Steel & Wire Co., at Cleveland, Ohio. The 

great deal of wool, and, having facilities for reaching the" actual shipping weight of the shaft was 78 tons. It will 

market, will no doubt extend their enterprises. be used with a 40 and 80x60 combined vertical and hori- 

*"*"* zontal Reynolds rolling mill engine, carrying a rope wheel 

THE increasing use of electricity in railway shops is 23 ft. in diameter by 18 ft. face. The weight of the wheel 
evidenced by the many plants which are being is about 138 tons. The total weight of the finished engine 
equipped in this manner. We note that recently two im- is about 500 tons. The shaft was shipped on two flat 
portant contracts for electrical apparatus for operating cars, being supported at each end by heavy timber block- 
railroad shops have been secured by Westinghouse. ing well braced longitudinally of the car. 

May, 1902. 


Burlington Route Test Car 

By Max H. Wickhorst, Engineer of Tests, C, B. & Q. Ry. 


HE Burlington Route test car contains an oil 
dynamometer for measuring train resistance, 
an Orsat gas analysis apparatus for analyzing 
smokebox gases or products of combustion, 
air-brake recorder, steam pressure recorder, 
smoke box vacuum recorder, Boyer speed re- 
corder, and several electric counters. The im- 
portant part of the equipment consists of the 
dynamometer and the gas analysis apparatus. 
The car body is similar to the regular Burlington way 
cars, being 30 feet 9 inches outside of the sills, 30 feet 
long by 8 feet 6 inches wide inside, with a platform on 

train and thus cut out the dynamometer and save any 
strain on it. To do this it is simply necessary to open 
a bypass to allow free circulation of the oil between the 
two ends of the cylinder, and put in filler blocks to fill 
in the space between the springs and encircling yoke. 

The recording arrangement is somewhat similar in 
principle to a steam indicator, consisting of two cylinders 
9-16 inch diameter, or about %. square inch area placed 
on each end of a bed plate and the piston rod extending 
from one to the other. The general arrangement is 
shown in Fig. 3 and Fig. 6. The piston rod is held in 
place by means of two springs, each under compression 


Fig. 1 — Burlington Route Test Car and Locomotive. 

each end, and has a convenient cupola situated over the 
recording table and seating four men conveniently. An 
outside view is given in one of the accompanying illustra- 
tions, Fig. 1, and a general plan of the car is shown 
by cut No. 5. It will be noted, one end contains the 
dynamometer, large gauge board, recording table, gas 
analysis apparatus, and work benches, while the other 
end contains seats and sleeping accommodations. 

The dynamometer consists of an oil cylinder or oil 
"jack" 10 inches in diameter with a piston of 5 inches 
face, 23^2 -inch piston rod, and four inches of free move- 
ment of piston. There is no packing around either the 
piston or rod, but both being ground fits, and still free in 
movement. This makes an expensive construction, but 
does away with friction in the dynamometer. The cylin- 
der is designed to withstand a pressure of at least 1,000 
pounds per square inch, which is equivalent to a tractive 
pull of over 75,000 pounds. The general principle is the 
same as that used by Prof. L. P. Breckenridge, of the 
University of Illinois, but we have merely one piston, and 
this is double acting ; that is, suitable for either pull or 
push. When in testing service, the drag of the train 
comes on the cushion of oil and we arrange to take auto- 
matic record of the oil pressure thus developed. In addi- 
tion to the oil cylinder there is a twin spring draft ar- 
rangement which can be made to take the drag of the 

of one-half their capacity, the springs each having a seat 
on one end against one of the small cylinders and the 
other end against a sleeve, fastened to the piston rod. 
The pressure then on either end of the piston rod will 
compress one spring and release the other. As one cylin- 
der is piped to the front end of the dynamometer and the 
other to the back end, the recorder is thus made double 
acting. The movement of the piston rod is multiplied 
by means of a lever arm giving a multiplication of 10 and 
giving a straight line motion with correct multiplication. 
The ordinate obtained with a given pressure may be 
varied by using different capacity springs in the recorder, 
and we aim to get an average ordinate of 3 or 4 inches. 
The records are taken by means of stylographic pens. 
one of which draws a datum line, or line of zero drawbar 
pull which remains stationary and is set before starting. 
The drawbar recording pen gives an ordinate varying 
with the drawbar pull or pressure in the dynamometer. 
The general arrangement of the piping is shown in 
Fig. 7. It will be noted that pipes lead from both ends 
of the bottom of he dynamometer and the pressure at 
either end can be shown on high pressure gauge or on 
low pressure gauge which also shows vacuum, or mav 
also be lead to the recorder. There is an oil supply tank 
and a hand pump. This pump can be used to replenish 



May, 1902. 

the dynamometer while on the road, going with the train 
if necessary, although practically this necessity never 
occurs. One pipe leads from the top of each end of the 
dynamometer, and these are air pipes, which are used for 
forcing the oil out of the dynamometer back into the oil 
tank whenever it is desired to drain the dynamometer. 
This air can be obtained from an air supply attached to 
the pipe system in the car, or it may be obtained from 
the auxiliary reservoir under the car, a pipe being tapped 
into this. Each of the oil pipes from the dynamometer 
has in it a check valve which has a scratch on its seat, so 

of mallets while the paper is pulled through slowly until 
the recording pen becomes stationary. The recording 
pen is then forced to the other side and the same pro- 
cedure gone through. If there is no undue lost motion 
and the recording piston has no undue friction, the two 
lines thus obtained will very nearly coincide. The valves 
are now opened so that pressure produced by the gauge 
tester is brought to one end of the recorder, while the 
other end is opened free to the atmosphere, care being 
taken to have the gauge tester brought level with the re- 
corder, or else to correct for difference produced by the 

Fig. 2 — End of Car Showing Gauge Board Recorder, Piping, Etc. 

it is never perfectly closed and which relieves any 
vacuum or pressure that may occur in the end not in use 
for recording pull or push. For convenience of distinc- 
tion the oil pipes from the front end of the dynamometer 
are painted red, and those from the back end are painted 
blue, the air pipes are painted green, and other pipes 

For tbe purpose of calibrating the dynamometer, we 
use a dead-weight gauge tester, which is tapped into the 
pipe system and arranged so pressure can be obtained in 
either the front end or back end of the recorder. Before 
calibrating, the apparatus is all put together and datum 
pen properly set. To test the datum line the 
pen is forced to one side and allowed to come back slowlv 
and the bed plate of the recorder tapped with a couple 

head of oil. Pressures are now produced by means of 
the gauge tester, starting with say 20 pounds per square 
inch and using increments of 20 pounds up to the de- 
sired limit of 200 or 300 pounds per square inch. At 
each pressure the corresponding ordinate is obtained in 
the same manner as in testing the datum line. Having 
these various ordinates corresponding to various press- 
ures per square inch, and knowing the area of the dyna- 
mometer piston and dynamometer piston rod, we figure 
the corresponding drawbar pull. From this we then plot 
a calibration chart showing ordinate in inches hori- 
zontally and the drawbar pull vertically. In service, 
when the engine is pulling, the back end of the dyna- 
mometer is open to the oil tank through the check valve 
described above, and also to the back end of the re- 

May, 1902. 



al-0 _fluuaU 

30— 9" out to tmt gf j tl t l 

Fig. 5 — Burlington Route Test Car. 

corder, while the front end of the dynamometer is open 
only to the front end of the recorder. The oil head in 
the tank, acting through the dynamometer, produces 
pressure in the front end of the recorder, but it also acts 
directly on the back end of the recorder, and the two thus 
neutralize each other. Any oil head in the tank or for 
that matter,any excess pressure of vacuum that may occur 
in the back end of the dynamometer while engine is pull- 
ing, has no effect on the recorder, and only the pressure 
in the front end of the dynamometer due to the pull of 
the engine is recorded. 

The feeding mechanism for feeding record paper is 
shown in Fig. 6. It consists of a worm and gear on the 
axle under the recording table which drives a shaft run- 
ning up into the car, which in turn drives some gearing, 
and motion is finally produced in a brass feed roll. Paper 
is passed by this brass cylinder and made to press against 
it by means of a rubber roll. As at present constructed, 
the paper may be fed at the rate of about one foot of 
paper to the mile of track or two feet to the mile. For 
most work we use a feed of one foot to the mile, al- 
though for a great deal of train resistance work the feed 
of two feet to the mile is used, and sometimes it would 
be desirable to have still greater feed of paper. 

Besides a record of drawbar pull, we have also ar- 
ranged to get records of distance, location, time, reverse 
lever positions, places where indicator cards were taken, 
integrator record showing area of dynamometer diagram, 
and at times other records. The recording pens consist 
of 8 electro-magnets and four pens, each pen being con- 
nected with two of the electro-magnets and arranged so 
that one electro-magnet deflects the pen in one direction 
and the other in the opposite direction. Sample record is 
shown in Fig. 9. To locate mile-posts, stations, etc., an 
observer is placed in the cupola, and as the car passes a 
mile-post he pushes a button which actuates an electric 
magnet, and this in turn deflects a recording pen, making- 

a notch in the record line. Time is recorded by means ; of 
a clock closing a circuit every five seconds, and this in 
turn notching the same line in the opposite direction. 
Reverse lever positions are recorded by an observer in the 
engine cab pressing a button an appropriate number of 
times ; the places indicator cards are taken are recorded 
in a similar manner by an observer on the front €nd 
pressing a button just before taking the card. The 
various wires running from the engine into the car are 
collected into one cable, and suitable terminals are placed 
in the car and on the end of the cable to allow connecting 
or disconnecting quickly. 

The mechanical integrator is a very important and use- 
ful adjunct, and automatically records the area of the 
dynamometer diagram as it is produced. The integrator 
consists of a wheel Ij4 inches in diameter whose plane at 
zero ordinate is about at right angles to the line of mo- 
tion of the paper, but as the drawbar ordinate increases 
the plane of the wheel is rotated and the wheel thus re- 
volves as the paper moves under it. The number of revo- 
lutions of the wheel is a function of the length of the 
paper passing under the wheel and the length of the ordi- 
nate — that is, it is a function of area of dynamometer dia- 
gram. The integrator wheel also has attached to its 
shaft a small commutator having 20 contacts on its cir- 
cumference, and each time a contact is made it actuates 
one of the recording pens. The dimensions of the instru- 
ment are such that each contact or notch in the record 
line equals 2.243 square inches of area of dynamometer 
diagram above integrator zero line. In practice it is usual 
to set the integrator so that the integrator zero line -is 
somewhat below the drawbar zero lin'e, and then deter- 
mine what is the constant difference between the two 
lines, the integrator zero line, however, not being actually 
drawn. To determine the average ordinate of a given 
length of diagram, we count the number of integrator 
notches included in this length, multiply by 2.243, then 



May, 1902. 

divide by the length of the diagram, and finally substract 
the constant, which then gives us the average ordinate of 
the dynamometer diagram. In Volume XXII of 1901 of 
the transactions of the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers, page 83, the author described the mechanical 
integrator which was used with our old dynamometer. 

Fig. 4 — Gas Analysis Apparatus. 

The principle of the present integrator is somewhat dif- 
ferent and was copied from one used by the Pennsylvania 

The various wires of the car come to terminals on one 
switch board placed on the recording table. This switch 
board will take care of 12 push buttons or places of mak- 
ing contact, also of 12 electro-magnets. At present we 
have 7 independent lines where circuit can be made, and 
1 1 independent electro-magnets ; 8 of these are used for 
actuating pens and 3 of them for actuating counters. For 
batteries we have 30 ordinary ammonium Chloride wet 
batteries arranged in 3 sets of 10 each. The batteries are 
arranged in multiple series with 2 cells in each series, thus 
giving a pressure of about 2 volts. The various push 
button circuits have a common return, the various electro- 
magnets have a common return, and the batteries also 
hav a common return. 

The gauge board is shown in Fig. 2 and Fig. 8. This 
gauge board has the clock which makes a circuit every z 
seconds, 3 electric counters which can be used for count- 
ing air pump strokes, etc., dynamometer gauges, Boyer 
speed gauge, air gauge showing both train line and brake 
cylinder pressure, recording train line pressure gauge, 
recording smokebox vacuum gauge, steam gauge show- 
ing boiler pressure in the engine and recording steam 

The gas analysis apparatus is shown in Fig. 4, and is 
an Orsat apparatus as modified by A.Bement.and was ob- 

tained from him. A pipe extends into the smokebox of 
the locomotive, ordinarily just back of and below the ex- 
haust nozzle, and runs from there back into the test car. 
a suction pump being placed in the car to draw the 
smokebox gases back through the apparatus. Care is 
taken to see that the pipe line is tight by closing a small 
pet cock placed just outside of the smokebox, producing 
a little vacuum in the pipe and then noting if this is sus- 
tained, by means of a column of water in a glass tube. 
The various absorbent solutions are potassium hydrate 
for absorbing carbon dioxide, or (C0 2 ) ; pyrogallic acid, 
for absorbing oxygen, or (O), and cuprous chloride, for 
absorbing carbon monoxide, or (CO). 

Below is given a list of the more important tests made 
with the car since first built, the tests made in 1901 being 
with the remodeled car. This list is not at all complete, 
but gives an idea of the various uses that have been made 
of the test car. 

Tests Made with Burlington Route Test Car. 
Built in 1885 with twin spring dynamometer and 
remodeled in 1901, with a hydraulic dyna- 
mometer and gas analysis apparatus added. 
1885 Tests made of tractive force of various engines. 

Fig 3 — Top of Table Showing Recorder, Sample 
Record and Switch Board. 

1886 and 1887 Burlington brake tests made for Master 
Car Builders' Association from Burlington, la., 
to Middletown, la. 

1886 Relative tractive power with 53-inch and with 57- 

inch wheel center. Comparison of engines with 
17 and 18 inch cylinders. 

1887 Comparison of four engines in passenger service, 

coal, water, dynamometer recorder and indicator 
189 1 Test compound engine No. 324 and simple engine 
No. 75. 

May, 1902. 



Fig. 6 — Arrangement of Dynamometer, Recorder, Etc. 

1892 Tests of six engines in passenger service, four 
simple and two compound — coal, water, indi- 
cator cards and dynamometer records. 

1894 Tests of five engines in freight service, three sim- 
ple, two compound — coal, water, indicator cards, 
and dynamometer records. 

Train resistance as affected by length of train, 
empty and loaded cars. 

Tonnage rates equalized for length of train, Gales- 
burg to Mendota. 

Passenger train resistance ; variation with increase 
of speed, fast mail tests. 

t &* Tr «J MT" **■' 

. I I 4 I ■ I $ Hi \r r 


" General /IrranQcment of Ptmno " 
C B& O Test Car 

• n < )v *; ^ wgwpw gwmap — 

~'S7Z7 7WWVP"JFZJ »- 

Fig. 7 — Arrangement of Piping. 

1895 Car loaned to Denver & Rio Grande R. R. Co. 

Rail washer tests, resistance of cars with sand on 
rail and sand washed off. 

1897 Car loaned to Chicago & Northwestern R. R. Co. 

1899 Rail washtests, resistance of cars with sand on rail 

and sand washed off. 

1900 Train rating tests, Creston division, C.,B. & Q. Ry. 

7Wg vnzuwu^g — 

Fig. 9 — Dynamometer Record 

Freight train resistance, side bearings and center- 
plates lubricated and not lubricated. 

Narrow vs. wide fireboxes ; gas analyses. 
1901 Curve resistance tests at West Alton, Mo. 

Freight train resistance, side bearings and center- 
plate lubricated and not lubricated. 

Compound vs. simple engines, freight and pas- 
senger service. 



May, 1902. 

Cylinder and boiler performance, mechanical 
efficiency and gas analyses. 
Finally, I wish to say that in remodeling our car, spe- 
cial credit is due Mr. C. C. Higgins, my assistant, who 

Fig. 8 — Gauge Board. 

made the necessary designs and drawings and looked 
after the construction. My thanks are also due to a good 
many others who offered suggestions and helped in 
various ways. 

•♦ » » 

Interstate Commerce Commission Report 

THE report on "Safety Appliances and Accident Re- 
ports," which is an extract from the fifteenth an- 
nual report of the Interstate Commerce Commission, has 
been received by us. The importance of the matters dis- 
cussed therein are of great interest, and we quote the 
following as being worthy of especial notice : 

The act of 1893, with its amendments, known as the 
safety-appliance law, became of full effect on the 1st of 
August, 1900, and the beneficent results of its operation 
are now being realized. The greatly increased securitv 
of life and limb with which the men on freight trains and 
in freight yard now perform their work is apparant on 
every hand. Evidence of the improved conditions that 
have resulted from the practically universal use of auto- 
matic couplers on freight cars appears in the accident 
records of the commission, of the railroad companies, and 
of the railroad employes' insurance organizations, and 
also in ,the testimony of railroad officers and employes 
and the heads of the engineers', conductors', firemen's, 
and trainmen's brotherhoods. Further proof, from the 
financial standpoint, is found in the records of the claim 
departments of the railroads, as well as those of the sev- 
eral trainmen's organizations. 

This gratifying state of affairs is due to the Federal 
statute, to the railroad companies' united action, and, we 
believe we may fairly say, to the efficient performance of 
their duties by the inspectors in the service of the com- 
mission ; in other words, to the energy and perseverance 
of the men, in and out of Congress, who brought about 
the passage of the law, to the persistent work of the 

managers and mechanical officers of the railroads, who. 
in their technical associations, carried through the vari- 
ous measures necessary to accomplish uniformity, and to 
the intelligent and careful inspection by which the com- 
mission has been able to promote the efficient and method- 
ical maintenance of couplers, brakes and handholds on 
freight cars, and to facilitate the adoption of good prac- 
tice in regard thereto. 

In the expansion of traffic incident to unprecedented 
activity in manufacturing and commerce, many railroad 
companies found themselves hard pressed to keep pace 
with the demands for increased locomotive power, cars 
of greater carrying capacity and other costly facilities, 
and thus, almost of necessity, gave inadequate attention 
to some matters of detail. In this emergency the useful- 
ness of the commission's inspectors, in supervising the 
methods of dealing with defective cars or with doubtful 
questions about the requirements of the statute, has not 
only been evident in resulting improvements, but has been 
cordially recognized by railroad officers of all grades. 
These inspectors, who are competent men of long ex- 
perience in car and train work, have not confined their 
observations exclusively to those details of construction 
and operation which are specifically covered by the stat- 
ute, but have taken notice of all features of operation, 
maintenance and repairs which seem to be germane to the 
work in which they are engaged. In their interview with 
railroad presidents and managers they have frequently 
made suggestions, based on their observations, which 
have elicited much commendation from those officials. 

The inspectors have also been successful in establishing 
amicable relations with conductors, brakemen, repairmen 
and others with whom they come in contact, their former 
service in train and car repair work being of great ad- 
vantage to them in this respect. 

In crediting to the railroad technical associations the 
important share they have borne in bringing about this 
great reform in equipment, it is proper to say that the 
various local clubs and associations, which have become 
so prominent in the railroad world during the past few 
years, have been active and useful, though the national 
associations were the pioneers and leaders in the move- 
ment. These associations have done a work which is 
unique — unique in the sense of influence exerted and re- 
sults accomplished. The Master Car Builders' Associa- 
tion, composed of technical officers, has carried on the 
campaign for uniformity for many years, and the Ameri- 
can Railway Association, more strictly official in its char- 
acter yet still voluntary in its organization, has put the 
seal of approval on the acts of the former body. This 
approval — that is, the adoption of standards of construc- 
tion and of practice — has had a marked effect in pro- 
moting a wholesome respect for the law, notwithstanding 
the fact that the decisions and recommendations of the 
association have no legal or compulsory effect on anv 
railroad company. 


Some New Appliances in the C, R. L & P. Railroad 

Blacksmith Shops 


HE blacksmith of to-day is quite a different 
personage from the blacksmith of say 
twenty years ago. He has always repre- 
sented inventive skill more than other 
tradesmen, to be sure, but the cunning of 
hand acquired during long years' work 
with the hammer has left room for the 
necessity for quantitative production un- 
known to his predecessor. The blacksmith 
of the larger establishments is, like the machinist and 
others, more an operator of machinery than a jour- 
neyman, and some of those operations are so simple 
that "blacksmith" is realty a misnomer. 

The modern successful blacksmith must ever be 
alert to the problem how to produce the greatest pos- 
sible quantity of forgings in the shortest possible 
time and at the least possible expense. In railroad 
car work particularly the field is extensive, and one 
interested must admire the ingenuity displayed in the 
often crude devices made up by the men themselves 
to give a certain bend or twist to a, piece of iron. The 
great number of forgings of the same shape needed 
in car work warrants the construction of quite ex- 
pensive tools, and our illustrations show some exam- 

: K|QD 












Fig. 2. 


Section o-i 


Section C-d 

Fig 1 . 



May, 1902. 

Fig. 5. 

jples of recent construction from the Chicago, Rock 
Island & Pacific Railway shops in Chicago. 

Mr. George Tietbery, for many years the success- 
ful master blacksmith of the road, was not satisfied 
with the method of making brake hanger stirrups. On 
the lines of the device shown in the 1901 proceedings 
of the Master Blacksmiths' Association, the machine 
shown in Fig. 1 was constructed. It will be noticed 
that the stationary part is bolted on to the table of 
a "bulldozer," the other main part being held to the 
ram, which is given the proper amount of travel. 
When the ram is withdrawn the jaws or formers are 

opened to permit the hooked iron rod to be put in 
position. On the in stroke the formers or jaws are 
closed and the stirrup formed. The top end, consist- 
ing of one-inch round iron, is then welded on and the 
brake shoe hanger finished. Fig. 2 shows the brake 
hanger completed. 

Fig. 3 shows a machine very similar to the one 
previously described. The main part of an 1 34-inch 
air brake pipe clamp is formed here. Two of these 
Iparts are shaped at the same time and later sheared 
off. Fig. 4 shows the complete pipe clamp. 

Fig. 5 shows a machine to shape the jaw end of 

Q © © © © 






© © © © © © 


Deod-L ever f?od 


Fig. 6. 

May, 1902. 



Sccf'on c-f 

Section a-b 

Section c-d 

Fig. 3. 

P/pe C/amp 

Fig. 4. 

dead lever rods. The two flat parts are first welded 

together and the weld rounded. After reheating the 

forging is placed in the former and pressed to shape. 

Fig. 6 shows the finished dead lever rod. 

We are indebted to Mr. G. F. Wilson, T. M. P. & E., 

for the blue prints from which these illustrations were 



A New Steel Car Company 

A NNOUNCEMENT is made that the Standard 
•* *■ Steel Car Company has perfected its organiza- 
tion and closed the purchase of the land for its works 
at Butler. This place is about 39 miles north of Pitts- 
burg, and is reached by the Buffalo, Rochester & 
Pittsburg, Bessemer & Lake Erie, Baltimore & Ohio 
and Pennsylvania Railroads. . It therefore has unex- 
celled shipping facilities. The property purchased 
comprises some 300 acres, which will afford room for 

other allied manufacturing interests, homes for work- 
men, etc. It is believed that the new plant for the 
manufacture of rolled steel wheels will be located here. 
The machinery for the new car works was ordered 
some months ago and will be ready as soon as the 
buildings are prepared to receive it. 

The works, with a capacity of from 40 to 50 cars 
per day, will be ready to begin operations by August 
15. Various designs of steel cars, using both pressed 
and structural shapes, will be manufactured, as well 
as box cars with steel underframing, trucks, bolsters, 
and other parts. The capital stock of the company is 
$3,000,000, all paid in, and represented only by com- 
mon stock. Contracts for the buildings have been let, 
and delivery of material has begun, so that the work 
of construction will now go on rapidly. 

The directors of the company are: A. B. Fraser, 
H. J. Gearhart and John M. Hansen, of Pittsburg 
(who were all formerly connected with the Pressed 
Steel Car Company), and Mr. Edwin Hawley and L. 
C. Weir, of New York. Mr. Hawley, who is a well 
known railway official, was also formerly a director of 
the other company. Mr. Weir is president of the 
Adams Express Company. The president is John M. 
Hansen; vice-president and treasurer, A. B. Fraser; 
general manager, J. H. Gearhart ; works manager, 
P. F. McCool ; assistant to the president, G. H. 
Goodell. Mr. Hansen was closely associated with Mr. 
Chas. T. Schoen in the development of the pressed 
steel industry, and was assistant to the president and 
chief engineer of the Pressed Steel Car Company. 
The men who are identified with the new company in 
active positions have all had practical experience. It 
is stated that the new company already has taken orders 
of respectable size and is assured of a large business. 



May, 1902. 

A Review on Alloys 

A Paper Read Before the April Meeting of the Western Railway Club by Gustav Thurnauer, 

Ph. D„ Aurora Metal Co. 

HE probable derivation of the word "alloy" 
is from the Latin "ad ligo" — to bind to, to 
unite. Strictly speaking, all metals used 
industrially are alloys, because no metal 
prepared for industrial purposes is abso- 
lutely pure, but always contains small 
quantities of other metals alloyed with it. 
The alloys to be dealt with in this jpaper, 
however, are more or less definite combi- 
nations of metals, prepared in such a manner as to 
impart to this combination qualities not possessed by 
either coenstituent. The knowledge of alloys dates 
back into prehistoric times; in fact, it is supposed that 
the first metals employed for useful purposes were 
alloys, and it has been quite generally conceded that 
the stone age was followed by a bronze age, though 
lately the opinion is promulgated that a copper age 
preceded the latter. That quite an extended number 
of alloys were known to the ancients is proven by 
analyses of ornaments and implements discovered by 
Schlieman, which show that the early Greeks were 
familiar with alloys of silver and gold, copper and 
tin, lead and silver, etc. 

Aristotle speaks about a goblet the color of gold, but 
not its weight, which was part of the loot Alexander 
took from Darius. He further mentions a people living 
on the shores of the Black Sea who, by smelting copper 
with an earth (probably calamine) and charcoal, could 
color copper yellow and make it heavier. Brass was 
known to the Romans, though the existence of zinc 
was only recognized in the beginning of the sixteenth 
century by Paracelsus, and it was not until 1742 that 
Swab, a Swedish metallurgist, showed that brass could 
be obtained by melting together metallic zinc and 
metallic copper. 

In their vain search to obtain gold from base met- 
als, the alchemists prepared quite a large number of 
alloys, but it is not until the beginning of the eight- 
eenth century that there appear any investigations on 
alloys, which were along similar lines as modern re- 
search in this particular field. The mechanical prop- 
erties of alloys were examined in the beginning of the 
eighteenth century by Musschenbroek, who experi- 
mented on the tensile strength of metals and alloys. 
Gellert, in the middle of^he eighteenth century, in hi 
"Metallurgic Chemistry," clearly shows the analogy 
between alloys and solution and gives a table show- 
ing the, relative solubility of metals in each other. 
Finally, Acha-rd, in 1774, published a series of experi- 
ments on the conductivity of alloys for heat and elec- 

Toward the end of the eighteenth century and 
throughout the nineteenth the investigations on alloys 

became more numerous, and the researches published 
in the course of the last ten or fifteen years by men 
like Prof. Thurston in the United States, Roberts Aus- 
tin, Heycock and Neville, Stead and Guthrie in Eng- 
land, Le Chatelier, Osmond, Charpy and Gautier in 
France, Behrens in Holland, Spring in Belgium, Lede- 
bur in Germany, and many others, have vastly in- 
creased our knowledge of the alloys, regarding not 
only their physical properties but also their internal 
structure, the changes they undergo under varying 
conditions, etc. Since 1898 there has been published 
in this country an excellent quarterly review devoted 
exclusively to metallic alloys and iron and steel, unde: 
the name of "The Metallagraphist," by Albert Sau- 
veur, in Boston. 

The ordinary, method of obtaining alloys is by melt- 
ing together the different constituents. However, as 
Professor Spring of the University of Liege has 
shown, alloys can also be obtained by subjecting the 
powders of the constituent metals to strong compres- 
sion. By exerting a pressure of from 13 to 38 tons per 
square inch, he has been able to obtain from the filings 
and powders of antimony, aluminium, bismuth, cop- 
per, lead, tin and zinc, solid blocks of these metals as 
well as their alloys. 

It has furthermore been found that the molecules of 
metals penetrate each other when in contact, at tem- 
peratures far below the melting Jpioint of either of the 
constituents. In this way a piece of lead in contact 
with silver or gold is found after the lapse of some 
time to be alloyed with quantities of the above met- 
als, the amount of which in the lead decreases with 
the distance from the plane of contact. A practical 
application of this phenomenon is found in the manu 
facture of steel by cementation, in which case the car- 
bon penetrates into the iron ; furthermore, plates of 
nickel and iron on being heated together can be 
united, due to the mutual penetration of the two met- 
als. That metallic alloys can be obtained by electro- 
deposition from their solutions is a well-known fact, 
but hardly applied otherwise than for purposes of 
electro-plating. In combining different metals with 
each other, a few rules may be laid down regarding 
the qualities of the alloy, though it must be stated 
that, like most rules, they do not apply absolutely to 
every case. By adding one metal to another, the 
strength of the latter is generally increased I'tp to a 
certain point dependent upon the nature of the metal 
added. After going beyond this limit, a decrease in 
strength takes place again, frequently very rapidly, 
unless the metal added possesses greater strength than 
the one to which it has been added. 

Tin, aluminium or zinc added to copper arc exam- 
ples of the correctness of this rule. By adding a third 



metal, not infrequently a further increase in strength lar in character to that produced by the admixture of 
can be accomplished. The hardness of a metal also tin ; but the quantity of zinc demanded to produce the 
generally increases by adding another metal. An alloy same modification is about twice as much as of tin. 
of 95 per cent copper and 5 per cent tin possesses On adding zinc, the deep red color of copper is 
double the hardness of pure copper. The ductility changed at once, becoming lighter and lighter, and 
of metals is generally greater the purer they are. The finally shading into a grayish white and then assum- 
temperature is of some influence ; copper and zinc are ing more of the color of zinc. The alloy generally 
more ductile at a high temperature, while the ductility increases in hardness and loses ductility as the per- 
of brass and German silver decreases with a rise of centage of zinc is increased, up to maximum, which 
temperature. The fusing point of a metal is generally being passed, ductility increases again. The most due- 
lowered by alloying it with another. Alloying one tile are, however, those which contain 70 to 85 per 
metal with another in most cases decreases the con- cent copper, 30 to 15 of zinc. The red color of cop- 
ductivity for heat and elecrtricity. The alloys most per, in this series, fades into yellow very gradually, 
thoroughly investigated in the time preceding the last and becomes golden-yellow at about 40 per cent zinc ; 
ten or fifteen years were the alloys used for coinage, the color then becomes lighter, and at 60 per cent zinc 
as well as brass and bronze. By this it is not proposed is bluish-white or silvery. With the change of color 
to state that other alloys were not subjected to re occurs the same change of strength and ductility 
search, but the majority of work was done on the noted with the copper-tin alloys, but it requires about 
alloys above mentioned. In his admirable monograph twice as much zinc as tin to produce it. The white 
on "Alloys, Brasses and Bronzes," published in 1893, metals richest in copper are, like those of the bronze 
Professor Thurston has compiled all the valuable class, too brittle to be of use in engineering construc- 
knowledge on the composition and physical qualities tion, but the yellow metals obtained with from 40 to 
of these alloys, including his extensive research car- 50 per cent zinc are very valuable, 
ried on upon the instigation of the Committee on Brass may be made tough or soft, hard or brittle, 
Metallic Alloys of the United States Board, appointed strong or weak, elastic or inelastic, dull of surface or 
to test iron, steel, etc. lustrous as a mirrow, friable or nearly as malleable 

It would be impossible to give, within the confine^ and ductile as lead, as may be desired, by varying its 

of this brief paper, an abstract of the extremely val- composition. No known materials, perhaps not even 

uable data he obtained in his researches, so only a excepting zinc, can be given so wide a range of qual- 

few of his conclusions shall be mentioned here. Cop ity or so wonderful a variety of uses. All the com- 

per and tin will unite to form homogeneous alloys in mon varieties are composed of 67 to 70 parts copper 

a wide range of proportions. As tin is added to pure and 33 to 30 of zinc. A little lead is often added to 

copper the color of the alloy gradually changes, be- soften and cheapen it and tin in small proportion to 

coming decidedly yellow at 10 per cent, and turning strengthen it. The copper-tin-zinc alloys or kalchoids 

to gray as the proportion approaches 30 per cent. In (from the Greek "kalchos," indicating bronze or brass) 

the researches conducted by the author, it was found are of great value, and include the strongest and prob- 

that good alloys contain as much as 20 per cent tin. ably the hardest possible combinations. They are in 

When the color changes from golden yellow to gray most respects, usually, intermediate between the 

and white, the strength as suddenly diminishes; and brasses and the bronzes obtained by uniting two 

alloys containing 25 per cent tin are valueless to the metals. 

engineer ; nevertheless, this alloy and those containing On making a large series of tests with composi- 

up to 30 per cent show compressive resistances in- tions of the three metals named, Professor Thurston 

creasing to a maximum. Under 17.5 per cent, the finally arrived at the conclusion that the best alloys 

elastic limit lies between 50 and 60 per cent of the for purposes demanding toughness as well as strength 

ultimate strength ; beyond this percentage the propor- lay between 58 and 54 per cent copper, 44 and 40 per 

tion rises, and at 25 per cent tin the elastic limit and cent zinc, and 2.y 2 and l /z per cent tin. It was found 

breaking point coincide. Passing 40 per cent tin this that the strongest of bronzes contained 57 per cent 

change is reversed and the elastic limit, although in- copper, 1 per cent tin, and 42 per cent zinc; however, 

definite, is lowered until pure tin is reached and a an alloy of the composition 56 per cent copper, 2 per 

minimum at about 30 per cent. The bronzes useful to cent tin, 42 per cent zinc, is likely to prove more gen- 

the engineer contain between 85 and 91 per cent cop- erally useful, in consequence of its greater ductility 

per and 15 to 9 per cent tin. A small addition of a and resilience, and alloys with a little less tin may 

deoxydizing agent like phosphorus, silicon, manga- often prove better than that. The safest alloys under 

nese, aluminium, greatly increases the strength of a shock are those containing the smallest quantities of 

bronze. tin. By far the most ductile alloy of this series tested 

Copper and zinc together form brass, which is usu- contained no tin at all and had the composition 57 per 

ally made nearly in the proportion copper 66 2-3, zinc cent copper and 43 per cent zinc. 

33 1-3. The change of color and of other qualities A discussion on the properties of alloys would be 

with the introduction of zinc is gradual and very simi- incomplete were the influence of small quantities of 



May, 1902. 

impurities upon metals not considered in this con- 
nection. We all know of the deleterious effect which 
small quantities of phosphorus and sulphur exert 
upon the quality of iron and steel. One-tenth of a 
per cent of antimony, bismuth or arsenic in copper 
or brass will make it absolutely impossible to roll 
these metals into sheets, due to their cracking under 
the rolls. The electrical condictivity of copper is ma- 
terially diminished by minute quantities of impurities ; 
on the other hand, it has been found by the "Alloys 
Research Committee" that a small quantity of arsenic 
is actually beneficial in copper used for fireboxes and 

Two-tenths of a per cent of lead, bismuth or anti- 
mony added to gold will make this most ductile of all 
metals so brittle that it can be shattered with the 
greatest of eas-e ; a small quantity of arsenic in tin will 
transform this soft metal into a very hard and brittle 
one, etc. I wish to add here a few observations made 
in my laboratory as regards the influence of small 
quantities of impurities upon the qualities of certain 
anti-friction metals. A small quantity of zinc, from 
5-100 to 1-10 of a per cent, in a lead-antimony-tin 
alloy, will greatly interfere with the obtaining of clean 
castings, due to the great tendency of forming oxides 
or drossing. A similar phenomenon is caused by the 
presence of 1-10 to 2-10 of a per cent of iron in a tin- 
copper-antimony alloy. A small quantity of arsenic in 
either of these alloys will cause large, lammellar and 
brittle crystals to be formed, which make the metals 
useless for the purposes they are intended for. 

A great step forward in the understanding of the 
nature of alloys was made toward the end of the ninth 
decade of the last century, due to three causes: In 
the first place, in 1887 Le Chatelier perfected a pyro- 
meter consisting of a platinum, platinumiridium ther- 
mocouple, with the aid of which temperatures from 
1 degree to 1600 degrees C. can be measured with ac- 
curacy. Secondly, the microscopic investigation of 
alloys was taken up with renewed vigor by men like 
Charpy, Roberts Austin, Stead, Behrens and others; 
and in the third place, about that time the theory of 
solutions, which applies equally to saline solutions as 
it does to alloys, was greatly advanced by men like 
Raoult, Ostwald, Van't Hoff, Arrhenius and others. 
An attempt will now be made to show how consid- 
erations along lines as indicated above have contrib- 
uted to our understanding of the nature of alloys. We 
all know that by dissolving common salt in water we 
lower the freezing point of the water. By increasing 
the amount of salt the freezing point of the resulting 
mixture is at first correspondingly lowered until it 
contains a certain percentage of salt. The lowest pos- 
sible freezing point of a solution of salt in water is 
then reached and further additon of salt will grad- 
ually raise the freezing point of the brine. Dr. Guthrie 
found that the mixture which has the lowest possible 
freezing point contains about 23.5 per cent of salt. He 
proposed for it, and for all similar mixtures, i. e., for 

all saline solutions of lowest freezing points, the name 

of cryohydrate, by which he meant to imply that they 

can ^only exist in a solid state at low temperature. 

Figure 1 shows the curve of solubilitv or the freez- 

t 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r 

Water /oo 9o do 70 60 50 40 30 20 /o o 
Sa/f /o 30 30 4o So 60 70 do 9o /oo 


ing curve of a solution of salt in water. The abscisses 
represent the composition, the ordinates the tempera- 
tures at which the various mixtures freeze. The curve 
is made up of two branches which meet at a point 
corresponding to a temperature of — 22 C. and to a 
solution containing 23.5 per cent salt, i. e., to the com- 
position and freezing point of the cryohydrate. We 
can see from this curve that if the solution is poorer 
in salt than the cryohydrate, ice will first crystallize 
out on cooling, while if it is richer in salt than the 
cryohydrate, salt crystals will appear first. Conse- 
quently it will be clear that the entire solution solidi- 
fied will contain, in the first case, ice crystals sur- 
rounded by cryohydrate, in the second case salt crys- 
tals surrounded by cryohydrate. While saline solu- 
tions, therefore, containing various proportions of salt 
begin to freeze at temperatures which depend upon 
their degree of concentration, they all finish freezing 
at the same temperature, namely, at — 22 degrees C. 

In mixtures of melted salts which form neither def- 
inite compounds nor isomorphous mixtures, it is found 
that upon solidifying, the formation of their structures 
is regulated by exactly the same laws that govern 
solutions. In the case of isomorphous mixtures, or 
the formation of definite compounds, the freezing or 
fusibilty curves present a digerent aspect, but the 
working of the fundamental law can easily be traced 
in them too. 

The present theory of the constitution of alloys, 
worked out on the basis of the theory of solutions, 
ranges them into three classes : 

I. Alloys which give neither definite compounds 
nor isomorphous mixtures. 

II. Alloys which form definite compounds. 

III. Alloys which form isomorphous mixtures. 

Into the first group belong the alloys of lead and 
antimony, lead and tin, copper and silver, etc. 

Taking the curve of fusibility of antimony and lead 
as an example, we find that the lowest fusing point 

May, 1902. 



lies at 228 degrees C. with a composition of 13 per cent 
antimony and 87 per cent lead. (Fig. 2.) 

The similarity between this curve of fusibility and 
the curve of solubility of a saline solution is obvious. 
If a molten alloy of lead and antimony containing less 
than 13 per cent antimony is allowed to solidify 














W soo 

<tf 400 

fc Ph 



10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 fiercen+Sb 

slowly, lead will first start to crystallize out until the 
temperature has fallen to 228 degrees C, when the 
temperature will remain constant, until the total mass 
of the alloy is solidified. If, on the other hand, more 
than 13 per cent of antimony is present in the alloy, 
the antimony will solidify first until on cooling to 228 
degrees C. the lead and antimony will solidify together 
in the proportion of 87 to 13. From this may be eas- 
ily observed the absolute similarity between the cryo- 
hydrate and the alloy of the lowest possible melting 
point, and for this latter Dr. Guthrie has proposed the 
name eutectic alloy. Into the second group, alloys 
which form definite compounds, belong the tin-copper, 
antimony-copper, aluminium-copper, aluminium-gold, 
aluminium-antimony alloys and others. 

As a characteristic curve of fusibility the antimony- 
copper curves was selected. This curve is composed of 
three branches crossing each other at two points cor- 
responding to the alloys, containing respectively about 
25 and 71 per cent of copper. The intermediate branch 
exhibits a maximum of about 60 per cent copper. This 
points to the existence of a definite compound with 
the composition SbCu 2 . These branches may be in- 
terpreted in the following manner : 

In the case of alloys containing less than 25 per 
cent of copper, pure crystals of antimony are sepa- 
rated when solidification begins, increasing gradually 
in size as the temperature decreases ; the portion re- 
maining liquid, therefore, gradually becomes richer 
in copper until the composition of the eutectic alloy 
is reached ; it then solidifies, at a constant tempera- 
ture, through a simultaneous crystallization of anti- 
mony and SbCu 2 . In the case of alloys containing 
from 25 to 60 per cent of copper, a similar phenome- 
non occurs, only it is the definite compound SbCu 2 , 
which separates from the molten mass as soon as the 
freezing point is reached. When from 60 to 70 per 
cent of copper is present, the same compound is sep- 

arated, but is in this case surrounded by a second 
eutectic alloy made up of copper and the compound 
SbCu 2 . Finally, when more than 70 per cent of cop- 
per is present, a portion of the latter is first deposited 
when solidification sets in, until the portion remain- 
ing liquid has reached the composition of the second 
eutectic alloy. 

Into the third group, alloys which form isomor- 
phous mixtures, belong the alloys of silver and gold 
and of bismuth and antimonv. TV>^ r«-v* <-{ fusibility 













/O ZO 50 40 SO 60 70 80 30 >00 per Cent &4 

of these alloys is the simplest imaginable, consisting 
nearly of a straight line drawn between the two melt- 
ing points of the respective metals. In this case there 
is no eutectic alloy, as the whole mass solidifies at a 
constant temperature, which is a function of the com- 
position. All these conclusions drawn from the curves 
of fusibilty have been corroborated by microscopic 
and analytical evidence, and a very large number of 
beautiful photomicrographs have been published by 
the above-named investigators. It might be mentioned 
in passing that the joint application of caloric and 
microscopic methods of investigation on iron and steel 
have contributed greatly to our understanding of the 
molecular constitution of these metals, the changes 
of the molecular arrangement on tempering, etc. 

A group of alloys of especial interest to the railroad 
man are the bearing metals. 

In 1892 Dr. Dudley published in the Railroad and 
Engineering Journal a report in which he condemned 
the use of gun bronze, quite generally employed in 
axle bearings at that time, and advocated the substi- 
tution of it by a bearing containing besides copper, 
tin and a small percentage of phoshorous, a quantity 
of 10 to 15 per cent lead, on the grounds that such an 
alloy was very much less liable to heating than can- 
non bronze and wore about 50 per cent less. 



May iy02. 

The conclusions he drew from a large number of 
tests were the following: 

I. The loss of metal by wear under exactly the 
same conditions diminishes with the increase of lead. 
II. The loss of metal by wear diminishes with the 
diminution of tin. 

III. Phosphorous in a copper-tin-antimony alloy is 
more valuable in the foundry than in service. Its 
principal value lies in the help it gives in getting 
sound castings. 

Dr. Dudley then proceeds to state that it is impos- 
sible to use white metal alloys for solid bearings, on 
account of the distortion they suffer in service due to 


cement. All alloys used for anti-friction purposes 
should possess the same general characteristics ; they 
should consist of hard grains imbedded in a plastic 
alloy. Such constitution may be produced in binary- 
alloys, the hard grains being made up of a single metal 
such as antimony. It is generally preferable, how- 
ever, to use ternary mixtures, because, owing to the 
complex composition of the cement, the constitution 
possessing the required qualities may be more readily 
obtained. Such alloys are the tin-antimony-copper 
alloys (genuine babbitts) and the lead-antimony-tin 
alloys, both of which have been found empirically to 
be best suited for the purposes of anti-friction metals. 

+ » » 

'6 20 30 40 so 60 7o 80 so /OO /?ercen+ Sb 

F/g. 4 

their plasticity, but he adds if provided with a stiff 
backing there is no reason why they should not give 
very satisfactory results. The latest and most ex- 
tensive work on anti-friction alloys was published in 
1898 in a very comprehensive paper by Dr. Charpy, in 
which he describes how, with the aid of the micro- 
scopic structure of the metals, the curves of fusibilty 
and tests of compression, he was able to determine 
the composition of alloys best adapted for the purpose 
of anti-friction metals. His manner of reasoning was 
as follows : Experiments have demonstrated very 
conclusively that the coefficient of friction in the case 
of a well-adjusted bearing depends exclusively upon 
the nature of the lubricant, regardless of the metals in 
contact. Furthermore, while for small loads without 
lubrication the coefficient of friction is practically con- 
stant, it increases in proportion to the pressure up to 
a certain point, above which the increase is very rapid, 
the surfaces rubbing together, producing heat and 
finally cutting. Theoretically all bearings should be 
as hard as possible, as they will bear the heaviest load 
without materially increasing the coefficient of friction. 
In practice, however, bearings of this kind would be 
absolutely useless, as a constantly perfect adjustment 
cannot be obtained, and therefore a certain placticity 
of the bearings is necessary. Alloys used for bearings 
should therefore have two apparently contradictory 
properties, i. e., hardness and plasticity. 

Such properties can be obtained in white metal al- 
loys composed of hard grains imbedded in a plastic 

Houston Shops of the Texas and New Orleans 
Railroad Company 

WE are furnished with the following information by 
Mr. J. J. Ryan, superintendent of motive power, 
in regard to the Houston shops of his road : 

The following changes and improvements have been 
decided on and partly completed : The storeroom has 
had a second story put^on it.covering 80 feet of its length, 
which gives a space of 40x80 feet upstairs for offices : 
which are used to accommodate the superintendent of 
motive power and the master car builder, together with 
the several clerks, telegraph operators and draftsmen. A 
new foundry has been built that is double the capacity of 
the old one. The building is 100x140 feet, with a cupola 
50 feet in diameter and 16 feet in height. Tt will be 
equipped with a traveling crane, etc., and is undoubtedly 
the largest and most modern foundry in the south. The 
pattern shop has been enlarged by adding another story. 
making it a two-story building 45x70 feet. 

The machine shop has had an addition to it of 140 feet 
in length, making a building 70x340 feet. 

Work will soon be commenced on a new coach repair 
shop, 120x230 feet, and the building that is now used for 
both mill work and coach repairs will be used exclusively 
for woodworking machinery. It is also intended to build 
a shop 50x100 feet for an upholstering and silver-plating 

These different improvements add greatly to the ca- 
pacity of the shops, as the old foundry is now used for 
a boiler shop, and is much larger than the old boiler shop : 
the old boiler shop, standing as it does at the end of the 
blacksmith shop, is thrown in with the blacksmith shop. 
and adds very much to the capacity of that shop. The 
new upholstering shop will relieve the present upholster- 
ing shop, which adjoins the tin and copper shop, and the 
tin and copper shop will be enlarged by taking in the 
shop so relieved. 

The several changes and enlargements require, of 
course, a great deal of new machinery, and in selecting 
this they will endeavor to get the most modern and useful 
machinery on the market. Some of this has already been 
purchased, and more will be forthcoming as soon as 
everything is ready for its use. 

May, 1902. 


New Equipment for the "Overland Limited 


T is expected that the improvements now overhead in the vestibules and each car is fitted with 
under way will permit of reducing the time each sleeper and the dining car and the buffet cars 
required for the transcontinental journey have 40. Twelve-inch electric fans are placed in the 


over the Chicago & Northwestern by about 
half a day, and in anticipation of the faster 
service the officials of the road in question 
have ordered entirely new and thoroughly 
modern equipment which will be put in 
'Eight trains are necessary to make 
up the equipment of the "overland limited," 
and one of these has been completed and was 
recently placed on exhibition at the passenger 
station of the Chicago & Northwestern. 

A number of invitations were issued to the 
traveling public to inspect this train. The 
train was previously on exhibition at the sta- 
tion in Miwaukee. These trains have been 
put in service and will be run daily between 
Chicago and San Francisco and Portland. 
We show a view of the compartment-observa- 
tion car attached to the train on exhibition. 
The cars are painted in the Pullman standard 
coloring and the uniform vestibuling of the 
entire train with broad plate-glass doors gives 
a very handsome exterior. The novel features 
of the new trains are the telephone service, the 
arrangement which provides each toilet room 
with electric curling-iron heaters, and the elec- 
tric reading lamps in each berth. The con- 
veniences of the buffet-smoking car also in- 
clude a novel feature. This car contains the 
smoking room, barber shop and bath room, 
with the usual conveniences for correspond- 
ence and a library. The library and reading 
room is illuminated by sixteen ceiling lamps 
and twelve side lamps, the fixtures being com- 
bination electric and gas. The buffet-smoking 
and library cars are finished in mahogany 
with green and gold decorations and carpets 
that harmonize in colors. In the baggage 
compartment of these cars stationary berths are ar 
ranged for employes. 

observation, dining and buffet-smoking cars by which 
means these cars can be effectually cooled. 

Much ingenuity has been displayed in the construc- 
tion of the dining car by the manner in which all the 
equipment of this car is gotten into the small space 

Interior of Observation Room, "Overland Limited." 

a switch and cut-out cabinet. There are 70 lights in 
available and yet maintain the unusually commodious 
The train is lighted by electricity and is equipped appearing interior. The dining room has 10 tables 
with an auxiliary system of Pintsch gas burners to be with a seating capacity for 30 persons, each table 
used in cases of emergency. The lighting plant is being placed in front of a very broad plate-glass win- 
located in the baggage car and consists of a 25 horse- dow, thus permitting of a very good view of the 
power Westinghouse engine direct-connected to a six- scenery on either side. Electric candelabra are placed 
pole, 125-volt dynamo capable of supplying from 260 on the tables and supplement the general electric 
to 350 incandescent lights of 16 candle-power each, illumination. The interior finish of this car is similar 
The switch board is of Tennessee marble. A storage to that of the buffet car, namely, mahogany decorated 
battery with a capacity of 250 ampere-hours is located in green and gold. The sleeping cars are the latest 
under the baggage car and is charged directly from form of standard Pullmans, each car having 14 see- 
the plant on the train. The connection between the tions and a drawing room. The interior finish '.5 
cars is made by a flexible three-cable connector placed Cuban mahogany with inlaid or marquetry work. 



Chicago Great Western Tandem Compound 

May, 1902. 

IN the accompanying illustration we show a tandem 
compound freight locomotive recently furnished 
to the Chicago Great Western Railway by the Brooks 
Works of the American Locomotive Company. 
These engines, of which 20 have been ordered, are of 
the "Lake Shore" type of tandem compound freight. 
The weight on the leading wheels is 28,400 pounds 
and on the driving wheels 133,200 pounds, making a 
total of 191,700 pounds, and the weight of the tender 
loaded is 120,000 pounds. 

The general dimensions are as follows : 

Wheel base, total, of engine 29 ft. 2 in. 

Wheel base, driving 11 ft. 4 in. 

Wheel base, total, engine and tender... 54 ft. 2}^ in. 

Journal, trailing 7x12. 

Diameter trailing, wheel fit 6% in. 


Cylinder, diameter high pressure 16 in. 

Cylinder diameter, low pressure 28 in. 

Cylinder stroke 28 in. 

Piston rod, diameter 4 in. 

Main rod, length center to center. 11 ft. 

Steam ports, length 29.2 in. H. P. & L. P. 

Steam ports, width 2 in. H. P., 2 l /& in. L. P. 

Exhaust ports, least area. 100 sq. in. 

Bridge, width 3*4 in. H. P., 2^ in. L. P. 

Valves, kind of Improved piston valves. 

Chicago Great Western Tandem Compound. 

Length over all, engine 40 ft. 11 in. 

Length over all, total engine and tender. .64 ft. 9 in. 

Height center of boiler above rail. . . 8 ft. 8 in. 

Height of stack above rail 14 ft. 11 in. 

Heating surface, firebox 179 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, tubes 3071 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, total 3 2 50 sq. ft. 

Grate area 48.5 sq. ft. 

Wheels and Journals. 

Wheels, leading, number 4- 

Wheels, leading, diameter 33 in. 

Wheels, driving, number 6. 

Wheels, driving, diameter 63 in. 

Wheels, trailing, number 2. 

Wheels, trailing, diameter 42 in. 

Material of wheel center Driving 

....wheels, cast steel; trailing wheels, cast iron. 

Type of leading wheels Standard. 

Type of trailing. wheels Improved radial axle. 

Journal, leading axles 6x12. 

Journal, leading axles, wheel fit 6 in. 

Journal, driving 9^2x12. 

Journal, driving axle, wheel fit 

9^4 in- main, g T / 2 in. front and inter. 

Valves, greatest travel 5J4 in- 

Valves, steam lap 

H. P. inside 1 in., L. P. outside 1% in. 

Valves, exhaust clearance 

H. P. outside o in., L. P. inside J4 in. 

Lead in full gear.H. P.=+i-i6 in. — L. P.= — i-i6in. 

Lead Variable. 


Boiler, type of Radial stayed wagon top. 

Boiler, working pressure 200 lbs. 

Boiler, material in barrel Steel. 

Boiler, thickness of material in shell 

U in-, 25-32 in., 13-16 in., y s in., 9-16 in. 

Boiler, thickness in tube sheet j>4 in. 

Boiler, diameter of barrel front 70}i m - 

Boiler, diameter of barrel at throat 79?1$ in. 

Seams, kind of horizontal Butt sextuple. 

Seams, kind of horizontal Triple. 

Crown sheet stayed with Radial stays. 

Dome, diameter inside 30 in. 


Firebox, type Wide. 

Firebox, length 96 in. 

Firebox, width 74 in. 

May, 1902. 



Firebox, depth front 74 in. 

Firebox, depth back 63 in. 

Firebox, material Steel. 

Firebox, thickness of sheets 

. . . .Crown y in., tubes y in., side y., back y m - 

Firebox, brick arch On water tubes. 

Firebox, mud ring width 

Front 4 in., sides 4 in., back 4 hi. 

Firebox, water space at top. . . .Sides 7 in., back 6 in. 

Grates, kind of Rocking. 

Tubes, number of 352. 

Tubes, material Charcoal iron. 

Tubes, outside 2 in. 

Tubes, thickness 11 B. W. G. 

Tubes, length over tube sheets 16 ft. 8^j in. 

Smoke Box. 

Smoke box, diameter outside 73 in. 

Smoke box, length from tube sheet 66y 2 in. 

Other Parts. 

Exhaust nozzle, single or double Single. 

Exhaust nozzle, variable or permanent .. .Permanent. 

Exhaust nozzle, diameter 5^4 in- 

Exhaust nozzle, distance of tip below center of 

boiler \ . . . 2 in. 

Netting, wire or plate Wire. 

Netting, size of mesh or perforations 2^x2^/2 in. 

Stack, straight or taper Taper. 

Stack, least diameter taper .*. . 15 in. 

Stack, greatest diameter taper 17 in. 

Stack, height above smoke box 3 ft. 2J/2 in. 


Type Eight wheel steel frame. 

Tank, type Water bottom. 

Tank, capacity for water 6000 gallons. 

Tank, capacity for coal 12 tons. 

Tank, material Steel. 

Tank, thickness of sheets % in. 

Type of under frame Steel channel. 

Type of trucks B. W. all metal trucks. 

Type of springs Elliptic. 

Diameter of wheels 33 in. 

Diameter and length of journals 5 in. x 9 in. 

Distance between centers of journals 5 ft. 6 in. 

Diameter of wheel fit on axle $y in. 

Length of tender over bumper beams. . . .22 ft. l 1 /, in. 

Length of tank inside 20 ft. 6 in. 

Width of tank inside 9 ft. 10 in. 

Height of tank, not including collar 5 ft. 0^2 in. 

The special equipment includes American brakes 
for drivers and Westinghouse for tender and train 
service, Michigan sight feed lubricator, Ashton Safety 
valves, Ohio injectors, French springs, Jerome Metal- 
lic packing. 

Printing on Tracing Cloth 

MANY attempts have been made to print on 
tracing cloth, but such attempts have gener- 
ally proved unsatisfactory. It has been difficult to 
find an ink that would give a clean print, dry in a 
reasonable time and copy perfectly. A strongly con- 
structed hand lever press with firm leverage impres- 
sion and without side arms was also a necessity. 
Golding & Company, of Chicago, are manufacturers 
of the only press specially adapted to this work and 
now offer an ink that is perfect for the purpose. The 
accompanying illustration gives a general view of the 

The Keloe Ink Company, who manufacture this ink, 
have turned over to Golding & Company the exclusive 
sale of this ink. In manufacturing a press suitable for 

this work they drill an extra hole in the handle of the 
presses, making it possible to print without bringing 
the handle alongside the press. Any width of sheet 
can be printed. The ink cannot be used with rubber 

It requires no previous training or special skill to 
do good work with these small presses, and in an 
hour's time anyone can learn to do the work with no 
instruction in printing. It is claimed that there can 
be no risk in ordering either of the complete outfits. 
It will be worth vastly more than the small cost in 
any office where plans are drawn. Additional type 
can be purchased as the possibilities of a wide range 
of work are shown, and none of this material would 
be useless in any printing office, large or small. 
Further information may be secured by writing to the 
manufacturers, Golding & Company, 167-9 Fifth ave- 
nue, Chicago, 



May, 1902. 

with wood fillers 3 by 4 in., and with %-in. tie rods. 
These posts, together with the end braces, are fitted 

80,000-lbs. Capacity Box Car, Norfolk & West- flooring is yellow pine i}i in. thick and S/i m - wide. 

em Railicau Yellow pine is also the material used in the inter- 

mediate side posts and side and end braces, while the 
WE show in the accompanying illustrations cQmer and doQr postg are of Qak _ The end inter _ 
the latest type of box car adopted by the mediate pQsts ^ ^ ^^ I _ beams fi ft> ins . 
Norfolk & Western Ry., of which 400 were 
recently constructed at the Roanoke shops 
of the railroad and for which orders have 

recently been placed with the Southern ^ -.- --?*-- —- 

Car & Foundry Co. calling for 1,000 addi- 
tional. Of the 400 cars built at the Roa- 
noke shops all have been put in service and 
have shown every evidence of substantial construc- 

The general dimensions of the car are as fol- 

% 111. 

1034 111. 

Length over end sills 38 ft. 

Length over running boards 38 ft. 

Length over body 36 ft. n^ in. 

Inside length 36 ft. 

Width over eaves 9 ft. 11J/4 in. 

Width over siding 9 ft. 3^ in. 

Width over side sills 9 ft. 1^4 in. 

Width inside . ; . 8 ft. 6 in. 

Inside height to bottom of carline 7 ft. 6 in. 

Distance between truck centers 26 ft. n^4 i n - 

The longitudinal sills are of yellow pine, the end 
sills and cross-tie timbers of white oak, and the draft 
timbers of the same material, the center sills having 
re-enforcing timbers 5 by 9 in. over the bolsters. The 
extreme dimensions of the end sills are 8 in. by 11 in. 
by 9 ft. 5 in. The side plates, purlins, running boards, 
ridge pole and end plates are of yellow pine. The 


Norfolk and Western Box Car. 

May, 1902. 



in cast-iron pockets at both top and bottom. The car- 
lines and girths are of oak, the roofing, siding and lin- 
ing being of poplar or white pine. The dimensions 
of the side and center sills are 5 by 9 in., the center 
sills having under strips 4^ by 5 in. cut tight between 
cross-tie timbers and between the bolsters and the 
latter, being secured by ^-in. bolts. The intermediate 
sills are composed of inner and outer sills 4 by 9 in., 
laid side by side. 

Among the special equipment are Westinghouse air 
brakes, Chicago steel couplers, Chicago roof, McGuire 
grain doors. The coupler attachment, body and truck 
bolsters and brake beams are all N. & W. standard. 

♦ » » 

Double Cylinder "Lightning Floorer." 

^TK7 E show lure with an improved flooring ma- 
^ * chine, which the makers claim has embodied 
in its construction the necessary qualities to insure 
successful work. It was patented March 20, 1900, and 
is designed for those who make flooring, ceiling, sid- 
ing, casing, etc., in large quantities. Special atten- 
tion is invited to some of its principal features : 

It planes four sides 9 and 14 in. wide and 6 in. thick, 
and by the use of belt-tightening apparatus, i>4-in. 
stock can be matched to advantage, this last device 

being an improved advantage. The frame is massive, 
preventing vibration, and resists all strain, and the 
machine can be run at a very high speed if desired, 
same being always under control of operator. The 
feed is six large powerfully-driven rolls, having ex- 
pansion gearing, and they can be easily raised and 
lowered, and the feeding-out one is provided with 

The matching works are very heavy, the cylinders 
four sided and slotted and shaving hoods swing out- 
ward to give access to knives. The pressure bars have 
easy and quick adjustments, and possess many new 
improvements for facilitating their works. Altogether, 
this machine will be found to have incorporated many 
points for giving satisfactory work, inasmuch as this 
class of machinery has been one of the most success- 
ful specialties of the makers. J. A. Fay & Egan Com- 
pany, of No. 145 to No. 166 West Front street, Cin- 
cinnati, O., the makers of this tool, will willingly fur- 
nish any further details, cuts and prices, together with 
their new and complete catalogue, free to those inter- 

Machinery Hall, St. Louis Exposition 

MACHINERY HALL, at the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition, which will probably be of unusual 
interest to mechanical officials, will be 525x1,000 ft. in 
size, and will cost in the neighborhood of $660,000. The 
building is crowned by eleven towers. Two of these, each 
285 ft. high, flank die northern entrance. Five are lo- 
cated one on each of the main corners of the building. 
Each of these is 185 ft. high. Four lesser towers, each 
100 ft. high, are located on the south front of the build- 
ing. The building will house the big electric light and 
power plant to be put in by the Westinghouse Electrical 
Co., consisting of four units of 2000 kilowatts each. 
Coupled with this plant will be a switchboard 107 ft. 
long, from which the electricity is to be distributed to all 
parts of the grounds. This switchboard will stand in a 
gallery at the western end of the building. The wires 
carrying the current issue from it and reach the subwav 
through two large towers, each 8}4xi8 ft.. These towers 
are to be fire-proof and to be built of tiling and iron. 
The building has been designed by Widmann, Walsh & 
Boisselier, architects of St. Louis. The contract provides 
for the completion of the structure not later than Deci. 
1902. As in the terms of the contracts of the three other 
big buildings already under contract, the successful bid- 
der for the machinery building must give a bond covering- 
one-third the price of the building, and forfeit a sum 
equal to $500 a day for every day it takes to complete the 
building beyond time fixed for its completion in the con- 

•♦ • » 

Cleveland Car Foremen's Association 

THE regular monthly meeting of the Car Foremen's 
Association of Cleveland, O., was held at the Ken- 
nard hotel, Thursday evening, April 24th, meeting be- 
ing opened at 8:00 by President Berg. 

As the minutes of previous meeting were published in 
the Railway Master Mechanic, reading of same was dis- 
pensed with. 

Mr. Mooney, of the entertainment committee, reported 
that they had not prepared a program, and stated that it 
would probably be a good idea to have the members in 
general offer suggestions, etc. 

A motion by Mr. Johnson that the committee be 
granted an extension of time until the next meeting to 
arrange for amusements of some kind was carried. 

The following made apolication for membership : 

Anderson, Tas., Asst. Fore., L. S. & M. S., Cleveland, 
O. ; Ball, H. F., Supt. M. P., L. S.&M.S., Cleveland, O. ; 
Bruehler, G. H., Clerk, L. *S. & M. S., Cleveland, O. ; 
Cadv, Paul C, Chief Clerk, Asst. S. M. P., L. S. & M. 
S., Cleveland, O. ; Dow, G.'N, M. C. B., L. S. & M. S., 
Cleveland, O. ; Donahue, C. J., Chief Clerk, Supt. M. P., 
L. S. & M. S., Cleveland, O. ; Durnbau, Geo., Asst. Fore., 
L. S. & M. S., Cleveland, O. ; Ferguson, G. M., Supt., 
Lake Terminal R. R., Lorain, O. ; Fasen, fohn, Asst. 
Fore. Blacksmith, L. S. & M. S., Cleveland, O. ; Foster, 
T. J., Asst. Storekeeper, L. S. & M. S., Cleveland, O. ; 
Gonnerman, W., Joint Fore. Insp., Elyria, O. ; Hirsch, R. 
A., Fore. Tinner, L. S. & M. S., Cleveland, O. ; Hartline, 

1 66 


May, 1902. 

Geo. 0., Fore. Blacksmith, L. S. & M. S.. Cleveland, O. ; 
Johnson, Chas., Clerk, L. S. & M. S., Cleveland, O. ; 
Kirby, W. H.; Clerk, L. S. & M. S., Cleveland, O. ; Linn, 
H. R., Gen. Fore., L. S. & M. S., Cleveland, O. ; Langdon, 
S. S., Fore. Cabt. Maker, L. S. & M. S., Cleveland, O. ; 
Miller, John J., Fore. Frt. Repairs, L. S. & M. S., Cleve- 
land, O. ; Mackenie, R. B., Asst. Fore., L. S. & M. S., 
Cleveland, O. ; O'Leary, D., Fore. Machinist, L. S. & M. 
S., Cleveland, O. ; Shore, Robt., Fore. Painter, L. S. & 
M. S., Cleveland, O. ; Sharp, J. M., Jr., Clerk, L. S. & 
M. S., Cleveland, O. ; Sharp, W. C, Clerk, L. S. & M. 
S., Cleveland, O. ; Turner, Jno. T., Asst. Fore., L. S. & 
M. S., Cleveland, O. ; Telfer, T. P., Asst. Fore., L. S. & 
M. S., Cleveland, O. ; Tyler, C. F., Foreman, L. S. & M. 
S., Cleveland, O. ; Vauehan, H. H., Asst. S. M. P., L. 
S. & M. S., Cleveland, O. ; Woolley, James, Asst. Fore., 
L. S. & M. S., Cleveland, O. ; Walker, Chas. G., Clerk, 
L. S. & M. S., Cleveland, O. 

Mr. Johnson moved that the applicants be accepted, 
and the names placed on the roll. Carried. 

The following were appointed to the Board of Direct- 
ors : 

J. D. McAlpine, representing L. S. & M. S. ; W. Fen- 
wick, representing W. & L. E. ; Geo. Lynch, representing 
C, C, C. & St. L. ; W. J. Frey, representing- L. E. & W. ; 
J. H. Acker, representing B. & O. ; G. M. Ferguson, rep- 
resenting- Lake Terminal. 

Mr. Johnson stated that each member ought to agree to 
try and get at least one new member, and moved that the 
secretary be instructed to furnish the members with ap- 
plication blanks during the month. Motion seconded and 

It was suggested that some expert in a certain line of 
railroad work be invited to give a talk, or read a paper, 
on some subject. A motion that the secretary be instructed 
to correspond with Mr. C. H. Weaver, Air Brake In- 
structor of the L. S. & M. S., with that end in view, and 
to endeavor to obtain a representative of the Galena Oil 
Co., for the following meeting, and give a talk on hot 
boxes, was carried. 

The question as to whether it was proper to substitute 
an M. C. B. journal bearing and kev in place of a Uni- 
versal bearing and key, where the Universal bearing is 
defective, was discussed, and it was decided that this was 
perfectly prooer, and was not wrono- repairs. 

A vote of thanks was tendered to Mr. McAlpine for se- 
curing pleasant room for meeting in the Kennard, and 
also to Messrs. Johnson and Finnegan for securing large 
number of new members, after which meeting adjourned. 

•» » » 


Mr. William H. Hamilton, heretofore traveling engi- 
neer, has been appointed to succeed Mr. Milton Player 
as master mechanic of the Eastern division of the Atchi- 
son, Topeka & Santa Fe. Headquarters at Argentine, 

Mr. Robert Gunn, who has been with the Erie road 
for 40 years, has been made master car builder and will 
be moved to Meadville, Pa. 

Mr. E. De Silva has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Santa Fe, Prescott & Phoenix, with office at Pres- 
cott, Ariz., to succeed Mr. W. J. Hemphill, resigned to 
eneage in other business. 

Mr. J. Forster has been appointed master mechanic of 
the St. Louis & San Francisco at Kansas City, Mo. 

Mr. Milton Player, who recently resigned as master 
mechanic of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, has been 

appointed master mechanic of the Fort Worth & Denver 
City at Fort Worth, Tex., vice Mr. George K. Jackson, 

Mr. George Fox has been appointed foreman of car re- 
pairs of the Erie at Buffalo, N. Y., to succeed Mr. Robert 
Gunn, who has been appointed master car builder at 
Meadville, Pa. 

Mr. H. S. Spangler, division foreman of the Interna- 
tional & Great Northern at Taylor, Tex., has resigned to 
look after private interests, and Mr. Ben Ackerman, trav- 
eling engineer, has been appointed acting foreman in his 

Mr. Charles A. Lindstrom has resigned as mechanical 
engineer of the Chicago & Alton, effective on May 1, to 
accept the position of chief engineer of the Pressed Steel 
Car Company, at Pittsburg, Pa. 

Mr. G. T. Hice has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Dry Fork, with headquarters at Hendricks, W. 

Mr. W. E. Symons has resigned as superintendent of 
motive power and equipment of the Plant System, and 
expects to sail for France about May 1, where he will 
spend some time investigating modern French locomotive 

The purchasing and distributing of fuel for the Balti- 
more & Ohio has beeii placed under the direct charge of 
Mr. F. D. Casanave, general superintendent of motive 

Mr. James Kersey, assistant general yardmaster of the 
Wheeling & Lake Erie, has resigned to go with a southern 
line. He is succeeded by Richard Kohn, formerly night 

Mr. J. W. Highleyman has been made general foreman 
of the Union Pacific locomotive repair shops at Arm- 
strong, Kan., succeeding E. B. Whalom. 

Mr. Ernest Messiner, formerly connected with the 
Lake Erie & Western road, has been made master me- 
chanic of the Cincinnati, Richmond & Muncie, ,at Rich- 
mond, Ind. 

On the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, with the retire- 
ment of G. W. Smith, the office of general master me- 
chanic of the western division has been abolished. G. R. 
Joughins has been appointed mechanical superintendent 
of the above division, with headquarters at San Bernar- 
dino, this office to take the place of the one abolished. 

Mr. T. J. Thomas, Jr., assistant to the superintendent 
of motive power and car equipment, has resigned to ac- 
cept the position of master mechanic of the Seaboard Air 
Line at Savannah, Ga., the former office being abolished 
on that road. 

Mr. Edgar C. Cummings, general foreman of the Wat- 
erloo shops, of the Illinois Central, has resigned to accept 
a position with the Fraser & Chalmers Works, of Allis- 
Chalmers Co., at Chicago. 

Mr. C. H. Quereau has been appointed superintend- 
ent of shops~of the New York' Central & Hudson 
River, at AV^st Albanv. N. Y. 

Mr. A. T. Cota. division master mechanic of the Chi- 
cago. Burlington & Ouincy, at Beardstown. TIL, has been 
appointed division master mechanic at Chicago, to suc- 
ceed Mr. R. D. Smith. Mr. T. L. Smith, assistant master 
mechanic at Aurora, 111., has been appointed master me- 
chanic at Beardstown, to succeed Mr. Cota. 

Mr. R. M. Sighme, road foreman of engines of the 
Pittsburg, Ft. Wayne & Chicago, has resigned. 

Mr. John M. Scrogin, master mechanic of the Kansas 
City Southern, with headquarters a'- Shreveport, died on 
lithe 27th of March, at Tyler, Tex. 


May, 1902. 



Mr. Herbert T. Herr, of Denver, has been appointed 
master mechanic of the Chicago division of the Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa Fe, with headquarters at Fort Madison, 

Mr. P. L. Raymond has been appointed superintendent 
of machinery of the St. Louis, Memphis & Southeastern, 
vice Mr. J. C. Fisher, resigned. 

A number of changes have been made along the line of 
the Northern Pacific, among which we note the follow- 
ing: Mr. H. H. Warner, formerly master mechanic of 
the Pacific division, will hereafter devote his time ex- 
clusively to the management of the South Tacoma shops 
and the Tacoma terminal, exclusive of locomotives in the 
local yards. Mr. James Bruce, who held the position of 
traveling engineer, with headquarters in Tacoma, has 
been appointed master mechanic, with headquarters at 
Head of Bay, Tacoma, and will have charge of the me- 
chanical matters of the Pacific division with the exception 
of South Tacoma and the Tacoma terminals, but includ- 
ing the locomotive service in the Tacoma yards. Mr. 
Morris Hickey, who held the position of general fore- 
man at South Tacoma, has been appointed master me- 
chanic, with headquarters in Seattle, and will have charge 
of the mechanical matters of the Seattle division. Mr. C. 
Larrison has been appointed airbrake inspector, with 
headquarters in St. Paul, succeeding Mr. J. E. Goodman, 
resigned. Effective April 1, the following appointments 
of road foremen of engines have been made : Mr. C. T. 
Hessmer, to the new Dakota division, with headquarters 
in Fargo, succeeding Mr. C. S. Larrison, assigned to 
other duties ; Mr. C. E. Allen, assigned to the entire Yel- 
lowstone division, with headquarters in Glendive, Mont. ; 
and Mr. J. H. Sally, assigned to the Montana division, 
with headquarters in Livingston, Mont. ; Mr. H. A. Lyd- 
don has been appointed master mechanic of the Minnesota 
division ; headquarters in Staples, Minn. Mr. Richard 
Smith has been appointed master mechanic of the Yellow- 
stone division, headquarters in Glendive ; Mr. S. L. Bean 
will hereafter have charge of the Brainerd shops and the 
mechanical matters of the Lake Superior division ; Mr. H. 
M. Curry will have charge of the Fargo shops and the 
mechanical matters of the Dakota division ; Mr. W. S. 
Clarkson will have charge of the Livingston shops and the 
mechanical matters of the Montana division. 

Mr. R. D. Smith has been appointed superintendent of 
motive power of the Burlington & Missouri River Rail- 
road in Nebraska, with headquarters at Lincoln. 

Mr. Fred Cooper, general foreman of the Wabash 
shops at Springfield, HI., has been appointed master me- 
chanic at Moberly, Mo., to succeed Mr. George W. Mudd, 

Mr. G. W. Adams has been appointed master mechanic 
of the new shops of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, 
at Chickasha, I. T. 

Mr. John Purcell, master mechanic of the Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa Fe, at Fort Madison, la., has been ap- 
pointed superintendent of the company's shops at Topeka, 
Kan., and is succeeded as master mechanic at Fort Madi- 
son by Mr. H. T. Herr, heretofore master mechanic of 
the Chicago Great Western, at St. Paul. 

Mr. A. R. Davis has been appointed general shoo fore- 
man of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, at Topeka, 
Kan., effective on April 1. 

Mr. W. E. Fowler, of Denver, Colo., formerly master 
car builder of the Colorado & Southern, has been ap- 
pointed master ca^ builder of the Canadian Pacific, with 

headquarters at Montreal, to succeed William Apps, re- 

Mr. A. D. Folmer has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Chattanooga Southern, effective on April 1. Head- 
quarters, Alton Park, Tenn. 

The jurisdiction of W. S. Haines, superintendent of 
motive power of the Baltimore & Ohio, has been extended 
over the New Castle division. 

Mr. C. L. Petreken, master mechanic of the Southern 
Ry., St. Louis-Louisville lines, at Princeton, Ind., has re- 
signed and will be succeeded by Mr. D. Brown, formerly 
general foreman of the Cincinnati, New Orleans & Texas 
Pacific Ry., at Somerset, Ky. 

On April 1, 1902, Mr. Jno. M. Taylor, heretofore chief 
clerk of the machinery department of the Illinois Central 
at Chicago, was appointed to the new position of general 
storekeeper at Burnside, 111., having supervision over all 
material and supplies, reporting to the superintendent of 
motive power. These duties were formerly exercised by 
J. W. Luttrell, master mechanic of the Chicago division. 

Mr. John Lahey, division foreman of the Kansas City 
Southern at Pittsburg, Kan., has been appointed division 
master mechanic of that road at Shreyeport, La., in 
charge of the Southern division, to succeed J. M. Scrogin, 
deceased. Mr. Ely Punshon,. general foreman at East 
Kansas City, has been appointed division foreman at 
Pittsburg to succeed Mr. Lahey, and Mr. S. A. Irwin, dis- 
trict foreman at Mena, Ark., has been appointed p-eneral 
foreman at East Kansas City, in place of Mr. Punshon. 

Mr. C. A. Sely has resigned as mechanical engineer of 
the Norfolk & Western system to accept a similar posi- 
tion with the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, with 
offices in Chicago. m 

Mr. A. L. Moler, master mechanic of the Macon, Dub- 
lin & Savannah, at Macon, Ga., has been appointed to a 
similar position on the Vicksburg, Shreveport & Pacific, 
at Monroe, La. 

Mr. George W. Campbell has been appointed general 
foreman of the shops of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chi- 
cago & St. Louis, at Columbus, O. 

■» ♦ » 

Notes of the Month. 

The Homestead Valve Mfg. Co. of Pittsburg report 
an increasing number of orders. They are moving their 
works to Homestead, where they will have greatly in- 
creased facilities for the manufacture of their valves. 
They will continue their Pittsburg office as heretofore. 

The American Brake Shoe and Foundry Company an- 
nounce the appointment of Mr. Joseph D. Gallagher, for- 
merly president of the Lappin Brake Shoe Co., as second 
vice-president, and Mr. Joseph B. Terbell, formerly presi- 
dent of the Corning Brake Shoe Co., as general sales man- 
ager of the American Brake Shoe & Foundry Company. 

The Falls Hollow Stay Bolt Company, of Cuyahoga 
Falls, Ohio, furnish us with the following information in 
regard to their staybolts : Professor J. W. Shepherd, of 
the University of Chicago, says that with a properlv 
drafted locomotive in which bituminous coal is the fuel 
used, a proper distribution of hollow staybolts will un- 
doubtedly be economic on fuel and also lessen the" black 
smoke. The reason for this is evident because such a 
scheme insures better mixing of the oxygen from the air 
with some of the volatile fuel 'that would otherwise par- 


tially or wholly escape combustion. At a test made at the over long distances; for these messages consisted of 

McGill University, at Montreal, the following results were words and sentences, not like the others, of a single letter, 

shown with a sample of the Falls hollow, double refined and they were actually printed on telegraph tape, not as 

charcoal staybolt iron I in. O.D. x 3-16 in. I.d. : Length, at St. John's, barely detected on a telephone by a straining 

25^ ins.; mean diameter (outside), 1.014 in.; yield ear. The writer of the article is a personal friend of the 

point, 32,000 lbs. per sq. in. ; ultimate tensile strength, inventor's, and the account is often given in Marconi's 

49,300 lbs. per sq. in. ; equivalent elongation in 8 ins., own words. 

31 3-16 per cent; reduction of area, 45.7 per cent. The 

Falls Hollow Stay Bolt Company will gladly furnish fur- The n£w erecting shop at the Richmond works of the 

ther information upon request. American Locomotive Co., which is now in course of con- 

struction, will be 303 feet long, 83 feet wide and 52 feet 

Mr. Jay G. Robinson has accepted the agency of the high. No wood whatever will be used in the construction, 

Washburn Coupler Company of Minneapolis, Minnesota, brick, glass and steel being the materials utilized. More 

for the sale of their couplers and other railway devices than half of the walls will be made up of glass, so that the 

in the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan and Ohio. Mr. interior of the shop will be unusually well lighted. The 

Robinson has offices in the Old Colony Building, corner building will be equipped with two electric cranes, one of 

Dearborn and Van Buren streets, Chicago. 120-tons capacity and a span of 70 feet, while the second. 

or auxiliary crane, will have a capacity of 70 tons. 

Arrangements have been concluded by which on and 

after July 1st, 1902, the Railroad Supply Company and Mf Edward N Hurley, formerly president of the 

the Q. & C. Company will be operated separately as pre- Standard Pneumatic Tool Co ., now a director in the Chi- 

vious to January 1st, 1901, except that all interests per- cagQ p neumatic Tool Co .,has sai i e d for London, England, 

taining to tie-plates have been sold by the O & C. Lorn- Thursday> April I?thj at which place he will meet Mr . 

pany, and will be hereafter conducted by the Railroad j_ w _ Duntey> and comp lete arrangements for the sale of 

Supply Company. . _ tne International Pneumatic Tool Co. of London to the 

■ Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. The Chicago Pneumatic 

The Wells Light Manufacturing Co., of New York. Tool Co. one day last month received an order from one 

report their sales for the month of March, 1902, to be European concern for 150 pneumatic tools. Their for- 

more than double those of any other two corresponding eign business has increased very rapidly during the past 

months put together. For the month of April to date few months, and there is every indication that there will 

(14th) their sales were equal to a full month's business, be a proportionate increase in the future. 

During the last six weeks their difficulty has been to ob- ; 

tain material fo manufacture, rather than with selling the The hm of ±e American engineer to design steel 

1 * 1 f 0,-0 

^ ' structures of great strength and pleasant architectural 

_ „ 1^,-0-1 1 4-1 ~~ i-^^ a A „ T ;<.t, effect, is shown in the eight half-tones on the handsome 

The Grand Trunk Railway has recently contracted with '-. ,-.-.,, , T , _-. _ 

the Safety Car Heating & Lighting Company fdr the souvenir mailing card issued by the Joseph Dixon Cru- 

equipping of fifty additional cars on their line with the cible Company, of Jersey City, N. J. The card is a piece 

Pintsch system of lighting. The Pintsch Gas Works at of artistic advertising on the part of the company, and 

Moncton, N. B., which has been in the course of con- wd l prove f decided interest to constructing engineers 

structicm for the past two. months,^ is now^completed, and and architects> to whom it wiU be sent on reqtl est. Dixon's 

Silica-Graphite Paint, which protects these structures 
from corrosion, has been very extensively used in the 

g-as is being- made there for use in the cars of the Inter- 
colonial Railway 

_ . , . , ,. -r, ., j r a 1 r ,^o„,r south, west and sea-coast sections of the United States, 

The bolster works of the Bettendorf Axle Company. .',,,. . ,. ■ „ . T TTr _ ... ' 

manufacturers of the Bettendorf truck and body bolsters, also in Mexico, Australia, China, Japan, West Indies 

are to be moved from Davenport to Gilbert. In its pres- and Philippine Islands and has proven its protective and 

ent quarters the company cannot take care of their in- wearing qualities in all climates, 

creasing business, and the works at Davenport will be 

used for their wagon business. The new works will oc- ■ . i'tv'h 

, , ;■ & j ,1 ^ •„ v.„\\a\„„ ,„;ii u a ^*^ After a two years test, the Atchison and Pullman com- 

cupy about 60 acres, and the main building will be 240 J ' 

feet by 700 feet in size, and be of modern construction. P ames have accepted the 115 "Axle Light" equipments 

with latest equipment, including tramways, cranes and used in Atchison service, and private Pullman cars are 

heavy machinery. The plant will have an independent now being equipped with their electric car lighting sys- 

power house, and other accessory buildings will be tem _ The Consolidated Railway Electric Lighting and 

erected as the further development of the works will cer- E . Company are also applying their lighting 

tainly bring that about. . . , . / ., ■ e X ' -\v • tj 

J fe equipment extensively upon the cars of the Missouri Pa- 

rj,. ■ ,, -n- , -iv/r ri„r^ ~t i\/r „ ■>„ cific, St. Louis & San Francisco, Chicago Great West- 

The account 111 the February McClure s of Marconi s ' . ' ° > 

experiments at St. John's,Newfoundland,Marconi himself ern > Pennsylvania Lines West of Pittsburg, Grand Trunk 

declared to be the best popular account ever written of and other railways, as well as upon the private cars of 

his work in wireless telegraphy. Now, in the April issue, many railway officials. Their "Axle Light" system, 

Henry. Herbert McClure tells the story of the wireless wherever used, is regarded as a safe and satisfactory and 

messages received on board the "Philadelphia" on her economical method of car lighting on the market. The 
now famous voyage. Ihese messages not only broke the . . „ ,, , . ,. . L „ 

distance record established at St. John's, but also for the company either sells these equipments outright or installs 

first time demonstrated the practical utility of the system and maintains them on a rental basis. 

May, 1902. 



>P Railroad Paint Shop >? 

A Department Devoted to the Interest of Plaster Car and Locomotive Painters 
Edited by CHAS. E. COPP, General Foreman Painter, Car Department, Boston & Maine Railroad, Lawrence, Mass. 

Official Org'an of tHe Master Car and Locomotive Painters Association 

M. C. & L. P. A. Portrait Gallery-S. H. McCracken 


1WAS born in Garretsville, Meade Co., Ky., Sept. 
26, 1870. At the age of 16. while working for a 
large stock raiser in Montgomery City, Mo., who had 
a great deal of painting done, T began to paint barns, 
fences, etc. I continued in his employ one year, when 
I came to Cloverport, where 
T worked for a contracting 
house painter ; afterwards 
contracting myself for house 
and sign painting for three 
years. I then went into the 
paint shop of the L., H. & 
St. L. R. R. at this place, 
serving three years at car 
and engine painting. I was 
then called to Louisville, 
Ky., to take charge of the 
painting department of C. 
Aultman & Of, manufac- 
turers of threshing machines, 

engines, etc. I worked for 
them two years, at the ex- 
piration of which time they 
went into the hands of a re- 
ceiver. I have a creditable 
recommendation from their 
general manager, Mr. W. R. 
Donaldson, of which I am 
quite proud. 

I then returned to Clover- 
port, by request of F. J. 
Ferry, M. M. of the L., H 
& St. L. R. R., and took 
charge of their entire paint- 
ing-, consisting of passen- 
ger, engine and freight work, where I have since re- 
mained. During this time I have worked for three 
different master mechanics and my business relations 
have been of the most pleasant nature with all of 
them. I have performed my duty as best as I could 
and I have received the very kindest treatment in re- 
turn from my superior officers. I became a member 
of the M. C. & L. P. A. at St. Paul in September, 1898, 
and I have been a regular attendant at its annual 
meetings ever since. While I have not taken an active 
part in discussions coming before our body, I feel that 
I have been greatly benefited by attending these meet- 
ings, and I stand ready at any and all times to assist 
in my humble way to promote the welfare of our 
association. I read my first paper at our convention 

held in Buffalo last September, and got "sat down 
on" pretty hard by my friends Butts and Cohen. 
However, I am still of the opinion that a car can be 
cleaned with soap and water. 

"Convince a man against his will, 
He's of the same opinion still." 

I am a member of Cloverport Lodge, No. 133, F. & 

A. M. Served a term of two 
years as a member of the 
city council of this city, my 
time expiring with the last 
day of last vear. 

♦ » » 

Convention Arrangements 

THE Committee of Ar- 
rangements for the next 
place of meeting has made 
choice of the Copley Square 
Hotel, Boston, as the head- 
quarters of the Associa- 
tion, and considers the 
selection fortunate from 
present indications. It is a 
first-class house and in the 
best part of the city. A 
three-dollar per day rate on 
the American plan has been 
secured for rooms without 
bath for two persons in a 
room, and most of these 
rooms have running water. 
There may be a few 
single room accommodations 
available at same rate. 
Rooms with bath, of course, 
will be proportio n a t e 1 y 
higher in price ; also rooms en suite. Ample provision 
has been made for a convention room, free, on the 
street floor, just off from the lobby. In case of an 
overflow, arrangements have been made with "The 
Nottingham," an adjoining hotel, to accommodate a 
number at same rates. Members and ladies from the 
south and west entering the city over the N. Y., N. H. 
& H. and B. & A. roads need not ride to the terminal, 
at a distance away, but may leave the trains of the 
former at "Back Bay Station," within two or three 
minutes' walk of the hotel ; and at the "Huntington 
Avenue Station" on the latter road, half that distance 
to walk. More detailed directions in this respect will, 
however, be given later, probably in our August issue, 
so as to be fresh in mind. 

Mr. S. H. mcCrackrn. 



May, 1902. 

About every hotel in Boston of any note has been can- 
vassed, but the date of the meeting, the second Tuesday 
in September, is unfortunate for Boston hotels, as beach 
and mountain visitors have returned to their fall and 
winter quarters (or seeing the city enroute to their west- 
ern and southern homes) and filled up the houses so that 
a company the usual size of the M. C. and L. P. A. and 
friends can hardly be accommodated in desirable places. 
One verv desirable house would like the convention, but 
at not less than $3.50 per day. Other old houses — two or 
three — would accommodate possibly at a less rate than 
has been obtained (one of them where the convention 
was held when last in Boston, twelve years ago), but 
they are now surrounded by an undesirable element and 
in a locality that would make it unpleasant for the ladies 
to go out unattended. Some very desirable houses in 
good localities are on the European plan exclusively, with 
no convention room to be had, and otherwise not adapted 
as convention places. 

The Copley Square Hotel, that has been selected, is 
within a few steps of Boston's famous Public Library, 
with its pictures of "the Holy Grail," recently added, 
that are attracting much attention; also the Art Museum 
Institutes of Technology and Natural History, the 
famous churches of the Square, etc., and on direct car 
line to subway and elevated railroad, and within a few 
minutes' ride to the shopping district and principal points 
of interest. It is to be hoped that the choice of the com- 
mittee will prove to be as wise as now appears, and that 
the best convention ever held will be enjoyed in old Bos- 
ton town, "the Hub of the Universe," in September, 1902. 
and that no one will be kept away on account of lack of 
free transportation. Ho, for Boston ! 

•» « » 

Old Ruts and New Ideas in Paint Making 

By Charles Koons, 
Master Painter, St. Louis Car Co. 

AS a practical, every-day workman addressing 
those who. are deeply interested in the modes 
of modern paint and varnish making, I feel a little 
backward about mentioning some matters that should 
come under the head of "trade secrets," and may seem 
to some to be out of place in this article. But what 
I may say is not so much in the spirit of uncovering 
some so-called secrets as it is in urging a change for 
the better in manufacturing, as well as in the common 
painter's way of doing things. I wish to speak from 
a practical standpoint. Any proposed new methods, 
or any ideas or any changes that may be spoken of, 
are given freely and above holding that they are se- 
cret, knowing that if they are freely followed out we 
all will be profited and the trade generally advanced, 
instead of working along in the old ruts that possibly 
some of us have been in for the last decade. 

We are all aware that this is a progressive age. In 
most every known line of manufacture there has been 
advancement. Every few years products have been 
improved. Yet, I will venture to say that every oh 1 

firm manufacturing paint products for the paint busi- 
ness is still adhering to ways that they used thirty 
years ago, in both the formation and the manufacture 
of 75 per cent of their products. This cannot be said 
of any other business known. No sooner is an im- 
provement brought out than it is immediately put 
into practice. The paint manufacturers have steered 
clear and shirked the responsibility of this advance- 
ment. They are the exception and are entirely too 
slow. Improvements in the way of machinery for 
making paint, new ideas that have been worked out, 
new formulae that have been made, new processes and 
systems that have been well known among the prac- 
tical men, new mixtures to prolong the life of color 
and also the wear of paint, new pigments, new me- 
diums, new driers and a score of other preparations 
that could be on the market, have failed to be pro- 
duced. You might ask, Why the need, when the pres- 
ent prepared products fill the bill and answer all pur- 
poses? I could answer, Years ago we smoked and 
prepared our own meats, made our own bread, canned 
and preserved all the delicacies for the table use; and 
now we can buy them better prepared at every corner 
grocery. This is not the case with paint products. 
You might say this has been done in a measure with 
our prepared oil and japan colors. Perhaps so. But 
if I were to ask every japan color house in the busi- 
ness whether there was any difference in grinding 
colors in japan now than when he first started, he 
would answer, No. Still there is a better way. 

Up-to-date painters know this and prepare their 
own, because they can't get what they want from the 
color manufacturers. Only recently I shipped back 
to a prominent paint house about 400 pounds of fine 
japan color that had "livered" and could not be used. 
If the man who had ground it understood his business 
and had been a little more advanced, this would not 
have happened. The usual indiscriminate way of pre- 
paring japan colors is not up-to-date, and causes 
trouble to both the practical man, and later to the 
manufacturer who sells them. 

However, there is one feature in which there has 
been too much advance, and possibly the guilt rests 
upon a great many who try to meet competition by 
a too free use of adulterants. When a pigment or a 
medium is used that lessens the durability of both 
color and the preservation of the paint, it is rather a 
dear expedient along the lines of advance to any paint 
manufacturer. There must be judgment used in the 
knowledge of medium and pigment in regard to load- 
ing with foreign material. It is dangerous at best 
and should be handled with only one thing in view, 
namely, the betterment of the paint, both as to dura- 
bility of color and the protection it gives to the orig- 
inal material. This we will speak of further along. 

(To be continued.) 
-. +—+ 

Colorado Springs, Colo., March 29, 1902. 
Editor Railroad Paint Shop : 

In reply to your request for articles of interest to 

May, 1902. 



our co-workers in railroad paint shops, I am sorry to 
say that, at present, information as regards the work- 
ing of this shop is meagre. The Colorado Springs & 
Cripple Creek District Ry. has been in operation only 
since April, 1901, so her rolling stock is practically 
new. So far, in treating our coaches, I have been able 
to produce the desired results with the "cut-in-and- 
varnish" process alone. 

If anything should come up in the shop which I 
consider of interest to the progress of the trade I will 
readily and cheerfully give it. If a few words regard- 
ing my early apprenticeship and progress will be of 
value to youths aspiring to master the fascinating art 
of painting and to command the respect of their fel- 
low-men, as men deserving confidence, I will most 
heartily give it in an article later on. 

Matt. Pfeffer, 
Foreman Painter, C. S. & C. C. D. Ry. 

bidding farewell to all the future miseries and devil- 
tries connected with it. Can't we get some fellow to 
come to the rescue with an article to take the place 
of benzine for this class of cleaning? Something that 
is not inflammable and warranted not to eat the hands 
and boots off the boy using it? If you can give this 
an airing through the "Paint Shop," I think it an im- 
portant matter and a subject that hits us all. I re- 
main, Yours truly, 

John H. Kahler. 

♦ » » 

■♦ * *■ 

Benzine as a Cleaner 

Meadville, Pa., April 16, '02. 
Dear Friend Copp : — 

For thirty-five years we have had the odor of benzine 
about the shop ; but now, at this late day, the order 
comes to discontinue its use. Consequently "my nose 
is out of joint." In all these years we have had no 
accident, and why insurance companies should be the 
main fault-finders I cannot understand, as in past 
years we have had no trouble in that line when the 
true situation was known to them. Different agents 
on inspection have heretofore been satisfied when told 
that the benzine in stock was stored a safe distance 
from any buildings, and a five-gallon can is all we 
kept in shop at any time, and at night was returned to 
store house for safety. If we are to lose the use of 
this very important article, how are we to clean all 
greasy parts of locomotives ready for painting? I 
know there are still other agents left to do cleaning 
with, such as kerosene, carbon oil and turpentine; but 
when you are told to use lye (just think of it, lye!) 
then you feel like throwing down the gauntlet and 

Friend Copp: London, March 11, 1902. 

I noticed in the last issue f the Railway Master Me- 
chanic," in referring to Warner Bailey's headlining de- 
sign you asked to hear from others along that line, so 
I venture to submit original designs of my own under 
separate cover to you today, and if you think them 
worthy of space you are at liberty to use them. 

This spring, so far, I have put up six new linings, 
and more to follow. These were done in gold on two 


^'igj > *^ 

>> friYl A, r 

Designed by Mr. T. J. Hutchinson. 

light tints of mullen green, with a light olive border; 
then varnished and rubbed. 

We have been very busy all winter here, and pros- 
pects are good for the summer months. At present I 
am working about sixty men. 

I am in hopes of meeting you again this year in 
clear old Boston, where I shall feel at home, as I have 
three sisters living in Cambridge. 

I enjoy our conventions and value the opportunity 
of an exchange of ideas. With best wishes, I am, 

Yours truly, 

T. J. Hutchinson. 

Designed by 

T. J. Hutchinson. 



May, 1902. 


Designed by Mr. T. J. Hutchinson 

Air Painting vs. Brush Painting. 

The Southern and Southwestern Railway Club de- 
voted the principal part of its January meeting to the 
discussion of spray vs. hand painting of freight cars 
(which subject was continued for the February meet- 
ing), from the proceedings of which we make some 
extracts as follows : 

Cost with Brushes, Car No. 2575 — B. 
Sides, ends and roof, "double board on roof," two (2) 

coats of paint. 

10 gallons of paint used, at 80c per gallon $8.00 

2 l / 2 hours labor rendered applying paint, at 22]/ 2 c 56 

Cost of Painting Freight Cars, "Spray vs. Hand" 


While there has been many comments and much 
said concerning the most economical method of paint- 
ing freight cars, my experience has been that the adop- 
tion of the spray machine has effected to much extent 
a decrease in cost to paint cars. With the proper ap- 
pliances, air pressure and the sprayer handled by one 
of little experience, the quantity of paint required to 
do the work would not be increased but little, if any, 
and the time to do the work would be lessened by us- 
ing the spray machine. This lesson has been taught 
me and substantiated, by the recent numerous and va- 
rious tests I have witnessed, I am aware there is a 
wide difference of opinions as to the relative merits of 
painting cars by spraying or by brush and whereas 
the condition of the weather, might cut some figure, 
in my opinion, only severe winds would interfere with 
the use of the spray, which would possibly effect a 
slight increase of paint and somewhat detrimental to 
the person handling the spray machine. 

To enable me to make an accurate test and render 
an intelligent report I have just completed a rigid test, 
selecting for the purpose, two (2) box cars, A. No. 
2255 and B. 2575 — -40,000 lb. capy. cars, each of them, 
very much in need of repainting, and in same condi- 
tion, practically speaking, results of this recent, care- 
fully made test are as follows: 

Cost with Spray Machine, Car No. 2255 — A. 

Sides, ends and roof, "double board on roof," two 

coats of paint. 

9 l /i gallons of paint used, at 80c per gallon ... .$7.60 
\}/i hours labor rendered applying paint, at 22J/2C. 34 

Total to paint car with brush $8.56 

There is possibly a cost of about 5 cents per car 
incurred on account of maintaining the spray machine 
and an approximate figure of about 2 cents per car for 
brushes. The substitution of the spray machine to 
take the place of brush for painting freight cars, is in 
my mind, not only a good invention, but is here to 
stay, thrives and will be of great assistance to us in 
preventing cars, needing painting, to accumulate on 
our repair tracks. 

As indicated above herein the work done with the 
spray machine shows a decrease of 62c per car. With- 
standing this fact and that the work is as well finished 
as that done with the brushes, it seems to me we are 
realizing desired acquirements with the spray. 
Respectfully submitted. 

G. A. Goodyear, 
Foreman Car Department. 

Mr. Goodyear — I think you have heard enough from 
me in this report, Mr. President, but I wish to say 
that we have been using the spray machine for years, 
and while we do good work with the brush, and good 
work with the spray machine, f am a little in favor 
of the spray machine, as we get results more rapidly. 
We made the test I mentioned in the report rair and 
square. We requested the man before starting not to 
rush the work, but to do it in the ordinary, every- 
day way. I believe he did this, though I told him that 
I thought he was taking a little too much time, but 
he stated he was working as would ordinarily, and I 
honestly believe that we gave it a very fair lest. I 
would like for some of the members to give us a little 
more light on the subject, as to the quality of the 
paint, etc. Mr. Nix and I seem to differ a good deal, 
and I hope the members will discuss the matter fully. 

President — I am very much interested in the sub- 
ject myself, and recently painted a number of oars 

Total cost to paint car with spray $7-94 with the ordinary brush. 

T would like to have a good 

May, 1902. 



general discussion of the subject. I have never used 
the spray machine, and would like to know if there ; s 
not necessarily a good deal more waste with the spray 
machine than with the brush. 

Mr. Michael — In Knoxville, on the Southern, we 
have had this system in use about three or four years, 
and we had a test some time ago that demonstrated 
the fact very plainly to us that there is practically no 
loss by the spraying machine over the brush. Noth- 
ing to amount to anything. We have had very good 
success with the spraying machine, but there is one 
feature that must be objectionable, and that is the 
weight of the machine. You take a man handling the 
machine all day long painting freight cars, when the 
machine weighs from eight to ten pounds, and he gets 
tired now and then ; but so far as the system is con- 
cerned, we save a great deal of time and can turn out 
a great many more cars than we can with the brush. 
We can go over a 60,000 lb. capacity car in from eight- 
een to twenty-five minutes with the spraying machine, 
where it would take a good man with a brush about an 
hour and twenty minutes, and I think that the spray- 
ing machine is decidedly a success. 

We are now painting about 200 cars per month, and 
a great deal of this work is done out of doors, and Ave 
do not find that the wind has much effect. If the wind 
is very high, we have to gauge our machine and get 
a little closer to the car, and when it is mild weather 
we gjt a little farther away. 

I notice there is a company manufacturing a differ- 
ent kind of machine that will hold a barrel of paint 
put on trucks so it can be carried anywhere, and there 
is a light hose attached with a nozzle in the end, so 
the man can work from the ground and not be -com- 
pelled to work on a platform as we have to do with 
our machines. 

Now, if you take into consideration the fact of a 
man working ten hours per day with that machine in 
his hands, that weighs about eight or ten pounds, it 
is very tiresome, but outside of that feature, we are 
very well pleased with the system. 

Mr. Sheffer — We have been working for nine 
months with a spraying machine trying to make it a 
success, but I am sorry to say that we do not think 
it is a success. We selected four entirely new 6o,coo 
lb. capacity cars, and tried two with hand atul two 
with the spraying machine. Of course, with the brush, 
we usually give three coats of paint. The first cc at 
took three gallons two pints of paint, and time was 
four hours and ten minutes ; the second coat took two 
gallons of paint, and time was three hours and forty 
minutes ; and the third coat took two gallons and one 
pint of paint, and the time was three hours twenty- 
eight minutes. The whole time on the car was 1 1 
hours and 18 minutes at I2j^c per hour, which make,s 
$1.41 and 7 gallons, 1^2 pints of paint at 48c per gal- 
long, makes $3.54, and allowing 14c for brushes makes 
a total of about $5.09. 

We then tried the car with spray machine with the 
following results, giving the car two coats. The first 
coat took 5 gallons 2 quarts of paint, and time vas 1 

hour 55 minutes, and the second coat took 4 gallons 
and 1 quart, and the time was 1 hour and 30, 
thus taking 3 hours 25 minutes at I2^4c and 9 gallons 
and 3 quarts of paint at 48c, making a total ^ost of 
$5.10, not counting the cost of the machine, cost of 
the hose, cost of furnishing the air, etc. The cost of 
the hand painted car was $5.09 and the cost of the 
sprayed car was $5.10. Also look at the amount of 
paint used ; with the brush seven gallons one and a 
half quarts to give the car three coats, and with the 
spraying machine was nine gallons three quarts to 
give the car two coats, which shows a considerable 
loss of paint in using the spray machine. I know that 
some of you have been at Nashville and Chattanooga 
shops and found the whole place painted red. I chink 
Mr. Cooledge noticed this some years ago. (Laughter.) 

It may be that some other paint is better for the 
spray, but the paint we used had considerable sediment 
in the bottom and ate out the hose very fast. We 
started first to use a machine of our own ; using a good 
big air reservoir, mounted on a truck, and the ma- 
chine held about a half barrel of paint, and used two 
nozzles with two hose attached to reservoir, but the 
hose was soon eaten out and it was very unhandy to 
handle this kind. We then got some of the hand spray- 
ing machines, and we did pretty good work with them, 
but in April we discarded them, thinking they caused 
too much waste in paint. I do not think the spraying 
machine does as nice looking job as the brush does. 
But, of course, the spraying machines have been im- 
proved upon in the last nine months, and if they can- 
not get the machine down fine in nine months, they 
are not apt to in nineteen.. 

Mr. Michael — In reference to Mr. Sheffer's expe- 
rience wtih the spray machine, we found in instituting 
that system there was considerable prejudice. The 
men did not take to it at all, and we had to overcome 
that by working with the men and showing them the 
advantages of it, and in fact, I have taken the ma- 
chine myself to instruct them and show them how to 
paint with it, but after they learned the economy and 
usefulness of the machine there was no further trouble 
I have found that we have good results, and with the 
number of cars we have to paint, we would never ac- 
complish the work with a brush. The weight of the 
machine is, of course, a great objection, as I find that 
the men are apt to set it down for a little time to 
get rest for their arms, and this, of course, amounts 
to something. 

As for the hose being eaten out, there is a hose man- 
ufactured which will cost a little something, but you 
can get such a hose that will not be eaten out. I am 
very much in favor of the tank on trucks, and you can 
then place as many nozzles on hose attached to the 
reservoir as you want. Two men can then be placed 
on each side of the car, and you will save just that 
much time over one man with a single spray ma- 

President — I would like to ask just one question for 
my own benefit as well as for the others. Is it neces- 
sary to use a specially prepared paint for the machine, 



May, 1902. 

or do you use the ordinary paint such as you would 
use with a brush ? 

Mr. Leake — The ordinary paint can be used. 

Mr. Michael — I do not think it is necessary to use 
a specially prepared paint. 

Mr. Goodyear — We used the same paint that we 
used with the brush although we strained the paint 
we used in the machine so no sediment would get in it. 

Mr. Michael — In my opinion, any paint you use in 
the spraying machine should be light, that is, should 
not hold too much of the pigment in solution. I think 
there is now invented a tank with the ordinary at- 
tachments, and there is a paddle revolving in the tank, 
and the same pressure is used to stir the paint that is 
used to spray with, and in this way the paint is kept 
in solution all the time. 

Mr. Goodyear — How much paint do you use to a 

Mr. Michael — I do not know that I remember ex- 
actly, but I think we use about eight or nine pounds to 
the car with the spraying machine and from twelve tc 
fifteen pounds with the brush. 

Mr. Jacobs — I would like to know which lasts the 
longest, those cars covered with the spraying machine, 
or those painted with the brush? Is it not a fact that 

painting with the spraying machine makes the paint 
go into the wood much better? 

Mr. Leak — It depends entirely on the quality of the 
paint. There is practically no difference in the preser- 
vation of the wood, but the spraying machine will 
reach parts that it is practically impossible to reach 
with a brush, such as the grooves between the siding 
of cars, and it would take a great deal of time for a 
man to reach such parts thoroughly with a brush, but 
so far as the endurance is concerned, I do not think 
it makes any difference whatever, whether covered 
with the spraying machine or brush. 

'A Member — I find that the men get so much paint 
in their lungs that they can not stand it. This is one 
objection I have to the hand machine. The painter is 
too close to the machine when he is on the platform, 
and inhales more or less of the spray and fumes from 
the paint. Now that he paints on the ground, he gets 
away from this condition to a certain extent. There is 
a system now in vogue of using a bamboo rod. This 
rod is long enough xto reach any part of the car, and 
contains a brass tube so the pressure of the air w ill 
not split the bamboo. With this the painter can stand 
on the ground and paint the car and keep away from 
the fumes and spray entirely. 

•» ♦ » 

Notes and Comments. 

In a note enclosing the report of the Advisory Committee it is fair to say it had the sanction of this scribe as an effort 

meeting, Secretary McKeon writes as follows: 
"I am in good health and hope to be able to meet you 

at Boston next September." 
This is good news and we trust his hope will be realized. 

to get "our boys" to come to the assistance of an overworked 
editor and was done in good spirit, if not so interpreted. 
Some have already responded. One old "vet" said he felt 
complimented to be thus invited to contribute to our columns. 

Attention is called to friend Kahler's trouble, as described 
in his letter in another column. Friend Dave has been 
through the same experience at the locomotive shop of 
the B. & M. at Boston. We invite his consolation in these 

Mr. Herman F. Ball, sou of our friend and associate, Mr. 
F. S. Ball, Foreman Painter of the P. R. R. at its Altoona 
shops, has been appointed Superintendent Motive Power of 
the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Ry. A father with 
three sons, we know how to rejoice with friend Ball in this 
good fortune that has come to his son. 

Our supply-men readers might as well be sharpening their 
knives to go for Koons. See his article taking paint makers 
to due in this issue! It's but about a third of the article he 
sent in. We thought it more likely to be eaten if cut into two 
or three pieces. They may think he is going out of his way, 
but he is experimenting in paint-making himself and hopes to 
surprise them some day. Keep your eye on him. 

The selling out, or transfer, of the Kansas City. Fort Scott 
& Memphis to the St. Louis & San Francisco R. R. some time 
ago, let out all the old Foremen of the Memphis System, our 
associate member, Frank Crocker, being among the number, 
as we learn for the first time by a letter from him to-day 
(Mar. 17) in reply to one from us asking for his photo and 
sketch. He has just recovered from an illness and is now 

In connection witli his autobiography in another column 
Mr. McCraken writes: "I have just moved into my new paint 
shop, which is equipped with air, steam, hot and cold water, 
and, in fact, all the modern conveniences, of which I feel 
very proud. I am also fixed for silvering and embossing, and 
have had good success with this class of work so far. With 
my new shop and its conveniences, and an increase in force, I 
hope to have the passenger equipment on our road very much 
improved in appearance the coming season-." 

Prof. Louis Derr read an interesting paper on "Energy" at 
the March meeting of the NT. E. R. R. Club. It is a good thing 
for the average railroad man to listen to one of these tech- 
nology men once in a while. It is such a sounding of the 
depths that it helps one to realize more what an ocean of 
knowledge he is sailing over and how small he is. At this 
meeting officers were elected for ensuing year, reports read 
and adopted and a lunch served. 

At our last convention in Buffalo quite a bombshell was toss- 
ed into the ranks of the terminal car cleaners by Mr. S. H. 
McCracken, whose portrait appears herewith, by his advocat- 
ing soap and water instead of oil emulsions. In fact, we did 
not know when we wrote for his photo for these columns but 
that Bro. Gohen had "scooped" him in on a cleaning contract 
that he was offering him on the convention floor at that time, 
so cheaply had he stated he could clean cars. But it appears 
he is still "at the old stand," and we are pleased to introduce 
to our readers a man from the land of persimmons and blue 
grass, who has the courage of his convictions, if he does not 
agree with others on this much-mooted subject. We hope he 
will be able to meet with us at our Boston convention in Sep- 
tember next. 

If any have taken exceptions to a circular letter sent out 
by the oditor-in-chief to members of the M. C. & L. P. A., 

•• 'Tis pleasant to bo remembered for what we have done." 

May, 1902. 



The following, clipped from a local paper, will be read with 
pleasure by "John's" many friends in our association, who 
will like to know something of what the foreman Painter of 
the Cumberland A alley road is thought of in his own town: 

"While all the members of the old Council deserve thanks 
and praise for the hard work they did for our town, for the 
long hours they spent in public service, and for the loss of 
money and time they incurred by reason of their two years' 
term as Councilmen, there is one Councilman in particular 
who should have unstinted public thanks for the labor and 
worry he has expended over municipal affairs, and that man 
is John W. Houser, ex-Commissioner of Water and Light. 

Mr. Houser has served two terms in Council and the last 
two years was our Water and Light Commissioner, an office 
to which attaches some of the gravest responsibilities in our 
local government and one requiring, nay, demanding, the 
hardest kind of work. We know that Mr. Houser had to give 
his time and attention for his term at all hours of the day 
and night, Sundays, holidays and any time, and that he 
worked harder than any one person about the electric light 
or the water plant, aside from the care and worry he had to 
carry. No matter what went wrong he was sent for and had 
to settle the trouble, and we fear but few people gave to him 
even a modicum of the credit which was his due. He made 
a record, which will bear the closest investigation, and we 
take pleasure in calling the attention of our citizens to the 
gratitude they owe Mr. Houser for his assiduous attention 
to his duties while in office." 

as manufacturers of protective paints for iron and steel, 
judging by three of their pamphlets lately received, two of 
them well illustrated, namely, "The Story of Human Prog- 
ress," and "Impressions and Expressions Regarding Protec- 
tive Paint." The other, not illustrated, is the most valuable 
of the three to a painter, as it contains many good points, 
other than their own advertising matter, on "The Preserva- 
tion of Wood, Steel and Galvanized Surfaces." We are in 
accord with many of the views therein so well expressed. 
See their full-page "ad" in this issue, with pictures of the 
P. & L. E. R. R. Train-Shed at Pittsburgh, "protected from 
rust by their Carbonizing Coating." 

■ ♦— » 

The Goheen Mfg. Co., Canton, Ohio, the home of the la- 
mented McKinley, are pressing their claims in good style 


Kenton, Ohio, April 17. 1902. 

Editor Railroad Paint Shop: 

I have just learned through a friend of the very great loss 
our associate, Harry B. Forristall, has sustained, by the death 
of his wife. He loses a good and faithful helpmate. It 
makes it all the more lonely for him because he is left en- 
tirely alone, and no one in his city to give him much conso- 
lation. Any one who can write a good letter of condolence 
to him will be a great help. He lives in Columbus, O., and is 
employed by the Hocking Valley Ry. 
Respectfully yours, 

H. C. Herron. 

Note.— Mr. Forristall is one of our oldest members, his 
name appearing in our sixth annual report in 1875, N. Y. 
convention. He will have the sympathy of our entire mem- 
bership in his sad bereavement.— Editor. 

&/>e Car Foremen's Association 

A Department Devoted 

to the 

Interests of the Car Department 

of Scranton 
j& jZ? j& j& j& j& 

Official Organ 
of t H e Association 

April Meeting: 

On Saturday evening, April 12th, at 8:00 o'clock, the above 
association held their regular montly meeting in the R. R. De- 
partment Y. M. C. A. Hall, at Scranton, Pa.; Vice-President 
R. B. Rasbridge in the chair. 

The following is a list of new members received: 
Ames, R C, car oiler, D. L. & W. 
Aiken, Jno. P., car inspector, D. L. & W. 
Avery, G. J., car inspector, D. & H. 
Angwin, Edw., car inspector, Erie. 
Alkinson, Wm., foreman, P. & R. 

Bover, Frank J., air brake inspector, C. R. R. of N. J. 
Barr, Jno. W., car repairer, P. & R. 
Bradley, E. J., foreman car inspector, P. W. & B. 
Clement, Samuel L., foreman, C. R. R. <>f N. J. 
Corbett, F. A., clerk, D. L. & W. 
Craig, Jas., foreman painter, Erie. 
Clewell, Wm. H., joint car inspector. 
Doellner, J. W., machinist, D. L. & W. 
Daley, D. F., car inspector, B. & O. 
Daley, Michael, car repairer, B. & O. 
De Victor, Chas. H., car inspector, P. & R. 
Dever, Wm. E., foreman car inspector, P. & R. 
Evans, John G., painter, C. R. R. of N. J. 
Fraley, Jno., car foreman, D. L. & W. 
Fennell, P., car foreman, D. L. & W. 
Glass, P. J., foreman painter, D. L. & W. 
Gruber, Benjamin, foreman, P. & R. 
Gortner, Geo. L., car repairer, P. & R. 
Jaques, Chas. L., carpenter, D. L. & W. 
Johnson, David, foreman car inspector, P. & R. 
Kirchman, John, joint car inspr., C. R. R. of N. J.— D. L. & W. 
Ludwig, B., car tinsmith, C. R. R. of N. J. 
Lack, John, car inspector, D. L. & W. 
Lash, Charles, joint car inspector. 
McMichael, J. F., car repairer, C. R. R. of N. J. 
Marcovitz, Joseph, car repairer, D. L. & W. 
Masters, C. M., car inspector, D. L. & W. 
Melkins, F. P., foreman wheel department, C. R. R. of N. J. 
McGuire, Joseph, inspector, D. L. & W. 
Mulqueen, Michael, carpenter, B. & O. 
Mears, Geo. P., car repairer, P. & R. 
Mears, C. P., car inspector, P. & R. 

Miller, Isaac W., foreman car inspector, P. & R. 
O'Neill, Joseph, upholsterer foreman, C. R. R. of N. J. 
Opdyke, F. H., car inspector, D. L. & W. 
Pigeon, yard foreman, D. L, & W. 
Purnell, Geo. W., foreman car inspector, P. & R. 
Pierce, John, car inspector, D. L. & W. 
Reeder, W. W., passenger car inspector, C. R. R. of N. J. 
Ryan, W. H., chief joint inspector, B. & O. and P. & R. 
Redinger, Frederick, car inspector, P. & R. 
Reeder, Jacob H., car inspector, P. & R. 
Stair, S. E., foreman car inspector, C. R. R. of N. J. 
Soden, G. F., foreman, D. L. & W. 
Smith, H. D., car oiler, D. L. & W. 
Smith, H. J., inspector, D. L. & W. 
Shaneman, Geo., car inspector, P. & R. 
Streeper, Isaac S., car inspector, P. & R. 
Stuart, Robert, foreman car inspector, P. & R. 
Schultz, Rudolph, car inspector, P. & R. 
Schreck, Benjamin F., foreman car repairs, P. R. 
Smith, William, car inspector, P. & R. 
Summers, A. C, Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Tiffany, Alonzo L., truck carpenter, C. R. R. of N. J. 
Teed, J. E., air brake inspector, D. L. & W. 
Williams, Fred., car foreman, D. L. & W. 
Weiss, F. A., foreman painter, C. R. R. of N. J. 
Wesley, Frederick, car inspector, P. & R. 
Weikel, Josiah, car repairer, P. & R. 
Zimmerman, Geo. A., foreman car repairs, P. & R. 
-Hughes, Thos. B., car inspector, P. & R. 
Knuckle, Harry, clerk, C. R. R. of N. J. 

Mr. Rasbridge: The minutes of the previous meeting have 
been printed in The Railway Master Mechanic and it will be in 
order for someone to make a motion that the minutes be ap- 
proved as published. 

Mr. Stuckie: I move that the minutes as published in the 
Railway Master Mechanic be approved. 

Mr. Bundy: I second the motion. (Motion carried.) 

Mr. Rasbridge: The next order of business is report of officers. 

Mr. Bundy: As treasurer of this association it might not be 
out of place for me to say that up to date I have' received 
$109.00 and paid out $81.00, leaving a balance of $28.00 in the 



May, 1902. 

Mr. Stuekie: I move that the report of the treasurer be ac- 

Mr. Hall: I second the motion. (Motion carried.) 

Mr. Rasbridge: The Constitution and By-Laws provide that 
the officers of the association shall be as follows: President, 
Vice-President. Secretary, Treasurer and Executive Committee. 
The Executive Committee is supposed to be composed of rep- 
resentatives from each road represented in the association. That 
committee has not been appointed up to date. I do not know 
but what it might be proper to appoint that committee tonight. 

Mr. Hall: I move you that the Executive Committee be ap- 
pointed from the different roads tonight. (Motion seconded and 

Mr. Rasbridge: According to our By-Laws, the President 
appoints this committee, and I will appoint the same later. Are 
there any reports of committees ? I am sorry that I was not 
able to be present at the last meeting, account of sickness, but 
I know the minutes were prepared in such form as to get the 
most substance in the least space. 

Mr. Burnett: Representing the committee on forms, I beg 
leave to state that I have had printed application blanks, en- 
velopes and letter-heads, but no receipt books as yet. 

Mr. Hall: I move you that the committee be continued until 
they conclude the work placed in their hands. (Motion sec- 
onded and carried.) 

Mr. Rasbridge: As Vice-President, I do not know that I have 
anything to .report more than that I am greatly interested in the 
welfare of this association and as I said the night we organized. 
I feel that as we have made a start, I want to see it second to 
none in the country, and being slightly indisposed, was not able 
to be present at the last meeting, but I submitted nine applica- 
tions, which unfortunately did not reach the secretary in time 
for publication. Tonight I am able to present to you applica- 
tions of 30 members. 

Mr. Hall: I move you that all of the applications that have 
been presented here tonight at this meeting be accepted. 

Mr. Stuckie: I second that motion. (Motion carried.) 

Mr. Martin: I move that hereafter the matter of acceptance 
of new applicants be left to the Executive Committee and the 
chairman cast the ballot. (Seconded and carried.) 

Mr. Rasbridge: I think it might be well now to take up the 
question of bonds of the Secretary and Treasurer. I would 
like to hear from members of the association in regard to this. 
The rules provide that a bond be furnished in the amount of 
$500.00 by the Treasurer and Secretary. This has not been 
done up to the present time, and I would like to know the pleas- 
ure of the meeting. 

Mr. Bundy: I will state that I have made no effort to get 
bonds as yet, but by the next meeting I think I can be in shape 
to furnish my bond. 

Mr. Burnett: I think I can do the same thing. 

Mr. Rasbridge: We will then defer this matter until the next 
meeting. The next thing in order is the good of association. 
Under this head we have three subjects for discussion, and I 
will ask Mr. Streicher to open it: 

Mr. Streicher: "Piece-w r ork, repairing freight cars. Is it 
profitable and practicable, and who does it interest?" 

Mr. Streicher: The owners and part owners of individual aud 
incorporated car or locomotive repair shops or any other fac- 
tory and manufacturing establishments — expect on every dollar 
incorporated car or locomotive repair shops — or any other fae- 
ure to realize this eminently proper expectation will in a well- 
conducted concern lead at once to investigations: Why not? 
What is the matter? Who and where is at fault? 

Searching comparisons will be made to find out why our com- 
petitors in same line of business are prospering when we are 
losing money. The sources of buying material will be closely 
trailed not with the underlying or inspiring idea of getting 
cheaper substitutes, but with the aim and purpose to discover 
firms able to sell cheaper, on account of modern facilities, scien- 
tific and improved methods of production. 

The fixed charges, to maintain the organization and estab- 
lishment in good working order, will be closely figured out for 
each department separately and compared in a percentage ratio 
to cost of production. This may lead to the discovery that our 
competitor's fixed charges are many thousand dollars less on 
account of having a better organization, fewer but better paid 
men. This organization we find out is made up of men, of 
which is and can be expected that they take an active individual 
and collective interest in their employer's affairs. The direct 
cost of the "productive labor" will next receive attention. The 
actual cost for each stage of repairing and manufacturing will 
be established on the bases of pounds, tons, feet, yards, thou- 
sands, pieces or other "units" produced for the market or trade, 
and many make the startling discovery that "labor charges" are 
from 5 to 50 per cent more than they should be to make "a fair 
profit on our investments." 

Further investigations bring before us the fact that we are 
using machines, tools and other implements and methods 20 
years behind the times, in speed, design, construction and ca- 
pacity. While we wondered how our neighbor could afford to 
lie extravagant enough to sell his, what according to our notion 
were good machines and tools at almost scrap prices, and buy 
new modern tools and implements, we overlooked the undisputed 
fact, that he doubled or trebled his production over ours, that he 
filled his orders promptly and on the highest market prices when 
there was a big demand at less cost per unit, and in less time 
than we did. 

Looking now deeply interested into our competitors' ways and 
methods of doing business, we find out that while we are paying 
fairly good wages and content Mirsolvos and men by compen- 

sating them with so much an hour or so much for a day's work 
— he understood it to interest his men for his affairs— he managed 
to consolidate their interests with his own by paying much 
better for their physical and intellectual efforts, having as basis 
of compensation or wage scales "The Piece-Work System" es- 
tablished on good practical judgment, fairness, and justice to 
both parties, working to mutual advantage of employer and em- 

While our men are satisfied and contented to work for so 
much an hour or day in "come day, go day fashion," our coni-' 
petitor's men try to ^"excel themselves among themselves," and 
not so much by greater physical efforts a-s by making "good use 
of the time" — advancing suggestions for improvements beneficial 
to both parties and applying their thinking and inventive ability 
to discover the easiest and quickest way to finish the "job," in- 
creasing thereby the "units of production at increased pay." 

Their brains are busy all the time to invent or devise handy 
tools or implements. In many instances really highly ingenious 
and absolutely original measuring or duplicating tools, jigs, tern- 
plates, and Yankee tricks are produced — while our men expect* 
as a matter of course to be furnished with same. 

This constant looking out to improve their own way and 
method of working becomes natural to them, being compensated 
for it in "cash," and in turn brings out the slow features of tool 
machines, lays open bad shop management. Constantly and un- 
solicited new ideas, suggestions and observations are advanced 
to the foremen, superintendents, managers and owners, because 
they bring in return "an increased compensation in dollars and 
cents for both parties." 

While our men were accustomed to have the thinking done 
for them, our competitor's men "assist him in that most im- 
portant part of the business with the very gratifying result of 
reducing cost of production per unit manufactured at increased 
wages." What I have^ mentioned so far are every day facts and 
their proper application is the secret of success in industrial 
establishments, while their neglect or ignorance of, is the cause 
of ruin aud failure, sheriffs' sales. 

Railroad repair shops on many systems today yet are simply 
looked upon as a "necessary but unproductive part of the whole." 
So much money is yearly appropriated to carry on repairs to the 
equipment, but contrary to all sound business principles. No 
direct or fixed rate of interest is expected to be earned for the 
company, by the parties handling this large amount of money 
expended in that direction. Hundreds of engines and thousands 
of cars of every description are built, rebuilt and repaired every 
year in railroad shops, with such absurd differences of cost for 
same amount of material and labor applied in different but 
neighboring localities governed by similar or same conditions 
that an investigating mind can not help but to ask and won- 
der: "Why such occurrences are permitted to exist and no 
effort is made to remedy them?" 

While the cost of wages for running a division locomotive 
repair shop, taking care of, say, 200 locomotives a yeyar, mayy be 
in the neighborhood of $10,000.00 per month or rounded off 
$40.00 for every hour of ten-hour day worked, in another lo- 
cality governed by same or similar conditions, perhaps in the 
same town, the expenditures for wages per hour worked for 
same number of engines repaired and turned out is $50.00 to 
$70,00, or one shop is run from 25 to 75 per cent "cheaper than 
the other!" Based on a yearly average expenditure for wages 
of $120,000.00 for first shop, the second shop would cost from 
$150,000.00 to $210,000.00, or thirty to ninety thousand dol- 
lars more, a difference big enough to think about. The pay roll 
of a car repair shop for all kinds of freight and coal cars 
amounts, we say, to $12,000.00 per month, or about $46.00 for 
every hour of a ten-hour day, and the average number of cars 
repaired is 1200 per month, or cost per car for wages is $10.00. 
Another shop with same average pay roll of $12,000.00 in neigh- 
boring locality turns out 900 cars only, based on same material 
consumption. Average cost of wages for repairs per car $13.00: 
now each car repaired in the second shop costs $3.00 or 30 pet- 
cent more than in the first shop. 

This is, however, not all: while the one shop gives to the 
transportation department 1200 cars per month to carry freight 
and coal the second shop turns over to them 900 cars only and 
on this total are the repair costs 30 per cent greater in dollars 
and cents direct, and number of cars repaired 30 per cent less. 
The efficiency of shop management is thus 30 per cent in cost 
and 30 per cent in output or 60 per cent altogether behind 
other shop. With such actual occurrences and facts on hand, 
would it not be the proper "policy" to employ the same methods 
of the 'individual concern, by the second shop management and 
try to find out why they get less cars and engines repaired for 
more money expended? Would it not be in order to discover 
the reason for the 60 per cent deficiency? 

When we do so we will learn that while one shop pays his 
men by the hour and day. the other shop has adopted, and in 
successful operation the piece-work system in car and locomotive 
repair shop. On the strength of what I have brought before 
you, also considering the most important fact that we are per- 
sonally responsible to our superiors, and the company in general 
for the efficient and economical management of our respective 
departments, large or small, the question: Who does it interest 
to repair freight cars by piece-work? I answer this way: 

No. 1. The general superintendent and superintendent of 
motive power, as being directly accountable to the management 
for the greatest possible results in dollars and cents with the 
least possible expenditures. 

No. 2. The master mechanics, master car builders, general 
foremen, foremen and assistants, all in turn responsible to their 

May, 1902. 


i 77 

superiors and all judged as to their fitness to hold their places 
by record they enjoy of getting work out quick, cheap, good; 
also capable of making the most of existing circumstances, con- 
ditions, facilities and opportunities with a view of cheapening 
the cost of labor charges, and still cultivate that necessary good 
feeling of confidence and co-operation between employer and 
employe, based firmly on mutual recognition and offered re- 
wards for ability, merit, fair play and honesty. 

No. 3. Skilled and unskilled labor, each having an even op- 
portunity to demonstrate the "survival of the fittest" in an 
honorable competition; each regulating his pay according to his 
intellectual and physical efforts; each having it within his own 
reach and will-power to demonstrate his superiority of physical 
strength and endurance, also the gift of close observation, the 
value of education, cultivated, acquired or inherited talents. 
Repairing freight cars by piece-work does interest not only the 
employer — it interests the employe equally as much, if not more, 
as long as both parties are guided by "motives of fair play and 
justice, and the prices are established by practical men, famil- 
iar with the details of business, incorporating in the lists the 
right to adjust too low or too high prices on fair basis." 

The other part of the question is piece-work repairing freight 
cars practicable and profitable? I will answer by referring you 
to a table enumerating cost of repairs and time required to some 
C. R. R. of N. J. equipment by day-work in the years 1889- 
1890-1891, and placing alongside cost of same repairs to same 
equipment if made today under our 1892 established piece-work 
prices at Ashley shops, Pa., L. & S. Division. 

The practical conclusions and deductions we can draw from 
compilation of attached comparative statement, are that: 

1. The average time for the 16 cars required to repair by 
piece-work versus day-work is cut down by 42.7 per cent. 

There is no use of secrecy about the prices, timekeeping and 
checking up the work. It will be a great mutual advantage if 
the men, inspectors, clerks and foremen, trust each other on 
business principles and are free and above board in all their 
transactions. Good piecework inspectors and timekeepers are 
a most essential feature of the system. On their selection de- 
pends in a large measure success or failure. The first should be 
qualified first-class workmen, familiar with the ins and outs of the 
trade and its tricks, capable of showing the men in the shop 
and yards how to do the work to the best advantage, willing 
to give information and pointers when asked for; also possess 
knowledge of human nature and its failings. They must be men 
with a good moral foundation and principles, fearless and impar- 
tial in the discharge of their often disagreeable duties. They 
must be close observers of men, their characters, tendencies and 
habits, with the underlying motive of protecting the company's 
interests against fraudulent charges or bad work. They must 
be honest themselves if they expect somebody else to be. 

Gentlemen: Where the enumerated features of piece-work, 
their effect and operation, are carefully studied, honestly ap- 
plied, impartially but deliberately operated, the question: Piece- 
work applied to freight cars, is it practicable and profitable and 
who does it interest? will answer itself by increased earnings for 
both contracting parties, employer as well as employes. 

Mr. Hall: I do not know that there is any room for argu- 
ment in this matter whatever. I am well satisfied that piece- 
work in all shops if carried on in the proper manner is bene- 
ficial to the companies. Of course, as we all know, it weeds out 
the poor men, and it gives the better class of workmen a chance, 
and it is beneficial to the men themselves. I have seen a great 
deal of piece-work turned out of our shops in the last year, and 
I will say that there is far superior work being done at the 

Of Cost of Repairs to 16 C. R. R. of N. J. Cars at Ashley Shops. Pa., L. and S. Division, repaired in 1889, 1890, 1891 by Day Work, and cost of 

same repairs if made under existing Piece-Work Prices in operation since 1892. 


Kind of 









Regular Time 
Reduced by- 
Piece W r ork. 



Total Cost Reduced 
by Piece W r ork. 



Per Hour Worked 
by Piece Work. 






Hours Per Cenc. 



Dollars. Percent. 

Per Hour 

Per Hour 

Cents. Per Cent. 





55 5 











. . .Coal. . . 













































26 5 




























72 5 





























49 1 




















































. . Box. . . 







































' 4.5 
















Total, 16 cars 
















16 CARS. 




Per Cent. 




Per Cent. 


















lir Time r 

educed by 

Piece-Work, 43 per cent. 

Ashley Car Shops, April 

L2, '02. 

Tot a 

1 Cost of ^ 

Wages red 

need by Piece-Work, 29 per 


C. S' 



es increas 

ed per ms 

m per hour by Piece-Work, 5 

!5.7 per c 


Gen'l Foreman Car Depai 


2. That total cost of repairs to the 16 cars when made under 
existing piece-work rates is reduced 29 per cent per car. 

3. That average rate of pay per man, per hour worked on the 
16 cars under existing piece-work rates is increased from 17% 
cents to 22 cents, or equivalent to a raise of 25 per cent. 

The above figures are recorded average facts on our books. 
They are proven to be correct every day since piece-work was 
established and in succssful operation after a short instructive 
period of evolution and on the strength of them and my own 
previous experience as workman and foreman in wood-work- 
ing; as well as iron and steel product manufacturing establish- 
ments, government and railroad shops, I declare most emphati- 
cally that repairing freight cars and locomotive by piece-work 
is the most practical, most profitable and most satisfactory 
system of labor compensation to employers, and employes, as 
long as the absolute necessary principles of justice', fair play 
and honesty of purpose are incorporated, adhered and faith- 
fully applied to by both contracting parties. 

The successful introduction of piece-work on any kind of 
work, the prices by both parties acknowledged to be fair, depends 
in a very large degree on the method of their introduction and 
proper interpretation by the foremen, piece-work inspectors and 
piece-work time keepers. Many failures of piece-work introduc- 
tion are on record on account of high-handed arbitrary rulings 
and principally for the reason that somebody else's prices were 
copied without considering difference of working and operating 
conditions. In many places prices were adopted and forced 
upon "the man without any understanding on the part of some 
officials what men can do, what they should do and what they 
will do. 

present time than there was when the day-work system was in 
vogue. I have watched the matter very closely, and had occa- 
sion some few years ago to find considerable fault on cars turned 
out of our shops at Elizabethport, Ashley and Lakehurst, where 
the men simply went along and repaired the car to their own 
liking. Then we had no inspectors to overlook the work. It 
was simply a matter for the foremen to look it over if he had 
the time. There was one foreman in the shop, and he did not 
have the time to look over every man's work. They were turned 
out in a haphazard manner, and the result was that they were 
simply turning out half-finished work to be sent back to the 
shop in a very short time, but since we have inaugurated the 
piece-work system on our line I find it has been beneficial to the 
cars, the company and everybody concerned. We are getting 
excellent results from piece-work. The men are satisfied with it. 
Of course, there are men who are not. They are the drones. 
Those who cannot keep up. I will say that I would like to see 
piece-work instituted in every railroad shop in the country to- 
day. We want to do as much work as possible and we are doing 
it at a saving of from 30 to 50 per cent, cheaper than we did it 
three years ago, and getting better results, better work in every 
way, shape "and manner. 

Mr. Fritts: I have not had a great deal of heavy repair work 
done on piece-work, but I am doing quite some light repairs, and 
from my experience I find that it is beneficial to both the company 
and the men, especially those men who are willing to work. It 
is not very beneficial to a lazy man, and of course we have no 
use for men who are not willing to work. So it benefits us a 
great deal in that line. It weeds out, as Mr. Hall has just said, 
the poor men, and finally we find ourselves with only the best 



May, 1902. 

class of workmen, men who are ambitious and who are willing 
and ready to work. Consequently we get out more work for the 
amount of money expended. I tried an experiment some time 
ago at Hoboken, in the line of cleaning passenger cars. I do 
not know that it has been tried in a great many places through- 
out the country, but we had very good results from cleaning 
cars by piece-work at that station. We have a shed where we 
run the cars in and give them what we call a thorough cleaning 
with Emulsion cleaners, or soap and water, as the case may be. 
I find in cleaning cars this way we save from 30 to 35 per cent, 
and the men's wages also increase a large per cent. By doing 
work such as beating cushions, washing cars on the outside, 
wiping windows, etc., on piece-work, we also save from 25 to 35 
per cent. The men likewise make a gain their wages. This 
proves very thoroughly that it is beneficial to the men as well 
as the company, and the men are all satisfied. Again, I believe 
that it makes better men. If you have a man working day-work 
he becomes so accustomed to running along in the old rut, he 
watches for twelve and six o'clock, and he is thinking more 
about the time than he is about the work. Even if he was a 
good man in some class of work, he will eventually turn out to 
be what we would term a lazy man. But put him on piece- work; 
then he is in business for himself, and he gets a move on him 
right away. The man soon becomes ambitious and interested in 
his work and he gives better service immediately. Then the 
question comes up, who is benefited? The man is benefited both 
physically and financially, and the company is benefited at the 
same time. My answer to the question of who does it benefit 
would be that both the employer and the employe is benefited 
by the piece-work system, if properly carried, although we must 
admit that it means, as Mr. Taylor said in our last meeting in 
regard to hot boxes, "eternal vigilance" on the part of the men 
who have charge of this work. 

Mr. Bundy: I think piece-work is practicable and profitable 
to both employer and employe. My first railroad experience 
was building new cars, and we built these cars piece-work. We 
found we were very successful. When we started repair work 
(before we started in on piece-work) I used to think it was not 
practicable, but after we got into it and got it down to a proper 
system, I found it was practicable and it was profitable to the 
men, because they made more wages than by day-work. Of 
course, they had to exert themselves a little more, but when they 
get to work for themselves they are willing to do that. In that 
way the men were benefited and so was the company also. I 
think it is practicable and profitable in nearly all railroad work, 
in locomotive shops, machine shops, repairing, both passenger 
and freight cars, and I think in the course of time it will be 
adopted by most all railroads throughout the country. 

Mr. Reeder: My experience is that piece-work is practicable 
and profitable to the company and the men, not only in regard to 
wages, but the company gets the cars in shop and moving on the 
road again promptly. If it did not pay in the matter of wages, 
in this respect it would. 

Mr. Fuss: I commenced my car experience in building new 
cars. I worked on them for some years before I worked on 
repairing ears. I never did day-work except at odd times, but 
I know that at that time piece-work was so satisfactory to me 
that I disliked very much to be put on day-work. Put a man 
on piece-work; we will say he is a fair man, he is a good work- 
man, he is honorable, he will give you a fair day's work and 
probably earn his money, he is only interested in doing what is 
right by his employer. He will commence on piece-work and 
he will get right down and buckle in; he is going to do the best 
he can for himself, and he is going to make more money; he is 
going to turn his work out in two-thirds the time he would by 
working day-work, also, by working piece-work; it gives the 
foremen and inspectors more freedom to examine the cars to see 
that the work is done properly and to attend to the various 
other duties required of foremen and inspectors; for this reason 
the men working on cars know that if their work is not done in 
a proper workmanlike manner they will be required to do the 
work over again. That does not pay them when working piece- 
work; therefore, it behooves them to do their work in a careful, 
workmanlike manner, so that it will be satisfactory. Another 
thing. They are ambitious to work, while in day-work you 
will always find a certain class of men, as soon as the foreman's 
back is turned, always have a story to tell or they are loafing. 
I have known men who are almost too lazy to sleep. But these 
people will often get woke up by the men in gangs, because they 
know they have to get a move on them or no one will work 
with them; therefore, they are either soon weeded out of the 
shops or they get to work and do something and make themselves 
perhaps valuable men in the shops. Some of the best men may 
be idling away time, simply because inspectors and foremen can- 
not get around to see all the men and keep them all working 
steadily when working day-work. 

Mr. McKenna: It has already been said that railroad repair 
shops are looked upon by railroad managers as a necessary evil, 
and such, of course, they are. A car is thrown out of service 
having a certain value per day, according to the demand at the 
time, and the point is how or what is the best method that can 
be used to return that car to service in the shortest possible time? 
There is no question, I think, in the mind of any of us in regard 
to piece-work that that is the proper method for the prompt 
return of cars to service. The question as to whether it is bene- 
ficial to both railroad companies and the men employed on re- 
pairing cars: As far as the company is concerned, the bare 
fact that the railroads are savins at least 30 per cent (which no 
doubt is the actual saving in all cases) would settle that point. 
As far as the men are concerned, that is a subject upon which 

there is considerable difference of opinion. Take a man who 
has been employed for some time at piece-work, a good, active 
fellow, who is willing to work, he is satisfied to work on that 
basis, because by a little extra effort on his part he is able to 
increase his pay rate at least equal to that of the company's 
saving. The conditions and organization is a very important 
factor in the handling of piece-work. I think in most cases 
where piece-work fails to be a success it is due to the lack of 
proper organization. The foremen in charge of the departments 
go into the matter in a half-hearted manner themselves. They 
do not display a sufficient amount of backbone with the men in 
insisting upon their doing work and doing it in a workmanlike 
manner. The question of supplying material to the men: The 
conditions existing in shops or yards in which work is done 
must necessarily regulate the price paid for the different pieces 
or items used in the construction of a car. Take even in the 
same locality the variation in prices paid for certain items for a 
car of the same construction is simply enormous. Within the 
radius of 100 miles for the same items some railroad shops pay 
double of what others do. It is hardly probable that conditions 
existing between those two shops would warrant that variation 
in price, but it is more likely that the matter has not been gone 
into as deeply as with the shop paying double of what the other 
does for the same class of work. The work on passenger equip- 
ment can be made quite as beneficial to the men and to the com- 
pany as on freight equipment under the same conditions. 

Mr. Burnett: Piece-work on freight and passenger cars in a 
properly organized shop is practicable and profitable and interests 
both the railroad companies and all the employes connected with 
it. The advantage tt> the company and the men, and the satis- 
faction which it gives the men after they have experienced some 
of its benefits seldom receives credence by those who have not 
handled shops in this manner. The work is done cheaper and, 
contrary to the argument often advanced, better. Small opera- 
tions which it is almost impossible to get done by day-work, no 
matter how numerous or efficient the foremen or inspectors, are 
attended to in the smallest detail. Each operation means so 
much money to the workman. To be paid for it, it must be 
shown on the card, and, when on the card, must bear inspection, 
and if not done it means a return to the car (which is not profit- 
able to the workman), or whatever penalty the regulations may 
impose. It has been my experience that often men who have 
been doing the same work for years at day rate will learn more 
in a few weeks at piece-work towards doing the work with a 
minimum amount of labor than they have in all the previous 
years at day-work. While they may work somewhat harder, 
the main advantage is that they forget the clock and use their 
heads more in planning their work and in getting quickly from 
one job to another. They do not work in the same listless 
manner that is often the case with day-work, and I am sure that 
the day seems much shorter to them. They are of great assist- 
ance to the foreman in seeing that the material is kept in stock, 
in buying improved tools for themselves, in suggesting special 
tools to be purchased or made that will cheapen the work, and 
in taking care of their tools, by having some regular place to 
keep shop tools and appliances where they can be readily gotten 
at, and having them always in working order. Piece-work is 
profitable to the company by cheapening the work, reducing the 
time that cars are out of service, by increasing the capacity of 
their plants and by inducing a more ambitious and self-reliant 
class of men to remain in the service. The workmen receive 
equal benefits with the company in their greatly increased earn- 
ings, and are rewarded according to their ability and individual 
efforts, as cannot be done by day-work, and it has been my ex- 
perience that they do not take kindly to being placed on day- 
work even for a few hours after having become accustomed to 
piece-work. It seems to me that all the evidence that is neces- 
sary to prove that piece-work is profitable is to note the manu- 
facturing concerns throughout the country in which it is almost 
universal. They, of course, have different conditions, but whether 
they make piecework more profitable than in railroad shops is a 
question. One very important thing in connection with piece- 
work is to keep the men steadily employed the year around if 
possible. This is of special importance if the shops are so located 
that it is difficult to secure enough men to start a shop quickly. 
In this connection it is a good practice where possible to have 
new work planned for any force of skilled men that are liable to 
run out of repair work for a season. While this might not help 
the dividends for that month, the company would be ahead at 
the end of the year. In the operations of a shop one foreman, 
by keeping material on hand and seeing that there is no avoid- 
able loss of time in getting from one job to another, will enable 
his men to make a high rate, while another foreman of inferior 
ability or experience with the same or higher prices will have 
his men making probably 30 per cent less, which means a dis- 
satisfied force and new men being continually taken on who cannot 
make the higher rate for some time even were things properly 
managed, and consequently make a very low rate unless the prices 
are raised to an unprofitable basis, or bonus paid (a practice to 
avoid). Prices should be itemized as much as possible, instead 
of being bunched. This, if properly done, paying for necessary 
renewals and replacements, almost entirely eliminates the "pot- 
luck" feature of piece-work and is an advantage to the company 
and more satisfactory to the men, as it gives them a more even 
rate. Prices should and usually can be arranged that on the 
same grade of work there are no so-called "good things," or jobs 
that are shunned on account of not paying, whether the job is 
large or small, uuless on operations which require men of supe- 
rior ability, but who ordinarily are employed in the same grade 

May, 1902. 



of work «a the others. This refers to operations that occur regu- 
larly bu should be adjusted at once, but we all know that there 
are operations that may pay extremely well or very poorly, ac- 
cording to the conditions that exist. This is a feature of piece- 
work and must be stood by, whether the men make a high or a 
low rate. 

Mr. Hall: It does not seem to me that the Association gets 
the gist of this thing exactly right. Mr. McKenna just stated 
that within the radius of 100 miles there is a great difference in 
the price on piece-work. If I understand this piece-work _ busi- 
ness right, it seems to me that the prices are almost uniform. 
There have been committees appointed from different railroad 
companies to go around and find out from the various shops 
throughout the country what prices they were paying for the 
different kinds of work. I know before the C. R. R. of N. J. 
attempted to put piece-work into effect they appointed a com- 
mittee to go around to the different shops throughout the country 
and find out what they were paying, and I have no doubt that 
we are paying just as much as any of them, and in some cases 
better. I have seen a great many of these piece-work prices on 
different railroads, and I am of the opinion that they are all 
nearly uniform in the various shops throughout the country. 

Mr. McKenna: While I do not care to cite any particular 
railroads or particular items referred to, I can recall a couple of 
items for which we pay $3.25 — which is a good price and on which 
a man can make 24 cents an hour — and there is a certain other 
railroad that pays $7 for the same job. I do not what these men 

Mr. Streicher: In regard to piece-work prices in vogue at 
different shops: In the spring of 1901 the duty was assigned to 
me to go over different price lists. I had the P. R. R. Sunbury 
and Meadow shops; L. V. Packerton and Sayre shops; the P. & 
R. Reading shops; the B. & O. Mount Clair shops, and the Pitch- 
burg R. R. prices. I was to make a comparative statement 
showing what we and what other people paid for same work. 
This happened just before our troubles, and the statement was 
to show in percentage all differences between our own and other 
people's prices. A week was the time given me to do this work, 
when I should have had six months, and I confess I had to give 
it up. Not being familiar with the workings of the different 
shops and all price lists being^ arranged on different bases of 
working, it was impossible to make an intelligent, reliable state- 
ment, particularly in the short space of time allowed. In some 
of the shops they pay for removing old material and in some 
they do not. In some shops material is delivered to men, in 
others not, etc. Unless a man is perfectly familiar with every 
detail of the schedule he cannot judge whether one road pays 
more for same class of work than the other, and it is misleading 
to compare the correctness of piece-work prices by schedules 

Mr. Rasbridge: Before closing this subject I think in addition 
to what has been said, the first consideration we meet with is 
the object of piece-work. What brought this about? There is 
nothing more discouraging to a. mechanic or even a laborer 
working on the same class of work, where previous to the estab- 
lishing of piece-work they received a standard rate of pay daily 
or hourly, than to put with him a man unfamiliar with the woi'k: 
for instance, you are paying the same mechanics 18 cents to 24 
cents an hour. I went through that custom years ago. It was 
hardly possible for a mechanic to get a position unless he had 
an indenture saying he worked his time in that particular 
capacity, or had a recommendation from some previous employer. 
Now he is confronted with something like this: If you will meet 
our requirements, we will employ you; otherwise, we will have 
no use for you. There is nothing so discouraging to a mechanic 
as to put with him at the same rate of pay a man unfamiliar 
with the work. There is no incentive for the man with mechan- 
ical ideas or ability to do work, or to put forth his best efforts: 
that is what brought about piece-work. I think piece-work is 
profitable to both the company and the men. Speaking of men. 
I mean men who are worthy of any consideration. As I said 
before, if a man fills the bill you retain him: if not, you get rid 
of him. If you place a man in a gang working on piece-work 
and he is undesirable to the gang he is soon worked out. The 
man who has the ability is paid for it, and there is an incentive 
for him to put forth his best efforts to try and do that work iD 
as little time as possible. Locomotive work, car work, car clean- 
ing, this is all done by contract work to-day. The success of it 
depends in a large measure upon the inspector who looks after 
the work. There is just as much freedom in contract work for 
a man to slight his work as there is in doing day-work where 
there is no particular attention given to it. It all depends upon 
the man delegated to look after the work to see that it is 
properly done, and the men properly treated. I will say that 
piece-work is both practicable and profitable to the men and to 
the employer as well. It has been proven that piece-work has 
saved at least 30 to 50 per cent over day-work. I can cite you 
cases where it has been equal to 75 per cent. Put a man who 
has been doing day-work on piece-work; there is an inducement 
for him to invent means for doing work quicker and more of it, 
and he is paid for any new ideas he brings out. Some men who 
have been making from $1.80 to $2 per day, day-work, and who 
earn from $2.20 to $2.50 piece-work, labor under the impression 
that there is going to be a cut. That is wrong. I believe as 
the old adage says, "The laborer is worthy of his hire." If you 
have a good man worth $3 a dav. pay him that; if he can earn 
$4 a day he is entitled to it. Regarding this question of piece- 
work, it has been shown that the company can make a saving 
of 50 per cent and the men have made an increase of from 20 
to 30 per cent in their wages. It is on the order of the bee; if 

you get a drone, you want to get rid of him. I feel as the 
majority of the members here to-night do, that piece-work is prof- 
itable to both employer and employe. 

Mr. Dyer: I move that the sense of this meeting be that piece- 
work is profitable and practicable to both employer and employe. 
Mr. Bundy: I second that motion. (Motion carried.) 
Mr. Rasbridge: Our next sub)ect for discussion is: "Of what 
value to car owners is a defect card covering improper repairs 
on a car when the improper repairs are parts for which owners 
are responsible, the road making improper repairs not rendering 
bill?" I will call on Mr. Bundy to open the discussion. 

Mr. Bundy: I believe that when a road issues a defect card 
it does not matter whether defect card covers part that the 
owner is responsible for or not. Road issuing defect card is 
responsible for having made wrong repairs, and applied defect 
card admitting that the repairs were wrong. The road issuing 
card is responsible for repairs made and bill will be proper. 

Mr. Dyer: This question arose from a statement made at our 
last meeting, that a road applying wrong material in a car in a 
case where repairs are parts for which the owners are responsi- 
ble, need not make bill, and by not doing so they could avoid 
a counter bill from owners for replacement of standard material, 
although defect card had been applied. Rule 5, Section 3, reads: 
"When improper repairs of owner's defects have been made and 
bill rendered, the owner may then counter bill for putting car to 
original standard." It can hardly be assumed that a bill from 
the parties making the wrong repairs must be made before a 
bill by the owners would be legal. It should not be otherwise, 
as it helps to give quicker service to the equipment, as the road 
making repairs will not hold cars while standard material is 
being procured from owners, but will return car to service at 
once. The car owners certainly should be willing to lose some- 
thing when in getting another road's car to service the handling 
road is willing to lose the difference between the good material 
and the scrap, and also lose the labor. The defect card in this 
case is of no financial value. 

Mr. Rasbridge: Turn to Rule 4, Section 12, where it states 
that when repairs of any kind are made you shall attach repair 
card. If you do not intend to render bill the words "No Bill" 
shall be written across the face of card. The case submitted 
at our last meeting was a matter strictly in accordance with the 
rules, yet it may not be of any benefit to the car owner from a 
financial standpoint, when scrap credit would reimburse him. 
Reverse the conditions of weight and the value is apparent. 

Mr. Fritts: I believe the M. C. B. rules state that every 
company is responsible to the owner of car when making wrong 
repairs, and as far as I can find in the decisions of the Arbitra- 
tion Committee there has never been a bill turned down ren- 
dered on defect card. I believe when one company applies defect 
card to a car of another company he acknowledges that he is 
responsible for what repairs he has made, or whatever is the 
matter with the car, and he makes himself liable to bill for just 
what the car calls for. I do not see how you could figure it out 
in any other way. 

Mr. Rasbridge: When a defect card is issued it is just the 
same as a promissory note; you are responsible for the value of 
it. There have been decisions on it. 

Mr. Dyer: I know of a case where a defect card would be of 
no value; a case of wrong side door attachment, Case No. 453, 
between the N. Y., C. & St. L. and C. & N. W. 

Mr. Rasbridge: In that case the conditions are changed. It 
may not have been of benefit, yet the defect card was of value 
to the extent of what was enumerated on the face of it. 

Mr. Dyer: I again wish to refer you to Rule 3, Section 3. 
Does this rule mean what it says: 

Mr. Millen: A defect card, unless procured by fraud or mis- 
representation, is worth to company receiving it all that is set 
forth on its face; the fact that repairs made were car owner's 
defects and that company making wrong repairs rendered no 
bill, cuts no figure in this case. 

I move you, Mr. Chairman, that the sense of this Association 
is that a defect card issued under such conditions and circum- 
stances is just as valuable as any other. 
Mr. Hall: I second that motion. (Motion carried.) 
Mr. Rasbridge: Our secretary, Mr. Burnett, has purchased 
envelopes, letter heads, receipt books, application blanks, post- 
age stamps, etc., and he should be reimbursed. 

Mr. Hall: I move that an order be drawn on the treasurer 
for $15.70 to cover these expenses. 
Mr. Dyer: I second that motion. (Motion carried.) 
Mr. McKenna: I move you that hereafter no remarks_ be 
allowed to exceed ten minutes on any subject under discussion, 
or that no one member shall have the privilege of entering into 
the discussion the second time until the other members have had 
the privilege of speaking on the subject. This refers to both 
verbal and written matter. 

Mr. Bundy: I second the motion. 
" Mr. Martin: I move to amend that at each meeting a vote be 
taken as to how long a member shall be allowed to talk on any 
one subject. 

Mr. Fritts: I second the amendment. (Motion as amended 

Mr. Martin: I move you that owing to the lateness of the 
hour we lay the last subject on the table until the next meeting. 
Mi*. Fritts: I second the motion. (Carried.) 
Mr. Bundy: I move that we meet in this hall the second Sat- 
urday night in May, at 8 o'clock. 
Mr. Dyer: I second the motion. (Motion carried.) 
Meeting adjourned. 



May, 1902. 

S>6e Car Foremen's Association 

A Department Devoted 

to the 

Interests of the Car Department 

of Chicago 

j& j& j& j& j& j& 

Official Organ 
of t H e Association 

April Meeting 

The regular meeting of the Car Foremen's Association of Chi- 
cago was held in Room, 209 Masonic Temple, Wednesday, 
April 9th, at 8 p. m. In the absence of President Grieb, Vice- 
President Stimson presided. Among those present were the fol- 

Bickford, Wm. Kilian, Henry. Skilling, J. K. 

Bossert, Chas. Keebler, C. F. Schultz, Aug. 

Cook, W. C. Kroff, F. C. Stewart, H. 

Cardwell, J. R. Kline, Aaron. Shearman, C. S. 

Donahoe, F. P. La Rue, H. Sharp, W. E. 

Dunley, W. T. Lutz, Jos. Schreck, D. W. 

Barle, Ralph. Marsh, Hugh. Saum, G. N. 

Elkin, Jno. L. Metz, C. Stewart, H. A. 

Etten, L. Miller, Chas. Smith, E. 

Evans, W. H. McCrudden, H. Stimson, O. M. 

Frenk, Wm. Morris, T. R. Senger, J. W. 

Frenk, Henry Nelson, Fred. Scott, J. B. 

Guerin, L. O'Neill, Jas. Spohnholtz, C. 

Guthenberg, B. Olsen, L. Saum, C. L. 

Harvey, H. H. Parke, P. Terry, O. N. 

Julian, J. B. Phelps, G. T. Tomlinson, Wm. 

Jones, R. R. Peterson, A. F. Trepton, A. 

Johnson, A. G. Richardson, Wm. Wensley, W. H. 

Kennedy. J. H. Ryding, A. Wentsel, Geo. 

Kamen, F. Rogerson, Edw. Wessell, W. W. 

Krischel, M. Sepke, H. Weschler, H. 

Knorr, Wm. Schultz, F. C. Willcoxson, W. G. 

Vice-Pres. Stimson: The first in order will be the reading and 
approval of the minutes of the previous meeting. As they have 
been published in the Railway Master Mechanic and all of you 
have no doubt received a copy, if there are no objections they 
will stand approved as printed. 

Secretary Kline: The following have made application for 

J. W. Daulton, Foreman, St. L., K. & N. W., Hannibal, Mo. 
John Finnegan, Foreman, C, M. & St. P., West Milwaukee, 

E. S. Macgowan, Asst. Manager, Washburn Coupler Co., Minne- 
apolis, Minn. 
Pearl Parker, Foreman, L. S. & M. S., Adrian, Mich. 
L. W. Powers, Chief Clerk, Burton S. C. Co., Chicago. 
W. B. Templeton, Pres. Templeton, Kenlt & Co., Chicago. 
Michael Walsh, Painter, Armour Car Lines, Chicago. 
Albert Zickuhr, Foreman, C. & N. W., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Vice-Pres. Stimson: The first number on our program is the 
report of the committee appointed to submit recommended 
changes in the M. C. B. Rules for the present year. In order to 
get action on the report it was printed in the last issue of the 
Railway Master Mechanic, and I assume that all have received 
a copy of the report, but in order that it may be placed before the 
association for action I will ask the chairman of the committee 
to read the report. 

Chicago, March 18, 1902. 
To the Car Foremen's Association of Chicago: 

Your committee, in considering the revision of rules of inter- 
change, find that there is a general feeling that the 
rules should be allowed to remain unchanged. If they 
are not changed, the benefits derived will be considerable 
on account of the fact that there would be no disturbance 
of the general good results being obtained under the 
present rules. Very few cases have been referred to the Arbitra- 
tion committee during the past year, and it is believed that the 
number would be even less if the rules are not disturbed. The 
Car Foremen's and Inspectors' Association of this country have 
accomplished a great deal toward arriving at a uniform interpre- 
tation of the rules. This is evidenced by the decided reduction 
in correspondence relative to bills, and a great reduction in the 
number of cars delayed at interchange points. The rules in their 
present form are perfectly satisfactory, we believe, to railroad 
and private car companies, and particularly so to inspectors who 
handle the detail work of car interchange. Any radical change 
in the rules has the effect of disturbing these conditions for at 
least four months each year. It is desirable to avoid this condi- 
tion of affairs, not only from the point of view of the inspector, 
but also from that of the Traffic Department 

Therefore, we would recommend that the xlrbitration Com- 
mittee of the M. C. B. Association be advised that it is the 
opinion of this Association that the rules governing interchange 
and inspection should be allowed to stand as they are. 

(Signed) LeGrand Parish, 

Hugh Marsh, 
H. H. Harvey, 
F. C. Kroft, 
T. R. Morris. 

Motion carried that the report of the committee be received. 

Mr. Evans (B. & O.): I move you that the report of the com- 
mittee recommending changes in the M. C. B. Rules be adopted 
;is read. 

Mr. Sharp (A. C. L.): As a point of information, — we have 
passed a motion to receive the report, which I believe is before 
the house for discussion. Does that mean that if the motion 
just made carries that this report is to go before the M. C. B. 
Association as the recommendations of this association? 

Vice-Pres. Stimson: Yes, sir. If this report is adopted it will 
be presented as the recommendation of this association to the 
Arbitration Committee of the Master Car Builders' Association. 

Mr. Evans: My only object in making the motion was to bring 
this report of the committee before the association for discussion, 
and I will regret very much if my motion does not bring out a 
full discussion of this report previous to its adoption. I think 
that that is where we get the most benefit from these committee 
reports, and particularly such an important matter as this from 
the Car Foremen's Association to the Arbitration Committee of 
the M. C. B. Association on changes of the rules of interchange. 
While I am not prepared to accept the present M. C. B. Rules 
as being entirely perfect, I think that the recommendation of this 
committee this year are along the right lines, and that so far as 
possible changes or additions to the M. C. B. Rules of inter- 
change should be avoided. It is rather amusing to note some 
suggestions that are made from some sources of things which 
they consider necessary to be embodied in the M. C. B. Rules. 
Frequently it occurs that it is of a very trivial nature or applies 
to one certain locality. There are, however, some things which 
I think this association should recommend to the committee, one 
of which is a combination wheel gauge so that wheels of both 
sizes could be gauged with one gauge. I would like to hear a 
full discussion of this before it is put to a vote. 

Vice-Pres. Stimson: I think yor position is very well taken. 
There is no desire on the part of the association, or the chairman 
at least, to railroad through any recommendations of any com- 
mittee. Each of you have the privilege of expressing yourself 
before this motion prevails, making any amendment to that report 
that you may think necessary. I therefore hope that each 
member will express himself freely, whether he is in accord with 
the recommendations of the committee or not, and if not, to 
explain wherein he differs, that the association may act upon his 
opinion or recommendation (if he cares to put it in the f orm_ of 
a recommendation) before making our report to the Arbitration 

Mr. Sharp: That is just the reason why I asked the question. 
I was afraid that this motion made by Mr. Evans was going to 
be put and carried and dispose of this committee report without 
any discussion. I think the subject is of too great importance 
to be disposed of in that manner. I believe the committee of 
the Car Foremen's Association are on the right track in making 
this report. I believe it takes a year to learn to understand the 
rules and what they mean, and this continual revising the 
M. C. B. Rules each year rather stirs up the settled conditions 
in interchange, and by the time we all get to understand what 
is meant by certain rules and get to moving along smoothly and 
harmoniously the rules are again revised, and while each one of 
us have some slight recommendations to make in regard to 
changing the rules, yet the benefit to be derived from them may 
be local, and it seems to me that the disposition the committee 
has made of this is entirely proper. 

Mr. Kroff (P. Co.): I will say that the committee went over 
the rules very carefully, and we decided that they were very near 
correct, there being some minor changes that could be made, 
but as a whole they were very satisfactory. 

Mr. La Rue (C, R. I. & P.): It seems to be the universal 
opinion that the rules are nearly correct. There is only one 
suggestion that I would like to see go into effect, and that is 
that there is some class of equipment that belong to private 
companies should be classified in the rules, and also there are 
some private companies, when it comes to settlement for their 
cars, seem to want to ignore the prices set by the rules, but I 
think that has been taken up in a manner that it will come up 
anyhow. There are some that do not seem to want to settle at 
what is just and right according to the rules. There is no doubt 
but what they accept all bills for repairs, but when it comes to 
settling for the value of the cars they are on the other side of 
the fence. 

Vice-Pres. Stimson: Have you had any cases where you were 
not given an opportunity to rebuild the car or replace it? 

Mr. La Rue: I do not know of any sitch case, but there are 
many times when it is so much better to settle for money con- 
sideration rather than rebuild a foreign car. 

Vice-Pres. Stimson: I had the pleasure of reading the report 
of one of the associations in which it was suggested that instead 
of having 13 rules with from one to 4G sections in each, that all 
sections be made rules, each having a number. I would like to 
hear an expression from this association as to whether that 
would be any benefit or not from an inspector's standpoint? 

Mr. Evans: While I am not acting in the capacity of an 
inspector, I want to say that I am very decidedly opposed to that 
manner of arranging the M. C. B. Rules, principally for the same 
reason that this committee has found it necessary to make this 

May, 1902. 



report, as any subsequent revision would revise the numbers of 
the rules and a rule would lose its identity at once. (A great 
many of our old inspectors have become thoroughly familiar with 
the rules as they now stand and it would be necessary for them 
to learn the rules over, and I see no particular advantage to 
be gained in numbering the rules numerically by sections from 
1 to 113, or something Tike that. 

Mr. Baker (0. J. I., Kansas City): I will say that m my part 
of the countrv we regard Sec. 32, Rule 3, as entirely too 
arbitrary. 1 think missing roofs and running boards should be 
accepted under those conditions. 

Mr. La Rue: I brought this matter up for the purpose of 
discussion. I did not say that the party that owned the cars 
was a subscriber to the rules, but I do think this, that when a 
party is not a subscriber to the rules,— that there are thousands 
of cars that are turned loose to be handled by the roads, they 
should be amenable to the rules the same as the rest. 

Mr. Sharp: If this party is not a subscriber to the rules, there 

is no power under which he can be made to abide by the decision. 

Mr. Kroff: I would like to ask Mr. La Rue whether he has 

ever had any throuble in that respect,— parties owning cars that 

were not subscribers to the rules? 

Mr. La Rue: Yes, sir, we have had trouble in that respect in 
this way. A car was destroyed and the owner wanted to make 
one depreciation on one part of the car, another depreciation on 
another part and another depreciation on another part, and 
when we tried to settle under the M. C. B. Rules he said he was 
not a subscriber to the rules. 

Mr. Cardwell (A. C. O. Co.): In following up Mr. Sharp's 
remarks in compelling that man to settle under the rules of 
interchange, it is a fact that his cars have been operating over 
every road in accordance with the rules, he has been paying 
bills in accordance with the rules, and therefore it seems possible 
that he should be compelled to accept settlement for cars de- 
stroyed as laid down by the M. C. B. Rules. 

Vice-Pres. Stimson: I think that point has been covered by 
a recommendation from one of the associations, I am not sure 
which, but I think there is a recommendation that will go before 
the M. C. B. Association making it compulsory for any car owner 
of 1,000 cars or more to subscribe to the M. C. B. Rules. 

Mr. Elkins (S. R. C. Co.): It strikes me that whether a cor- 
poration subscribed to the M. C. B. Rules or not, the very fact 
that the rules are accepted by all the railroads^ and nearly all 
private car lines in the country was sufficient evidence to estab- 
lish in a court of justice that it was good law and he would be 
bound to accept them. 

Mr. La Rue: What I was at was to get the views of the Car 
Foremen's Association whether it was not right for that com- 
pany, after they built their cars and turned them loose to be 
handled by the various railway companies and the repairs made 
in accordance with the M. C. B. Rules, such bills excepted, why 
should not they settle according to the rules the same as other 
railroad companies. That was what I wanted the views of the 
Car Foremen's Association on. 

Mr. Stimson: Are you satisfied that what has been said by the 
association agrees with your views on the subject? 

Mr. La Rue: Yes, sir. 
Vice-Pres. Stimson: If there is nothing further, a motion to 
accept the committee report as read will be in order. Motion 
carried, and the Secretary notified to so advise the Secretary of 
the Master Car Builders' Association. 

Vice-Pres. Stimson: This brings us to the second number on 
our program, which is the discussion of the report of the com- 
mittee presenting a code of rules for the examination of appli- 
cants for position of Car Inspector, of which Mr. Bates was 
chairman, but on account of his not being present at the last 
meeting it was carried over to the present meeting. If it is 
desired to discuss it to-night we will do so, otherwise we will 
carry it over until such time as Mr. Bates is present, that he 
may present the case himself. Motion made and seconded that 
the report be carried over until such time as the chairman of 
the committee is present. 

Mr. Phelps (C. & A.): I do not agree with the motion. There 
are other members on that committee and there ought to be some 
of them here to defend the report, if it needs any defense. It is 
blocking the business of this association, and will block it until 
Mr. Bates is present. Motion put and carried. 

Vice-Pres. Stimson: This brings us to Subject No. 3 on our 
program, which is the discussion of the report of the commitee 
on Repair Track Appliances and Facilities. This is a very 
elaborate report and was compiled with a great deal of care and 
detail by some of the most active members of our association. 
It is hoped by the chair that this report will be discussed fully 
by every member of the association. The paper is before you. 
Mr. Evans, being a member of that committee, will you open the 

Mr. Evans: I think that the committee, at least, would prefer to 
hear from the other members of the association in regard to this 
report, as the report itself really embodies, to a great extent, 
the ideas of the committee. When it started to investigate this 
subject they found it was a very broad one and it was necessary 
to divide it into a number of different heads, and they took it up 
under the several divisions. It covers not only the repair track 
appliances, — that is, the tools necessary and the arrangement of 
the tracks, with such buildings and machinery as are necessary, 
but the disposition of material, storage of material, and to a 
certain extent the employment of 'the men. There are some 
suggestions that the committee found to be very good that 
we did not run down to our full satisfaction, consequently 
did not elaborate on them in the report, one of which I might 
mention, and that is the suggestion from Mr. Kroff in reference 
to elevated tracks. With the situation in Chicasro it very fre- 
quently occurs that it is quite difficult to sret in a wheel pit 
without making a water-tierht tank and sinking it in thf sanrl 
That seems to me to be an idea well worth looking into, I would 

like to hear the report fully discussed, as I think that is where 
you get the benefit from these reports. 

Mr. Morris (C, M. & St. P.): I believe that anyone who has 
read that report will agree that it is a very good one. The 
committee seem to have gone over the ground very thoroughly, 
and especially the recommendations in regard to the arrangement 
of the tracks and method of handling material, etc., but it_ seems 
to me they might have gone a little further in enlarging on 
appliances to be used in repairing cars. We all know that there 
are a great many devices that can be used and are used by some 
roads, which very much assist the repairers in repairing cars, 
saving time, etc. Some three or four years ago there was a 
description in one of the mechanical papers of a chain to be used 
in holding up the coupler when applying it. It was attached to 
the car by raising the deadwood bolts so as to get the link of the 
chain hooked on, then swinging the chain around the head of 
the coupler and hooking the other end on, which would hold _ up 
the head of the coupler while the pocket was raised to position. 
The coupler that we are now using, with pocket, followers and 
spring, is a very heavy article to handle and very much different 
from the old style of draw bar that perhaps one man could put 
up in position. Usually a jack is required to force it up in 
position, but with this chain device — which perhaps should not 
be called a device, it is so simple— the coupler could be held up 
part way. while the pocket is forced up between the timbers. 

There is one other thing that I think of now that might 
be spoken of. Whether there is any virtue in it or not, perhaps 
there is some question. It is the use of some sort of a claw bar 
to pull draft timber bolts out. We all know under what disad- 
vantages a car repairer works in drifting out draft timber bolts. 
We tried some years ago, on our repair track, the use of a claw 
bar and we found it worked very nicely after the bolt had been 
started so that a grip could be had on the head of it, and if the 
bolt was not too tightly rusted in it could be pulled out. These 
are two different articles that I have thought of, and no doubt 
there are a great many more, and I think if the members who 
know of such things would speak of them here it would be the 
means of helping those who are in ignorance of these devices, in 
a great many ways, and I would like very much to hear from 
the members on that line, although I do not think there is very 
much that can be said in reference to the paper, it is so very 

Vice-Pres. Stimson: Mr. Morris has mentioned a very good 
point in connection with this report. There are a good many 
"tricks" that are used in repairing cars that are inexpensive and 
very easily handled, and I hope the members will mention such 
devices as they know of that have been found satisfactory under 
such conditions as Mr. Morris has mentioned. 

Mr. Morris: I will say in regard to that chain that I believe 
it was written up by some one on the C. & A. R. R. I think 
that the credit is due to the man that thought it out. 
Mr. Wensley (C. & E.): Was it an endless chain? 
Mr. La Rue: The chain was made with three round links on 
each end to hook on the deadwood bolts. While I was on the 
C. & A., I do not take any credit for that, for it was there 
before I went there. I will say this, however, that I have never 
seen the chain used with a coupler with the tandem spring in. 
It was a little too heavy. I do not say that it could not be used, 
but the tandem spring was not used in our wooden draft timber 
cars until after I left, but with this chain the coupler was picked 
up and set on the pocket end, the chain was placed around the 
head of the coupler, each end hooked onto the bolts and then 
a lever put under the draw bar which brought the rear end of 
the coupler under the car. 

Mr. Wensley: We do not use a chain. We use a piece of pine 

2 in.xlO in.xS ft., one end on the truck bolster, the opposite end 
on the ground; then place a roller under the pocket and run it 
up to its place: then raise the opposite end up and place a small 
step-jack under it and jack it up to its place, which takes but 
a few moments to do. 

Mr. Jones: We used a lever jack for applying couplers on 
repair track. It was made of two upright pieces 2x4 in., about 

3 ft. long, with holes zigzag. The lever would pass between 
the upright pieces and operated with a fulcrum. Lever is about 
8 in. long, 2 in. thick, with a jaw on the end to hold coupler in 
position and prevent it from slipping. After the car repairers 
got to use it they found it much quicker than using a jack. 
The same jack can be used applying draft timbers. 

Mr. Marsh (C, N. Y. & B.): I have seen the chain used with 
large rings on each end, and have always seen it used by standing 
the coupler on the tail end, bringing the chain around the head of 
the coupler and then use a lever to get the back end up. 

Mr. Jones: We use about the same thing as this jack lever 
I was speaking about, for pulling draft timber bolts. You can 
pull out a bolt 2 ft. long by the fulcrum passing through the bar. 
This would save blocking every time you wanted to get a bolt 
out, by raising the lever up and taking a new hold. 

Mr. Marsh: I would like to ask if it is the idea to have the 
wheel pit extending the full length of the track or only a short 
section, say, for instance, for three or four cars. 

Mr. Evans: The idea of a wheel pit was simply across the 
track, or across two tracks, where you could drop a pair of 
wheels and run them across and out, the same as is used for 
taking driving wheels out, or what is used under coaches and 
would be of particular advantage for heavy steel cars, particu- 
larly the pressed steel cars from 80,000 to 100,000 capacity. 
The idea of an elevated track was to elevate only sufficient to 
get the wheels out at the side on a level with the ground by 
simply removing a section of the track similar to what a great 
many roads construct their ash pits with cast iron or wrought 
pedestals about 4 ft. high, and then just simply take out a 
section of the track, dTop the wheels down on a level with the 
ground and run them out. As I said before, we did not pursue 
that idea far enough to get it into shape to present with the 
report of the committee. This elevated track would also make 

1 82 


May, 1902. 

that number of car lengths long, with sections to be removed at 
different intervals along the track. That would also afford a 
space under the track for making repairs to cars similar to the 
pits that are used in round houses or in coach repair tracks. 

Mr. Stimson: Would there be sufficient advantage iu that 
plan to warrant the extra switching of car requiring a wheei 
change ? 

Mr. Evans: The idea was to make that elevated track a part 
of the track where wheels are usually exchanged and have them 
so they could be taken out on that track. 

Mr. Wensley: It occurs to me that that might be a good 
thing for on the outside of the repair track where loaded cars 
come in in the afternoon or evening. Some days we have four 
or five pair of wheels to change after four o'clock, and a track 
of that kind would be of great assistance in cases like that. 

Mr. Phelps (C. & A.): The elevated track would be in good 
service in low or swampy ground where two feet below the 
surface you could not keep the water out. In a yard like that 
the elevated track would be very much better than a pit. 

Mr. Nelson (C, B & Q.): I have also read this report, but 
find that it confines itself to a large repair yard, and I am afraid 
very few railroads would furnish the facilities required for a 
repair yard as described by the committee. It seems to me the 
committee would have gone a little farther and looked up facili- 
ties and appliances for smaller yards that handle from 15 to 30 
cars per day. Many of these cars handled on those tracks are 
loaded and must be repaired in a hurry, and any tools the com- 
mittee would recommend that would facilitate the work of raising 
loaded cars, handling wheels, etc., would be a great benefit to 
us all. 

Vice-Pres. Stimson: I think the committee prefaced their 
report with the remarks that these were ideal conditions with a 
view of having the members bring out in the discussion what 
would be considered desirable modifications in the report for 
a yard that would not warrant such a large and expensive lay- 
out as they have mentioned. It is for that purpose the report is 
before you, and I hope you will not hesitate to say in-so-far as it 
applies to a small yard. 

Mr. Harvey (C, B. & Q.): I notice in one part of the report 
that the committee recommend as a part of the equipment for 
every repair yard, two forty-ton hydraulic jacks. I do not 
think a hydraulic jack is of much use on a repair track. They 
are all right in a machine shop where they can be properly cared 
for. but on a repair track where they are subjected to the 
roughest kind of usage, they are almost constantly out of order 
and are a continual source of trouble. The No. 200 Joyce, Grid- 
land jack is far superior to any hydraulic jack for heavy work 
on a repair track. It is compact, comparatively light, easily 
handled and will stand all kind of abuse. We handle the heav- 
iest loads with them and it is only on rare occasions that we 
find a load too heavy for them and in such cases the assistance 
of a couple of Barrett jacks is all that is required. I don't think 
there is a jack on the market that will compare favorably with 
the Joyce jack for heavy work, but for empty cars and light 
loads, the Barrett jack is in my opinion the best that can be 
found. In another part of the report the committee recom- 
mends the use of standard gage material tracks. I do not agree 
with them and cannot see the advantage of standard gage tracks 
in a repair yard. In an erecting yard or shop where nothing 
but new cars are built and where great loads of material are 
needed, the standard gage track may be the best but in an 
ordinary repair yard the warrant gage track is certainly pre- 
ferable. The push cars should be short, just long enough to 
take a pair of wheels lengthwise and one man can take a pair 
of wheels across turntables, around curves and to any point in 
the yard with the greatest ease. Give a small narrow gage car 
a little kick with the foot and it will run a long distance while 
with a standard gage track it takes about two men to push the 
empty car and three or four to handle it if loaded. I can see 
nothing to be gained by the use of a standard gage and it takes 
up a lot of valuable room, especially is this the case in a re- 
pair yard located in a city ywhere real estate is so valuable. 

Mr. Morris: I want to say that I agree with Mr. Harvey 
altogether about the narrow gauge track. We have one on our 
repair track and it is all anyone could wish for. The cars are 
small and easily handled and carry wheels all around the yard 
from one part of the track to the other, with two men to handle 
them. I think with the wide gauge track and a heavy car it 
will take more men to handle it and take up much more room. 

Mr. Marsh: I favor the standard gauge track. I like to see a 
good-sized truck that will carry something when you go with a 
load. If Mr. Harvey knows of trucks that takes three or four 
men to push it is time to get the track men out to fix up the 
track. As far as handling wheels are concerned I think they 
can be handled very much better on a standard gauge track than 
on the narrow gauge. I do not believe you will have a bit of 
trouble moving material, anyhow when get there you have got 
a load. With the small car it keeps somebody going continually. 
Mr. Jones: I am really in favor of a wide gauge material 
track. There are frequent occasions when you want to put a 
truck under a car and with the wide gauge track you can run 
the truck anywhere you want it. I was in a yard the other 
day and saw two men trying to move a pair of wheels on a nar- 
row gage track and they had the truck off the track four or 
five times in going a few rods. 

Mr. Sharp: I have read this report with a great deal of in- 
terest and consider it a very able piece of work. There are a 
few recommendations here that I do not just agree with. First, 
in the spacing of the tracks, it seems to me that 14 ft. centers 
is too close for a repair track. If I had my way about laying 
out a repair track (which I recognize the mechanical depart- 
ment does not always have), I would have 20 ft. centers. We 
find the wider centers very much more desirable. I think it is 
very essential to keep the tracks in good repair, and when that 
is done I can see no advantage in favor of the wide gauge track. 

Iu i tac u' iu takln S a P air of wheels any distance it is easier to 
take them on a truck than to roll them on the track, unless you 
have two men doing it. 

The committee recommends the use of a turn table or an 
air jack for turning these material cars or trucks. I think the 
turn table much more preferable. In the second part of the 
report here is mentioned the advisability of having a space 35 ft. 
wide left in the center for the sorting of scrap material. I 
think they might have gone a little bit further and recommended 
certain machines for handling scrap material. We have recently 
built a rattler for cleaning truck material, especially. It is the 
practice, I believe, for all railroads to clean the iron part of the 
trucks, for the purpose of painting it and we started out to do 
that and found it to be quite an undertaking. We built a rat- 
tler or tumbling barrel large enough to put in a truck bolster. 
Our trucks are taken down, the parts are taken up by laborers 
and put into this rattler and it is a very little expense to clean 
all the parts of the truck for repainting so that when the mate- 
rial is put back on the car the surface is really better than when 
the material was new and first painted. The committee omit- 
ted the recommendation of air jacks. I notice they recommend 
hydraulic jacks and while we do not use air jacks yet we con- 
template using them and I hope some members of the committee 
or members of the association will bring out all the objections 
to the use of air jacks on the repair tracks. I think it is a fact 
that all repair yards of any consequence are equipped Avith air 
in sufficient quantities to use these tools and I believe they will 
make a saving both in labor and expense and I would like to 
know why the committee omitted that recommendation. Thev 
say further on in the report that the small tools usually supplied 
repair men should all be marked with the man's check number 
and a suitable box provided to carry them around in, etc. I 
would like to ask what way they would recommend charging the 
men up with the tools, or whether it is the general practice to 
charge the repair jinen with the tools. 

Vive Pres. Stimson: Will the committee answer Mr. Sharp's 
question relative to hydraulic instead of air jacks on the repair 

Mr. Kroff: The committee considered the air jacks as a good 
jack in a planked repair yard, but in a yard that was not 
planked it was found to be very unhandy to get around with a 
large air jack. As for the hydraulic jack, would say that we 
have some in our yard which have been in use for about fifteen 
years, and are still in service. It is true, they get out ot' 
order at times, but nevertheless, they are a safe and good jack 
for loaded cars. In regard to the narrow gauge track, I would 
say that it can be put in at first with less expense, but if I 
had my choice, I would put in a standard gauge track, pro- 
vided I had room to do so. I was in one of the repair yards 
the other week, which was equipped with a narrow gauge tram 
track and I saw four men trying to lift one of these narrow 
gauge trucks, loaded with wood, on the track. They got it on 
and shoved a little and off it went again. I came to the con- 
clusion that they were no good. 

Mr. Marsh: I believe the hydraulic jack is a very good thing 
around the repair yard. The old whiskey jack is no good be- 
cause there was never anything inside of them. As far as 
air jacks are concerned, it is not to be put in the same class 
with the hydraulic jacks at all. The hydraulic jacks are way 
back. The air jack will do more work in the same time than 
two hydraulic jacks will. A planked yard is not necessary to 
use the air jacks. I have gone around the yard in Elsdon in 
mud up to my shoe tops and we used the air jacks there. Two 
men can take it around anywhere, set it under the car and 
place the car on a tripod in a very short time. I do not be- 
lieve the air jack is a good thing if it is left around the yard 
where everybody could use it, but take two men and let it 
be their business to jack up the cars and set them on a tripod 
and you will find it far ahead of any hydraulic jack I have 
ever seen. 

Mr. Kroff: It is almost impossible for two men to jack up 
all the cars in a large repair yard so all the men can commence 
their work at seven o'clock, and in the evening have these men 
let the cars down again, it seems to me there will be consider- 
able delay. We made a test in our shop; — we placed the air 
jack a certain distance away from the car, had two men get 
the air jack, place it under the car and jack it up. Then we 
placed two Mosher jacks and blocking the same distance away 
from car, had the same two men jack up the car again in less 
time than with the air jack. For light repairs, the ratchet 
jacks are most suitable. 

Vice-Pres. Stimson: I would like to ask Mr. Marsh how 
many cars two men could jack up in an hour? How l